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Showing content with the highest reputation since 03/29/19 in all areas

  1. 8 points
    Staff have decided to update the forum rules to include the following: This is in response to a number of threads and certain members who have made threads here under the premise of 'just asking a question,' only to reveal that they are in fact trying to peddle conspiratorial or otherwise nonsense ideas. While covered to some extent by pre-existing rules, we have decided to make it explicit that we will not be hosting these sorts of threads, if for no other reason than the fact that they are a waste of everyone's time.
  2. 8 points
    OK let's clarify something here. First consider the following definitions. Mass is resistance to inertia change Energy the ability to perform work. Spacetime a geometric model system with 3 spatial dimensions with 1 time dimension. In physics dimension is an independent variable or value that can change without affecting any other mathematical object. So how does mass curve spacetime. Well GR models bodies in free fall that is without any force applied. Time is given units of length and can be called an interval. This is done by setting c which is constant to all observers and adding a unit of time. So the time coordinate is given units of length by ct. [latex] (t,x,y,z)=(ct,x,y,z)=(x^1,x^2x^3x,x^4)[/latex] the last is in four momentum form for convenience as its useful to model a particle trajectory along the x axis. Now what is spacetime curvature. Well space is just volume... (Very important ) it isn't a stretchable bendable fabric... Those are just analogy descriptive. What spacetime truly means by curvature is the worldline paths for light it us the null geodesic. If you shoot two laser beams in flat spacetime those beams stay parallel. If spacetime is curved then the beams converge for positive curvature and spread apart for negative curvature. This is a consequence of how the mass term affects the time it takes for a particle to go from emitter to observer. That whole resistance to inertia. So let's drop two objects toward a planet. You have the usual Centre of mass. As the objects free fall they do not stay parallel. They will converge upon one another as they approach the center of mass. That what is really meant by curvature the free fall paths are curved. Not the volume of space.
  3. 6 points
    This is my 1000th post! Time to celebrate, This is a fine moment to open the Islay Single Malt I got for Christmas. Cheers from Ghideon, to all new and old form members!
  4. 6 points
    It might help, if you @Angelo would first, in an objective tone, lay out exactly what you believe Tyson's argument to be, and the steps in his reasoning (as far as they are provided and assuming they are truthful). As far as I understand the simulation hypothesis, is that it is based on chance and likelihoods coupled with some very specific assumptions; however the things you say, and the way you ask your questions and/or comment on other peoples posts, to me seems to indicate that you (at best) don't know the full reasoning behind the simulation hypothesis (or you do understand it, but are wilfully creating strawmens). Additionally, it would be great to present the strongest argument(s) for the simulation hypothesis, and not immediately assume that Tyson and other people agree on everything. If he has some illogical reasoning or assumptions you don't agree with, then it may be good to find a better version of the argument, instead of immediately disregarding the entire hypothesis. If you are really interested in understanding Tyson's and other people's point of view on this, it would help to start with a detailed summary/explanation of the hypothesis, because I could explain it (as far as I understand it), but I doubt the explanation is similar to what you think it is. And if you aren't sure on WHAT people belief, then it is very strange to already think of it as nonsense, therefore (assuming you have good reason to think of it as nonsense) it should be easy for you to explain it (in your own words, please don't just link something, that doesn't test your current understanding). Kind regards, Dagl
  5. 6 points
    My son holding my grand daughter!
  6. 5 points
    Thank you all for your insightful comments and helpful links, and sorry I didn't reply earlier but I just joined and hit the five reply limit. You've helped me see the flaws in my thinking and weak areas of understanding, especially misunderstanding space/time to have elastic potential energy (as this was just a misunderstanding of how the models are visually represented), not using accepted vernacular, and uniform expansion. In retrospect, I should've just left out the Quantum Field explanation as I'm sure most of you understand more of it than I do already and it's already discussed on these forums. It's all forced me into the frightening conclusion that if my thoughts in this area are to have any value I'm going to have to move from being interested to being dedicated and learn some math. Darn it.
