1. ## Strange

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17481

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17751

3. ## StringJunky

Senior Members

29

7762

4. ## dimreepr

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26

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## Popular Content

Showing content with the highest reputation since 04/27/18 in all areas

1. 4 points

## At high enough temperature all elementary particles become massless?

In a sense, getting to massless SM particles could be achieved by increasing the temperature in some region. But it would be more like an activation of the frozen Higgs field than a blocking. It is easier to explain coming from the high-energy side (high temperature), since that is the standard explanation for the Higgs mechanism: The Higgs proto-field (*) can be considered as an additional particle class to a Standard Model in which all of the other Standard Model particles are massless (**). It interacts with most of the other particle fields. But it also has a weird self-interaction which causes the energetically lowest state to not be at "no proto field" but at "some value of the proto-field". At low temperatures, where the Higgs proto-field is just lying around in its minimum, this means that the dynamic interaction terms of the Higgs proto-field with the other particles become some dull interaction of those particles with some sticky stuff that seems to lie around everywhere (***). In the mathematical description of the Standard Model time evolution, the associated terms that originally were terms of a dynamic interaction now become the mass terms for the other particles. If the minimum was at "no field", they would simply drop out (****). This "low-energy" limit actually covers almost all of the temperature ranges we can create on earth, and only recently did we manage to even create and see a few excitations of the Higgs proto-field around its minimum in specialized, very expensive experiments (-> confirmation of the Higgs-Boson at the LHC). So technically, I think we are very far away from creating the "massless particles" state in an experiment. But there is no theoretical reason why this would not be possible (*****). But as described, I would understand it to be less of a shielding of the Higgs field and more of an activation. And as a state with such a high amount of interaction between the fields. So I am not even sure if the common view of a few particles flying through mostly empty space and only rarely kicking into other free-flying particles would still make sense. Remarks: (*) I would just call it Higgs-field(s), but since the paper you cited seems to explicitly avoid using the name at this stage I may be wrong about common usage of the terms. Haven't been working in the field for over ten years. So I have invented the term proto-field for the scope of this post - it is also easier to understand than "doublet of complex scalar fields". (**) This is not exactly true because the particles are mixed and get renamed under the Higgs mechanism. But I'll pretend that does not happen for the sake of providing an answer that is easier to understand than reading a textbook. (***) Sidenote: In this state, the few excitations of the Higgs proto-field around its minimum are the infamous Higgs Boson. (****) Which is why you can always invent new fields that just happen to have no effect on anything we can see but magically make your particle cosmology equations work at very, very high energies (****) Except for the fact that some people still expect new physics and associated new particles at such high temperatures, which then again would have mass from another Higgs-like mechanism
2. 4 points

## Why can’t we derive velocity directly from it’s doppler factor?

Let's put it this way: the Relativistic Doppler shift only depend on the relative velocity difference between the source at the time of emission and the receiver at the time of reception. For example, if the source is moving at 0.5 c relative to you at the time of emission, but you accelerate up to 0.5 in that same direction just before the light reaches you, you will measure no Doppler shift because relative velocity difference between you at reception and the source at transmission is 0. However, with cosmological red-shift we are dealing with the geometric expansion of space between the time of emission and reception. This stretches the light waves. So lets; say there was zero expansion of the universe at the moment of emission, then during some period between emission and reception there is some expansion. the light wave will share this expansion. Now the expansion stops before reception so that it is zero again. However, this does not mean that the light wave reverts to it original length. For that to happen, there would have to been a contraction of the universe. This means that you the observer will measure the red-shift caused by this period of expansion even though it no longer exists a the time of reception. So to put it simply, Relativistic Doppler shift only depends on the relative velocity difference between emission and reception ( You could change your velocity to many times while the light it traveling towards you, but the only thing that counts is your velocity at the moment of reception.) Cosmological red-shift is dependent on what occurs during the entire period that the light is traveling and not just the conditions at the "end points".
3. 4 points