  7. 5 points
    Thank you for all your feedback. I’m currently working on some mental health issues and cannot reply on give the answers the time that I would like to in regards to research and time and I struggle to express the concept fully and accurately, more to come but I have to work on my stability at this time kind regards David Wavish
  8. 5 points
    Fake news! It was a perfect renewal! Absolutely perfect. In a world where even my fridge can give me reminders, I still managed to forget. Luckily Capn was able to social engineer his way through my answering service who sent a page out to me stating "CAPN REFSMMAT - RE: WEBSITE". They even listed a hospital he was calling from 😂. I wasn't on call today so when I heard my answering service text me I about lost my mind until I saw who it was.
  9. 5 points
    No. Space-time should not be comprised of anything like dough. It is not substance-like at all. The concept of space-time is just the recognition that the measurements of space and time are frame dependent and not absolute. The analogy is that in Newtonian physics, space and time are treated like North/South vs. East/West. In such a situation everyone, no matter what direction they are facing, all agree on these directions. Everyone, for example, agrees that town A is 40 miles North and 30 miles East of town B. However the Space-time manner of treating this is that each person uses his own sense of Left/Right and Front/Back. Thus one person facing one direction will say that town A is 30 miles to the left of and 40 miles in front of town B, while someone facing in another direction would say that town A is 50 miles directly to the right of town B. It makes no more sense to think of space-time as being "substance-like" than it would to think of Left/Right-Front/Back as being "substance like". Now I also realize that in GR, it is said that Space-time "curves" in the presence of mass. And to many people this implies space-time being a "structure or substance". This is not what this means. "Curvature" of space-time really just means that the geometry rules governing it are non-Euclidean. In other words, the rules of plane, Euclidean geometry just don't hold.
  10. 5 points
    Glad to be back had some RL issues which are done with now
  11. 5 points
    thethinkertank has been placed in the queue for spamming the forum with an impressive amount of nonsense.
  12. 5 points
    Join a science forum and post once...
  13. 4 points
    After 8 seconds it said "This film is not presented as fact." So I did not watch the rest. Correct. I am not interested. But if anyone provides reliable scientific evidence about progress in our understanding of gravity (and/or anti gravity) I would be very interested. Warning: Straw man ahead: *) Replace alien technology with "magic", "psychic powers", "spirits", "life after death". The scientific content would be the same (zero).
  14. 4 points
  15. 4 points
    Note that the spread was predominantly along trade routes. While there is decent evidence supporting the use of (black plague) bodies (which, btw. were already spreading in Asia and the Middle East), the entry of the plague was likely independent of that (or it may have contributed it, but was not the major driver). The narrative of the use of cadavers and the spread of the bubonic plague to Europe following the the siege of Caffa was strongly based on the account by Gabriele de' Mussi. Historians disagree whether he was actually physically present during the siege, but it appears that they think it is at least plausible that cadavers were hurled into the city. There is also the possibility that the plague arrived with the army and was subsequent transmitted by rodents, but despite overall uncertainties it is (from what I have read) not the favoured explanation. In the accounts de' Mussi also said that those escaped from Caffa were bound to Genoa Venice and so on and thereby spread the disease. However that clashes with what I think is now fairly well established understanding how the plague spread into Europe. It is well established that the plague spread over the Crimea, but cases in Genoa and Venice appeared well over 2 years after the siege of Caffa. Since even under unfavourable conditions the voyage should have not taken more than a few months, the timeline does not line up well. Another aspect that even if that timeline would have worked out, the time required would still have resulted in a substantial outbreak on the ships themselves. But again, around that time, there were no records of something that must have been considered to be a significant event. There are also folks who dispute that corpses were used in the first place (as there are no reports from folks fleeing from Caffa describing it aside from de' Mussi's account) or that there is no indication that it was knowingly used as a bioweapon (some dispute that bodies would be effective, they should have flung rats instead...). There is for example the speculation that the plague may have entered Caffa via the waterways. The Mongols were not able to fully block those and this where Caffa was getting resupplied. Also historians report that a step-wise entry of the plague into Europe is more likely which makes a spread over trade routes via Crimean ports even more likely. Well established reports pinpoint spring 1347 as the start of the plague in Constantinople, for example. I.e. there are quite a few reports that contradict the strong narrative of warfare-mediated spread, which is quite fascinating actually as not only historians have been working on it, but also epidemiologists and microbiologist, who use the documents to establish timelines and spread, not dissimilar to modern epi-studies (just with scarcer data). What is rather neat is that a fairly recent PNAS paper actually described genome evolution in Yersinia pestis which is consistent with repeated introduction via migratory and trading routes.
  16. 4 points
    The plot revolves around a group of highly trained professionals who break into homes of elderly folks and aggressively cough into their faces for a few minutes. In a heartwarming twist one of their presumptuous victims confuses the terrorist with their grandchild to whom she had lost contact. After a furious intermezzo consisting of baking and copious amount tea the terrorist realizes that deep inside he is just longing for the love of a family. Meanwhile the grandparent realizes that the nightly visitor in stealth suit is indeed not her grandchild (the climbing hook on the balcony being a crucial hint- as well as a flashback highlight that the real grandchild had a fear of heights). But she enjoys the moment too much to care.Tragically, this human moment is also what ultimately resulted in successful infection. The terrorist becomes guilt-ridden when it becomes clear that the lonely grandma is not long for this world and he tries to reach her a last time to say his farewells. Meanwhile, his terrorist buddies consider him a traitor and try to stop him resulting in a highly choreographed fight scene involving lots of offensive coughing and running noses in slow-mo (the filmmakers did not consult experts as per usual and did not realize that this is not part of the symptoms). Finally, he survives all these ordeals and reaches the grandma, who turns out to be a special CDC/Homeland security agent in disguise (Jason Stratham) who have been delaying a rollout of coronavirus testing in favour of sting operations to catch corona-terrorists. PS: can anyone tell that I really, really do not want to read those student reports?
  17. 4 points
    The autism connection has been peer reviewed and the author of that has been discredited and struck off. He, to cut a long story short, had a financial interest in pursuing this position. Unfortunately, this myth has persisted and been magnified by the internet. Google 'andrew wakefield autism'
  18. 4 points
    A better question is why [math] 10^{-43}[/math]. Would it help to recognize that number is one unit of Planck time with our current observable universe to the volume of 1 Planck length. The temperature being equivalent to Planck temperature. The Planck units are in essence boundary conditions on which our ability to mathematically describe in essence breaks down into Infinities and nonsensical results. You often only hear the space and time axis in essence flipping roles for the GR descriptive but cosmology must also include both macro and quantum effects. So its good to understand how the limits of the macro and quantum theories apply. (String theory also recognizes these limits) One detail as mentioned in this thread is were describing our Observable portion in essence the limits of shared observable causality with our current universe. Time being a measure of rate of change or duration you in essence need a dimension in order to have something to measure or even something that must be able to change. However one must also realize that the t=0 represents the collective worldlines of all particles in our observable portion extrapolated from the closest we can mathematically describe and potentially measure. In the closest to pointlike we can describe. It does not represent any time outside our region of shared causality. In essence [math]10^{-43}[/math] is the origin of time for all potential worldlines in our observable universe that are extrapolated to the beginning of our observable universe (as the emitter event).
  19. 4 points
    What up! I know I am about 16 years late but, I just wanted to point out that (like others have) @Tesseract was incorrect in saying that salt and vinegar makes hydrochloric acid. I dislike the spread of misinformation. Next time make sure something is correct before you post it to the internet. Also I made this account to post this. But I'm sure nobody will ever see this. I put so much time and effort into doing something so utterly pointless.
  20. 4 points
    Your only questions are sarcastic and unhelpful. Your assertions have mostly been wrong, and have been pointed out to you, but you've chosen to ignore them. You're rejecting explanations without reason, simply because they don't seem intuitive to you. This isn't personal, it isn't about you. It's your approach to learning that's causing a problem in discussions. I have to ask, is there any way to reason with you on this subject, or is your incredulity always going to be an impassable obstacle? How can we turn this discussion into a meaningful one? Several people have tried explaining what mainstream science says on this subject, but it's hard to have a conversation with you when half the effort is spent trying to get your fingers out of your ears.