## What is faith?

Do you understand that scientists also observe nature and explain it without invoking a God. And do you also understand that nature is entirely consistent with there being no God? And do you therefore understand that nature is not evidence for God. It's like saying that it is theoretically possible that someone deliberately planted weeds in my garden. The weeds are there. So the phantom weed planter must exist!. The presence of weeds is consistent with His existence, but it's certainly not proof of it and, given that there are other more plausible explanations, it hardly counts as evidence for it. So, while nature is tangible, it's not evidence.
4. 4 points

## So then if the universe did not come about by pure chance - what did happen? Perhaps a better question would be 'who' did it?

Given your position, there is not really much to discuss here. But thanks for sharing.
5. 3 points

## what is a god

Kindly summarize Benjamin Franklin's contribution to the discipline of Philosophy. Also note that strangely, pretty much everyone reading your and Eise's post side by side, comes to the conclusion that Eise more likely knows more about philosophy. Reasons include differences in the clarity of writing (especially outlining the subject), stronger focus on the argument itself rather than building straw men or discussion peripheral aspects with no obvious connections to the subject at hand (including the need to remind everyone that one is a philosopher). Dismissal of a whole body of knowledge without any indication of having studied them is another serious blow to ones' credentials. Take this for example: Who has ever claimed that? What is the relevance (other than just being plain wrong?). Just like the other bio-inspired arguments in this thread they just exemplify a lack of understanding of biological systems. Even worse, if one at the same time claims expertise and the authority to define terms on that subject (i.e. defining what "philosophical" viewpoint on consciousness is, which, as far as I can tell, is pulled straight from nowhere). However, from the post it appears that your definition of "philosophy" is actually expounding on subjects one has little knoweldge about. In that case I declare myself a philosopher with special non-knowledge in astrophysics. And before the bloody toaster is brought up, I believe Bender was just trying to make the point that being reactive to stimuli is not a sufficient criterion for consciousness (though we could have left it at cells, too, same applies there).
6. 3 points

## Trump to recognise Jerusalem as Israel's capital.

FFS grow up and start to think for yourself. As they say "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter", I do get what you mean but the only moderate that's truly crushed is the one in a powerful but fearful nation.
7. 3 points

## The recent vocanoe erruption in hawaii and how to prevent it from future occurence

I don't usually give downvotes for content. But this post is so indescribably stupid ...
8. 3 points

9. 3 points

## Woodworking: Amateurs, Craftsmen, & In-Between

Here is the finished product used a light oak stain with an outdoor gloss protective coat
10. 3 points

## USA pulling out of Iran deal

On top of it he is conveniently forgetting all the other agreements the US is pulling out of and the fact that allies have already stated that they cannot rely on the US anymore, which is a huge deal. You really need to improve your reading and perhaps a basic understanding of the context of the texts you pull. The JCPA was reached in July 2015. Your own link (which you apparently did not read) just describes the clandestine efforts Iran has made to circumvent sanctions. The JCPA specially addresses these issues and pretty much everyone (except the US, Israel and Saudi Arabia) have declared that they are abiding to the conditions. My guess is that you just googled the Joint Plan of Action which was an interim agreement but is not the one under discussion. Also note that pretty much everyone already suspected that Iran was developing capabilities- after all, this was the main reason for the sanctions and negotiations in the first place.
11. 3 points

## An observer's local clock and ruler determine the observation of curved and expanded spaces somewhere else

! Moderator Note NO! You have too many misconceptions you need to address before advancing more "ideas". And this thread is 8 pages of unsupported soapboxing, so it ends now.
12. 3 points

## So then if the universe did not come about by pure chance - what did happen? Perhaps a better question would be 'who' did it?

Recent evidence suggests this argument sprang from straw....
13. 3 points

## So then if the universe did not come about by pure chance - what did happen? Perhaps a better question would be 'who' did it?