  21. 4 points
    The plane crash involved a Boeing 737-800NG, not the MAX but a previous version with stable aerodynamics and no computer override. The plane was 3 years old and had been in for maintenance on Monday. And Ukraine has suspended all flights into the area, but hasn't grounded similar 737-800NGs. I personally haven't seen it, but there are reports of a video showing the plane coming down engulfed in a fireball, and wreckage photos show puncture damage from either engine failure and breach of blades, or shrapnel. The plane was at 8000 ft when contact was lost and it disappeared from radar, but the ground elevation in the area is over 3000 ft, and it had made a sharp left turn as it climbed out at less than 5000 ft relative to ground elevation. At this point it would have been close to the Malard missile launch site. Given the circumstances, this does not seem to be a technical issue, even if there had been enough time to do an investigation ( usually takes months ), and engine failiures do not result in that type of a crash. I would assume, until evidence proves me wrong,, that the plane was warned not to overfly the missile launch site, but was mistaken by Iranian air defenses as incoming cruise missile or possibly even MANPAD launched in error at a low flying target. I have also seen reports of the 63 Canadians being mostly students from the Toronto area. Seems Iran's 'insignificant' response may have led to some very serious consequences, and the 'fog' of war has shown up again. May all 180 passengers RIP.
  22. 4 points
    It is very disingenuous to ask a question then assert the answers are wrong.
  23. 4 points
    As swansont has already stated, dark matter is matter that is hypothesized to exist due to the apparent gravitational effects we see, but which doesn't interact electromagnetically like the regular matter we are used to dealing with. This means it does not emit, reflect, or absorb light either, thus the description "dark". And as he said, we don't really know just what it is made up of yet. There are a couple of possibilities. Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) would be objects like neutron stars and black holes. These are object formed from "normal" matter (or at least a far as black holes go initially from it), but compact so much mass into a small area that they are just to small and dim to see individually. However, we need quite a bit of dark matter to explain observations, and there are reasons why we don't think the universe could have this much mass in the form of MACHOs, as it would have effected how the universe evolved, resulting in one that looks a bit different from what we see. Another possibility is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) These are sub-atomic particles that have a rest mass, but just don't interact via the electromagnetic interaction. (And pretty much everything having to do with how we interact with regular matter, from touching it or seeing it, to chemical reactions involves electromagnetic interaction) These "ghost-like" particles would pass right through you like you weren't even there. While this this seems bizarre, we actually already know of a particle that behaves like this, the neutrino; Billions of them pass through you every day with your ever noticing it. Neutrinos ( or at least the type we know of) don't work for dark matter for various reasons, so the WIMPs of dark matter would be something like, but not identical to neutrinos. It is also possible that both of the above play a role in making up the total effect we see. swansont also mentioned attempts to explain things by a modified theory of gravity. The problem with this is that a number of observations are not compatible with such an explanation. An example would be galaxies that appear to be identical but exhibit different gravity profiles. Even if the rule of gravity were different than what we presently think they are, they would still need to be consistent from galaxy to galaxy. So while its perfectly possible for different galaxies to contain different amounts of dark matter and thus as a whole act differently in terms of gravity, it is hard to explain why the actual rules governing gravity would change between galaxies. Having said this, it is still possible for a modified gravity theory to play some role, if combined with dark matter. A new theory of gravity which also incorporates a mix of MACHOs and WIMPs could end up being the final answer. Right now we are at the stage of continuing to make observations in order to narrow the playing field. We have eliminated some possibilities, but there are more to explore.
  24. 4 points
    A clock near a black hole ticks at “1 second per second”, a ruler near a black hole is “one meter per meter” long. A clock on Earth ticks at “1 second per second”, a ruler near Earth is “one meter per meter” long. Locally in their own small enough neighbourhoods, neither observer determines anything special to be happing. As the name already implies, relativistic effects become apparent only when you compare clocks and rulers in different frames - they are relationships between frames, not things in and of themselves that somehow happen to clocks and rulers. No clock will ever tick at anything other than “1 second per second”, and no ruler will ever measure anything other than “1 meter per meter”, within their own local frames. Time does not “slow”, space is not “stretched”, they merely become local concepts. It is crucially important to understand this point. So, in order to determine the geometry of spacetime, you need to either compare clocks and rulers at different events, or (equivalently) observe what happens when they traverse extended regions of spacetime. What you find then is that different observers may disagree on specific measurements of space and time, but they will always agree on how those measurements are related to one another. In other words - all observers agree on the geometry of spacetime. Mathematically speaking, the object that quantifies relevant aspects of the geometry of spacetime (in GR that is the Einstein tensor) is something that all observers agree on, regardless of where and when they are, or how they measure and determine it. The components of the tensor vary as you go from one observer to another, but they vary in such a way that the overall tensor remains the same one - that is the meaning of “covariance”.