We ARE there to witness the Big Bang. It is happening at this very moment. You seem to be under the mistaken impression that the Big Bang describes how the universe began. It does not. It explains the large scale evolution of the universe over time. While some may offer theories of the 'beginning' of the universe, no scientists claim to 'know' how it began.
14. 3 points

## Helium car tires

And again, a small difference is still a difference. I can get my Nitrogen for free, so there is no added expense or effort on my part. The TPMS sensors in the valve stems came out once I started running Continental run flats. And the comment about you getting over yourself ( for which I should apologize, but won't ) is certainly not related to your knowledge/intelligence, but rather your condescending arrogance. In the time that I've been a member here, you've managed to nit-pick fights/arguments with quite a few of the members I consider most reasonable and level headed. Maybe telling others that they should not be posting on a science site is the wrong approach for passing on your knowledge.
15. 2 points

## The North Korea Problem

QFT. KJU has already gotten what he wants... He's been recognized as a world leader... He's been given a seat at the table among the "league of nations," and he's now been platformed as a peer. He's been taken seriously by the world, is meeting with the most powerful countries of US and China, and it has legitimized him as a powerful person who has made N.Korea a player. Everything else is just gravy at this point. Kim got what he wanted the moment Trump agreed to meet. Sure, KJU's been discussing specific industry investments from the US into NK with Pompeo, but that's all secondary to his push to develop nuclear weapons in an attempt to be taken seriously by the world. He's solidified his place, been praised by the POTUS as a great chairman, elevated instead of treated like the teapot dictator he is. They got what they wanted already, and the US keeps losing more and more credibility. Are you tired of all that winning yet?
16. 2 points

My hobby in my retirement is painting big-wave surfing scenes. I haven't made hardly any money from it yet. When I started using an airbrush it gave more realism to my pictures. My avatar photo, by Robert Brown, is famous, a giant 77-foot wave ridden by Mike Parson at Cortes Bank (100 miles off the coast of San Diego, CA) on 1-5-2008. See the actual photo here and read all about it: https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/09/sports/othersports/09surf.html But the problem with that photo is the smaller wave in front of it blocks our view of the trough, so for my painting of that same wave I removed the wave blocking our view of the trough: https://john-kaelin.pixels.com/featured/cortes-bank-xxl-1-5-2008-john-kaelin.html See all my artwork at "biggestwaveseversurfed.com" which takes you to this web site: https://john-kaelin.pixels.com/ Recently a new world record for "biggest wave ever surfed" was established at Nazare, Portugal on 11-08-2017 by Rodrigo Koxa at 80 feet tall. What about Ken Bradshaw's 80 footer at Log Cabins on 1-28-1998? Well, that was not photographed, only some grainy video was shot from a mile away. http://www.swellnet.com/news/rearview-mirror/2018/01/28/condition-black-january-28th-1998 The video of the new world record is not much help because you can hardly see what is happening: https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=rodrigo+koxa+nazare&view=detail&mid=D41B67AF5A72B9621951D41B67AF5A72B9621951&FORM=VIRE
17. 2 points

## Electro Magnetic Drive:

Some scientists think they have solved the mystery https://arstechnica.com/science/2018/05/nasas-em-drive-is-a-magnetic-wtf-thruster/ "Even with a power of just a couple of Watts, the EM-drive generates thrust in the expected direction (e.g., the torsion bar twists in the right direction). If you reverse the direction of the thruster, the balance swings back the other way: the thrust is reversed. Unfortunately, the EM drive also generates the thrust when the thruster is directed so that it cannot produce a torque on the balance (e.g., the null test also produces thrust). And likewise, that “thrust” reverses when you reverse the direction of the thruster. The best part is that the results are the same when the attenuator is put into the circuit. In this case, there is basically no radiation in the microwave cavity, yet the WTF-thruster thrusts on. So, where does the force come from? The Earth’s magnetic field, most likely. The cables that carry the current to the microwave amplifier run along the arm of the torsion bar. Although the cable is shielded, it is not perfect (because the researchers did not have enough mu metal). The current in the cable experiences a force due to the Earth’s magnetic field that is precisely perpendicular to the torsion bar."
18. 2 points

## Position Grounds

I agree. They shouldn't be. Like music and reason shouldn't be enemies. Because they are completely separate things. The problem comes when people insist that their faith means that reason must be wrong (e.g. Creationists etc).
19. 2 points

## black holes can't be made of matter (off-topic from Quantum Fluctuations/Foam)

Not a bad summary +1 though I would probably describe unsmoothness as anistropic.
20. 2 points

## Evidence for Star Formation: 250 Million Years post Big Bang:

Whenever discussing stars we also need to take into consideration all the other "stuff" that formed in addition to the star. I have no doubt that the first Population III stars would have had planets, asteroids, comets, and everything else we find in solar systems. However, it has been suggested that these first stars would have been massive, anywhere from 100 to 1,000 solar masses. If that is true then these first stars would have had very short lives indeed. Perhaps just a few million years. While that may be sufficient time to produce the first 26 elements on the Periodic Table, it is far too short a time for life to develop. At best life would just be getting started, only to be wiped out by the resulting hypernova when the Pop III star dies. I think life has its best shot beginning with Pop II stars. The metal-poor stars in the halo of our Milky Way, for example, have been dated to 12+ billion years. Since we only have one example to go by, it is rather difficult to say with any certainty how long it takes to evolve beyond primordial life. I would imagine that it very much depends on the conditions. On Earth it took just over 700 million years before life first appeared, and then another 3.3+ billion years before we get to the Cambrian. That is a long time for a planet to remain relatively stable. Too long for any star with greater than just a couple of solar masses. Given that Pop. III stars would have been short lived, the Pop. II stars would have formed shortly after the Pop. III stars. Certainly within the first billion years after the Big Bang. Therefore, I would not rule out the possibility of life being 12.8+ billion years old. Source: The Formation of First Stars. I. The Primordial Star-forming Cloud - The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 564, Number 1, 2002 (free preprint)
21. 2 points

## Have a look on tesla's semi

An HGV is a different classification and need not be articulated. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/211948/simplified-guide-to-lorry-types-and-weights.pdf Of course the term is made more difficult by the american pronunciation of the part word 'semi'.
22. 2 points

## What can be done with this Hawaii volcano?

All you have to do to stop the property damage is get smart-- The volcano is not unknown or a mystery-- the mystery is why people insist on developing property in the path of the volcano.
23. 2 points

## Binary probability puzzle

You might want to rethink that
24. 2 points

## Trump to recognise Jerusalem as Israel's capital.

Well, gosh. I sure do feel better now that I've heard your opinion on the matter, one that I even preemptively tried to address (bolded) when posting: " I’m reminded of slavery in the US. The slaves knew they’d be shot if they tried to escape the plantation, yet they still tried. Not a perfect comparison, but hopefully frames the logic you’re using in a light that makes it easier to recognize the flaw."
25. 2 points

## A Game Changing Documentary....

Well, if you're not going to discuss the contents of the doc with anyone who hasn't watched it, and I, and most other sensible members aren't going to be extorted into wasting 20 min watching a nutjob, conspiracy theory video, the mods might as well close this down right now. And, you're in violation of forum rules.
26. 2 points

## Si-Based Life

The carbon we exhale as CO2 is a waste product of our converting the food we ingest into energy the body uses to run its metabolism. It is, in effect, the "ashes" from the "fire" that runs our body. To use this to build tissue would require energy. In order for the organism to use all the food it ingests for tissue building, it would have to have some other source of energy for running its metabolism ( plants do this by using the energy in sunlight) . For an organism to exhale Silicon Tetra-fluoride would require a metabolism in which this is the low-energy waste product, and this metabolism would need to be able to operate in the temperature range in which it is a gas. The challenges of Silicon life is that you need to be able to build complex molecules that are both flexible and reactive enough to run a metabolism yet robust enough to hold together at the energy levels needed to run that metabolism. Carbon seems to be particularly suited to this. Silicon is not quite as suited.
27. 2 points