  25. 4 points
    I think there are certain parallels between people believing in conspiracy and religious belief (religion being, from a certain point of view, the ultimate conspiracy) As folks have pointed out from time to time, when people do not use reason to arrive at a position, you will not be able to use reason to talk them out if it. Studies have shown that presenting such people with contrary evidence only tends to harden their resolve.
  26. 4 points
    As a silent reader not actively involved in this thread, allow me to offer an observation. Your initial post had one or two points in it that are relevant and worthwhile, but unfortunately your tone and general presence here comes across as arrogant and condescending, You made at least one good point (and some not so good ones), but you failed to communicate them in a proper manner. Please take this as constructive criticism, i.e. an opportunity for growth.
  27. 4 points
    This might be possible, if I may offer an opinion, for any number of reasons not apparent form the perspective of an 8-9 year old 20 years in retrospect. It's possible that your vivid recollection of what occurred 20 years ago isn't quite what happen. Time alters our memories and can create false ones that merges imagined experiences with those that are real. If your experience was real and you actually sustained "3 deep knife marks", scars of that experience would likely be visible somewhere on your body today, 20 years later, if they were truly as "deep" as you say. However, you've made no mention of such scars, which could suggest that the sleep injury you sustained was likely not as severe as you might have then perceived 20 years ago, which was likely precipitated and enhanced by the persisting fear an 8-9 year old could have experienced after a night of watching "scary movies". 20 years hence, your memory of the experience was embellished by time. Although, there's strong scientific evidence for the psychosomatic connection between mind and body, which can produce real physical injury, I do not believe this was likely your experience as a 9 year old child particularly without evidence of lingering scarification. I hope this helps.
  28. 4 points
    Artificial selection is not necessarily quicker than evolution, but using CRISPR Cas9 approaches, it is simple enough to produce antibiotic susceptible strains. Aseptic technique is still the most valuable tool in the prevention of nosocomical infection. Spreading pathogenic bacteria about an OR - drug susceptible or not, would have significant detrimental effects. So a few things 1) Often antibiotic resistance (AR) genes come with negligible costs to the bacteria, so do not suffer from negative selection. 2) They are often encoded on extrachromosomal transposable genetic elements (e.g. plasmids) or like the MecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus can be transferred by viruses - so you cannot prevent the spread of AR genes between your susceptible and resistant strains. 3) AR genes often, through selfish gene mechanisms, get crowded onto plasmids or prophage with other genes that confer a net benefit, such that they can piggyback on the positive selection of other genes to proliferate. 4) Resistance mechanisms like multi-drug efflux pumps, efflux many many other cytoplasmic contaminants, such they provided a benefit to bacteria in a wide array of environments. 5) Over 80% of antibiotics produced in the developed world are used as growth promoters in agriculture, rather than therapeutics. Therefore most of the interaction between bacteria and antibiotics is happening in the broader environment, not in the clinic. 6) Continuing from above, most of your patients present to the clinic having already acquired the resistant infection in the broader environment, so bacteria in the clinic are unlikely to have a positive impact. Dusting yourself with Staph/Klebsiella/Salmonella/Cholera etc, resistant or not is a terrible idea. You would wind up with far higher rates of infection and subsequent morbidity as a result, with a net negative public health outcome.