## what is a god

Hello iNow, My thoughts (as worthless as they are) are that life/consciousness is a property of intricate systems that are natural processes within and by the universe. A device is a fabrication made by Man (or other life) that completes a function. A man-made toaster, regardless of how many functions it has, even if it had AI and self replicating nanites to create copies of itself, is still a device of men and not life/consciousness as generated by the propensity of this universe, in my humble opinion. And equating the two is kind of diverting the topic & not what Gees was referring to (although I can be wrong!). I would like to apologise as the post I down voted didn’t actually deserve it as it was 100% true; toasters do react to their environment in all the ways you suggest, as every inanimate object does; passively. It is just that you seem to be overseeing that Life/consciousness reacts and also acts; the compliment to passivity which is activity. Yes, we can ascribe the quality of toasting bread as an activity but this is a design of men, and it would not happen without actual life (us) making it so, whereas the universe just creates it naturally. That is the quality that I think Gees is referring to. I am new here and second apology is coming up; sorry if I have overstepped the mark; I was down voting the direction of the content, not the person. I will check the protocol for using the vote system in future!
28. 2 points

## A Swarm of Black Holes:

https://phys.org/news/2018-05-sagittarius-swarm-black-hole-bounty.html Sagittarius A* swarm: Black hole bounty captured in the Milky Way center: Astronomers have discovered evidence for thousands of black holes located near the center of our Milky Way galaxy using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This black hole bounty consists of stellar-mass black holes, which typically weigh between five to 30 times the mass of the Sun. These newly identified black holes were found within three light years—a relatively short distance on cosmic scales—of the supermassive black hole at our Galaxy's center known as Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-05-sagittarius-swarm-black-hole-bounty.html#jCp the paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25029 A density cusp of quiescent X-ray binaries in the central parsec of the Galaxy: Abstract: The existence of a ‘density cusp’1,2—a localized increase in number—of stellar-mass black holes near a supermassive black hole is a fundamental prediction of galactic stellar dynamics3. The best place to detect such a cusp is in the Galactic Centre, where the nearest supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, resides. As many as 20,000 black holes are predicted to settle into the central parsec of the Galaxy as a result of dynamical friction3,4,5; however, so far no density cusp of black holes has been detected. Low-mass X-ray binary systems that contain a stellar-mass black hole are natural tracers of isolated black holes. Here we report observations of a dozen quiescent X-ray binaries in a density cusp within one parsec of Sagittarius A*. The lower-energy emission spectra that we observed in these binaries is distinct from the higher-energy spectra associated with the population of accreting white dwarfs that dominates the central eight parsecs of the Galaxy6. The properties of these X-ray binaries, in particular their spatial distribution and luminosity function, suggest the existence of hundreds of binary systems in the central parsec of the Galaxy and many more isolated black holes. We cannot rule out a contribution to the observed emission from a population (of up to about one-half the number of X-ray binaries) of rotationally powered, millisecond pulsars. The spatial distribution of the binary systems is a relic of their formation history, either in the stellar disk around Sagittarius A* (ref. 7) or through in-fall from globular clusters, and constrains the number density of sources in the modelling of gravitational waves from massive stellar remnants8,9, such as neutron stars and black holes.
29. 2 points

## Relation between dimensions

In Euclidean geometry a point has no dimensions, no volume or area. A good practical example of this is a focal point on a camera lens - it has no size so it's not a unit of space but it's very much a point. In QM an electron (point particle) cannot be spatially localized because Heisenberg...and its size is zero...but it has mass so it has volume. Only interactions of electrons can be localized so in that context a point can be a unit of space - kinda but not really because super-strings...but the bottom line is that we don't know if spacetime is pixelated at it's smallest scale.
30. 2 points

## Si-Based Life

Silicone refers to chains of silicon and oxygen atoms joined in a chain https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicone Silicon in this context refers to chains of silicon atoms arranged like carbon chains. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silanes
31. 2 points

There the obvious reality tv aspect. President of US has affair w porn star and pays her off to keep quiet. It’s like tabloid catnip. Beyond that, however, is the more serious issue of this being an illegal campaign contribution. While US elections are flooded w money, there are giant loopholes and Super PACs legitimized by section 501(c)4, and our next president may just as well be a giant pile of cash on a wooden pallet, there are in fact rules about who can contribute to a campaign and how much they can contribute. If the lawyer paid off the porn star to stay silent, it could be considered an illegal campaign contribution and could put the president in legal jeopardy. If he clearly broke a law, it gives further momentum to his political enemies who would like to see him removed from office. It also happens to shine more light on just how blatantly he and his team lie to us citizens. EDIT: x-posted w Charon
32. 2 points

## The Slick Sales Pitch of Trump

We also need to address the fact that not everyone who wanted (and was entitled) to vote was able to, and that Russia hacked our elections.
33. 2 points

## USA pulling out of Iran deal

And once again, the US leaves its seat at the leadership table like this is a real estate deal gone bad. To me, this is a showcase of Trump's biggest faults. It shows his hypocrisy in using fake news to promote his agenda while blaming others for it, his ignorance about foreign policy, his petty need to destroy everything Obama built, and his insistence on making snap decisions emotionally without considering counsel or context in order to gaslight everyone into thinking he knows what he's doing.
34. 2 points

35. 2 points

The Bible
36. 2 points

## Field Question

By using non-Euclidean geometry. The balloon analogy is a tool that's designed to simulate non-Euclidean geometry in a way that is easily visualized, by imagining what it would be like to try to perform Euclidean plane geometry on the surface of a sphere. In true non-Euclidean plane geometry, there is no 3rd dimension that the plane curves in, but the rules of geometry differ from Euclidean geometry, (the interior angles of triangle don't add up to 180° etc.) In the same way, the behavior of non-Euclidean 3 dimensional space simulates that of 3-d space curved through a 4 spacial dimension, but without the actual existence of a 4th spacial dimension.
37. 2 points

You don't seem that evil to me... My Avatar and my name are derived from some grand-grand-...-grand-cousin, named Eise Eisinga. He built (a still working!) giant orrery through the ceiling of his living room in 1781, in Franeker, the Netherlands, to show that a conjunction of planets did not mean they would collide. So he was a debunker of superstition.
38. 2 points

## What are they?

Pareidolian entities.
39. 2 points

## Today I Learned

The entire population could also fit in Rhode Island. But it wouldn't end well: https://what-if.xkcd.com/8/
40. 2 points

## what is a god

I didn’t think you were an idiot, at least not until I read this. You’re correct. You’re no Feynman, but you also didn’t state that years of training was required to grasp deeper concepts. What you did do (and do frequently) is to belittle others and tell specific individual members that they are specifically incapable of grasping your point. When there is a misunderstanding in a text based medium, the fault generally lies with the author. Feynman didn’t put others down. He lifted them up. You can comment on my attitude all you want. That won’t change the validity of my point. Focus on your argument. If people struggle to understand it, then focus on articulating it differently. I’m also not the only one that has asked you to be more concise. Perhaps start there. If you’re unable to explain something simply or in terms even a child can grasp, then it’s far more likely that you’re the one who doesn’t understand the concept well enough.
41. 2 points