  29. 4 points
    This is the kind of problem that is more easily solved if you step back before turning the math crank. Look at y = x^2 and y = 16&x. y = X^2 is a parabola that passes through the origin. y = 16^x is an exponential function, and on the positive x side it rises faster than the parabola-- so it is obvious that there will be no solution for x > 0. On the negative side of the graph, 16^x approaches zero asymptotically, and is already 1/16 when x = -1 (while at x = -1 the parabola is at y = 1). Thus, it becomes obvious that the solution must lie in the region -1 < x < 0. I did a quick sketch of the two functions and it was equally obvious the crossing point had to be somewhere close to -0.5, as stated by Studiot. Understanding the shapes of functions makes trial and error, and heavy math, both unnecessary.
  30. 4 points
    Physical laws have certain properties, and you can have maths that have the same properties, but you can also have other maths that don't, including abstract mathematics that aren't based on physical things. For example, you can mathematically take apart an orange and rearrange it into two oranges identical to the original. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banach–Tarski_paradox The maths aren't restricted by the physical law of conservation of mass.
  31. 4 points
    Apparently, Marcus Aurelius commented on Pascal's wager about 2,000 years ago:
  32. 4 points
    I am more than likely wrong on all accounts but the Idea simply made sense to my current understanding. It seems apparent my current understanding is quite misleading. I appreciate your patience with me in your explanations. This stuff is fascinating the hell out of me though. Could you possibly recommend some entry level physics/calculus books I could begin with increasing my understanding of how all this works?
  33. 4 points
    Just wanted to clear up a few things. This cookware is called Visions and it was invented Corning inc. It is not tempered glass! Tempered glass would be a terrible idea. A small scratch could result in a catastrophic failure of the cookware when heated. Visions is a glass-ceramic. To make it glass is molded to the desired shape and then the glass is heat treated so that it devitrifies (crystalizes). The crystal structure has a very low CTE so that when it is heated or cooled there only very low stresses on the body, well below the stress needed for failure. My understanding is that the color is primarily due to the crystal structure, this part could be wrong. My info is from what I recall my wife telling me. She is a glass technologist who worked for Corning for 35 years. Here is the wiki on visions
  34. 4 points
    You’re right. We shouldn’t even try. We’re too busy not caring at all about the details for areas where we spend at least an order of magnitude more. Let’s cut taxes again, too.After all, that pays for itself. An uneducated public locked into lifelong debt like serfs in a feudal system are far easier to control, ta boot. Even better if you can turn them against one another as scapegoats.
  35. 4 points
    "On April 10th 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration will present its first results in multiple simultaneous press conferences around the world, and many satellite events organized by its stakeholder and affiliated institutions. Press conferences will be held simultaneously in Brussels (in English), Lyngby (in Danish), Santiago (in Spanish), Shanghai (in Mandarin), Tokyo (in Japanese), Taipei (in Mandarin), and Washington D.C. (in English), starting at 13:00 Universal Time [...] Major press conferences will be streamed live online via the following channels: Brussels: European Comission Youtube Channel Tokyo: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan channels on Youtube and Niconico Washngton: National Science Foundation Live Stream " Simulations and expected results can be found here : https://eventhorizontelescope.org/simulations-gallery More informations : https://eventhorizontelescope.org/science What do you think/expect, are you excited ? I surely am!
  36. 4 points
  37. 4 points
    "Perhaps we can communicate with the aliens if they are aware of the EM spectrum." "We can develop the technology to capture what we need from space along the way to another system" "We can figure out new ways to communicate with alien cultures." "Aliens probably think differently." It's been a long time since I spoke any Hydrox. It's an older form of Oreo, where the middle is stressed before either end is considered.
  38. 4 points
    We've recently had a few posts by newer members asking for advice and expert input on ideas they are unwilling to disclose publicly for reasons of IP protection. Staff feel that this goes against the spirit of this forum as a place for open discussion, and we have therefore updated the rules under Section 2 to include the following:
  39. 4 points
    A man died and went to heaven. As he stood in front of St Peter at the pearly gates, he saw a huge wall of clocks behind him. He asked, “What are those clocks?” St Peter answered, “Those are Lie-Clocks. Everyone on earth has a Lie-Clock. Every time you lie, the hands on your clock will move.” “Oh,” said the man. “Whose clock is that?” “That’s Mother Theresa’s. The hands have never moved, indicating that she never told a lie.” “Incredible!” said the man. St Peter continued, pointed to another and said, “That’s Abraham Lincoln’s clock. The hands have moved twice, telling us that Abe told only two lies in his entire life.” “Where’s Trumps clock?” “His clock is in Jesus’ office. He’s using it as a ceiling fan.”