## Banned/Suspended Users

Lasse has been banned as a sock puppet of 1x0
42. 2 points

## Helium car tires

could have PMed you but I thought it would be better public... I apologize for my comments John. I have gotten along with other blunt people who speak their mind, such as Ophiolite and Dr Rocket, and I assure you, I respect your opinions as much as I did theirs. Its not much of an excuse, but you caught me on a bad day and I took it out on you. Incidentally ( to get back on topic ), enthusiasts do all sorts of things with negligible ( or even non-existent ) returns. That is the very definition of enthusiast. Do you think people collect stuff for its monetary value ? Do you think people can tell the difference between a transistor Amp and a tube Amp, or $1000 speakers and$15000 speakers ? So while you may argue that the difference between air and Nitrogen is negligible, to an enthusiast, it isn't
43. 2 points

## 1*0=0 What is the comparable observation of this axiom?

It is possible to formally define, and prove, the properties of numbers, and the operations on them, starting from a few basic examples. One of the first examples was https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peano_axioms
44. 2 points

## what is a god

Folks would be less inclined to perceive you as a self-important blowhard... aka aged annoying airhead... if you’d at least put a modicum if effot toward refraining from such passive aggressive unnecessary barbs like this (just one example among a countless many others you seem to seed into every post you make). /nickels worth of free advice
45. 2 points

46. 2 points

## So then if the universe did not come about by pure chance - what did happen? Perhaps a better question would be 'who' did it?

TBH most of the members here don't really care if there's a God or your faith in it, but they will push back if you start a topic, on a discussion (science) site that basically states "I don't care what you say, I believe in magic." (that's fine for your blog); which begs the question, what's the point?
47. 2 points

## So then if the universe did not come about by pure chance - what did happen? Perhaps a better question would be 'who' did it?

Just to highlight how silly this claim is: if you combine sodium and chlorine, they will always combine in equal quantities to form salt. You will never "by pure chance" get sugar or a potato. The universe behaves deterministically. If you want to believe that deterministic and consistent behaviour is because of a god, then go ahead. It can't be disproved (because it isn't science; it's faith). That is a reasonable application of faith. But don't try and pretend that your faith trumps reality. (I did read once about a US preacher or politician who said that "if the Bible and Reality disagree then it must be Reality that is wrong." But that is not faith; it is pure insanity.)
48. 2 points

## Monoatomic Gold Theory

You don't know what the word "theory" means in the context of science, do you? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_theory This idea is no more a scientific theory than saying monatomic gold is unicorn droppings. Incidentally, whether pseudoscience likes it or not, we do actually know about the properties of monatomic gold. People make light bulbs that rely on monatomic gold. http://www.perkinelmer.com/product/lumina-hollow-cathode-2-lamp-au-n3050107 albeit, for rather esoteric purposes. One thing we know is that it's only available at high temperatures, in a vacuum.
49. 2 points

## An observer's local clock and ruler determine the observation of curved and expanded spaces somewhere else

This may be a difficult concept but, not every thought you have is gold, that's why we have ears (or in this context ' a screen').
50. 2 points

## An observer's local clock and ruler determine the observation of curved and expanded spaces somewhere else

You have still only answered half the question. How does this differ from "expansion of the universe"? (Clue: it doesn't. That is what "expansion of the universe" means.) You cannot use an argument from a theory to show that the same theory is wrong. Unless you can show that the theory is mathematically inconsistent (it isn't). Time may be "relative" (observer dependent) but that doesn't mean it is random or arbitrary. Different observers can calculate exactly how much their measurements will differ from one another and agree on an age for the universe. The fact that in their frame of reference the measurement might be different (by an immeasurably small amount) doesn't mean their is no age; it just means the measurements are different. To go back to GPS: each satellite will measure time differently (and differently from each GPS user on the ground). That doesn't mean it is impossible to measure time. Quite the opposite, in fact: many people use GPS as a time standard. Because we know how to adjust for all the clocks having different ("relative") times. Don't be ridiculous. If you are building a house, do you have to measure the construction to the nearest femtometer? Of course not. Because differences that small are ... negligible.