  40. 4 points
    Allright I'll bite a little, but from what I have seen it is mostly a misunderstanding of how DNA works that makes you make these "assumptions". While I do think you have SOME understanding of biology, you seem to not know enough and thus say certain things are impossible. Reason 1: the genome does contain enough information. Well do you have any evidence for this; cell type specific transcription factors, cryptic transcription start sites, alternative polyadenylation, alternative splicing, post-transcriptional modifications, RNA secondary structures and post-translational modifications lead to a whole lot of diversity, can you give some actual evidence that there is not enough information within the genome or is this just what you believe? Reason 2: The genome only says how to build parts. If we don't have said fats, or essential vitamins or whatever, then the end products cannot be made, so you can definitely produce blueprints and use things which are not within the blueprints but come from somewhere else. I would like to say that a better analogy is that the genome encodes for tools with specific use-limitations which, when combined with the genome, lead to the production of both the factory and the end products. Reason 3: The genome does not determine which of its genes are used and when. Yes it does... epigenetic regulation is a result of the tools encoded by the genome, so indirectly the genome contains information for when parts of the genome are to be used. I don't get why you don't think this is the case, for instance CpG islands are encoded by the genome and DNA methylation enzymes, when guided by cell type specific adaptors and/or by lack of transcriptional activity, will methylate these CpG islands which leads to reduced transcription. All of these things are encoded by the genome, right? Reason 4: The genome cannot guide its products. There's plenty of signals both within the RNA and amino acids (look up nuclear localization signal) which direct proteins, alternatively see the Golgi (which is encoded by the genome) and there's evidence that parts of the DNA codes and/or binding factors/histones lead to chromatin localization within the nucleus (see CTCF and Lamina associated domains, and see super enhancers and transcription factories). Reason 5: No way of reaching the next level. Take a course in genetic embryology, look up hox genes. I don't want to go and explain all of of biological development but for instance, go look at sonic hedgehog and its influence in the formation of your hands and then tell us why this is not encoded by the genome. Reason 6: The limited role of developmental proteins. DamID now I have to explain developmental biology anyway; so lets say the genome has a developmental program to turn cell A into cells that proliferate outwards. This program is activated by a signalling protein and the cells will proliferate away from the source of the signalling protein, the further away they are, the less they proliferate. This is how your fingers can grow. Now you may think, why is it only in 1 direction, and there are other gradients with signals coming from closer to your body which signal the cells not to proliferate, and in between each source of the first developmental signal source are inhibitory sources, thereby the cells will only proliferate in the shape of a finger. This is a super simplified example, but just shows that this can all be done by the genome. Reason 7: Lack of construction endpoint. Don't get what you mean, the genome encodes for both a functional embryonic cell as well as functioning cells in adults, but we get a functional cell from our mother's egg cells. Just DNA alone would not produce anything, there needs to be a factory present already, which has been evolving for SOME time. Reason 8: Diversity from the same genome. Why don't you just learn about histone modifications, DNA modifications, post-transcriptional processing and cell-type specific transcription factors, or just take a course in epigenetics before saying this are impossible. Reason 9: Designed systems can’t repair themselves. Chaperone proteins can sometimes repair themselves, but regardless, your idea of cutting your finger and it"repairing itself" is just plain wrong. The cells die and new cells proliferate filling the gap. You seem very keen on explaining how things work but then you also fundamentally misunderstand certain things... Reason 10: Development is not construction. Construction of the plans to build things (and when to use them etc), construction of the tools and construction of the required materials is all done by the genome, but these tools then interact further with the genome to change things so that developmental progress is made. See all the other points for a more indepth explanation of this. Just learn some biology or at least give real reason why you believe what you believe. You just say "this isn't possible" but then there's soo much evidence that it is possible... -Dagl
  41. 4 points
    I'll clarify for him. For the reaction mass to produce an upward force on the rocket, it has to be accelerated downward relative to the rocket. In order to return that mass to the top of the rocket, any downward velocity the mass has relative to the rocket has to be stopped and reversed. This is an acceleration just as much as the one producing the upwards force on the rocket (acceleration is either change in speed, direction or both). This action will exert a force on the rocket opposite to that caused by accelerating the fuel downward. The end result of this force will be counter any upward movement by the rocket. This ends up with the net movement of the rocket as being zero. There is no way around this. There is no "clever" way to "fool" the rocket into having net movement by recirculating the fuel/reaction mass.
  42. 4 points
    What, pray tell, do you recommend one do when said offered benefit is repeatedly and consistently squandered? I doubt you’re suggesting we emulate Charlie Brown continuing to blindly kick at Lucy’s football. So, what then? In a vacuum, one would be silly to pushback against your point. In general terms and as an isolated point, you’re absolutely correct. In context and in respect to the history of this poster, however, pushback against this platitude is the only choice demonstrating any integrity. It’s about arguing in good faith, MigL. I have no quarrel with you, but I benefit from enough knowledge of our OP to doubt their sincerity and to lack faith in the goodness of their motives.
  43. 4 points
    They have nothing in common because you have chosen two different lines (with different values of m and b). As a real mathematician would know, if we have a single straight line, we cannot determine the value of m and b from a single pair of x and y values. However, if we have two pairs of x and y values then we can solve for m and b. One simple way of calculating b is to set x to zero. And then the value of b is just the y-intersect at x=0. Contrary to your ludicrous claim: THIS DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE VALUE OF b IS ONLY CORRECT WHEN x=0; it always has that value in the equation. So this mathematically proves that you claim that we cannot use a "special case" more generally is wrong. We can, of course, calculate the values of m and b using any arbitrary x and pairs (just as we can derive the the Lorentz transform using any combination of frames in relative motion). It just becomes slightly more complicated.
  44. 4 points
    What a ridiculous way to live. Never improving yourself. Never correcting misconceptions. Never learning. Just static and still and stupid. What a ridiculous way to live.
  45. 4 points
    From my own selfish perspective, I typically learn the most from those types of threads and would hate to see them cut off. Following a discussion between only knowledgeable participants is often too narrow and too deep for me to gain much. When someone flails about with misunderstanding, the responses tend to be more at a level I can gain from, and the suggested links for further information are generally very helpful to me. Oftentimes I'd like to ask similar questions myself but after one or two curt answers I tend to back off. I'm glad others aren't so sensitive.
  46. 4 points
    Wow. I was wrong on so many levels here. Haha thanks for the insight
  47. 4 points
    Oh yes, I get it now! Thank you! Al2O3+Na2CO3 -->2NaAlO2+CO2
  48. 3 points
    I think a lot of older folks have a hard time with the concept. One underlying issue is that we're taught some basic stuff in school, but the actual science is more complicated and subtle. We see it here all the time, in less socially-charged situations, when people insist on something based solely on e.g. classical/Newtonian physics, and ignore the fact that relativity and QM exist. They don't appreciate the fact that they are ignorant, and have no concept of the depth of their ignorance. Even though I have some difficulty in appreciating some of the subtlety surrounding sex and gender, I have heard smart people explain it, so at least I recognize that "X chromosome, Y chromosome" is not the end-all, be-all of the discussion, and that this is real: it's a spectrum, rather than being binary. But that's partially because I know this "you only learn the tip of the iceberg in high school" to be true about physics, so it's not hard to recognize it must also be true in biology. However, I have no idea if that is the source of Ms. Rowling's position, since other effects can come into play, such as religious teachings crowding out and/or ossifying capability for processing new and better information.
  49. 3 points
    Presumably you already have a 'friend' network. A group you are loosely or tightly associated with, either from work, school, whatever. You weren't thinking 'network' when you gathered them but that is what they are nonetheless. Need to talk to someone? Probably someone in your friend network. Need help moving a table? Someone in your network. Business (or research, or construction, etc.) network is essentially the same thing. You meet people, stay in contact, and get to know them so that you can call on them when needed, and so they can call on you. Some of them may also be in your friends network. If you are looking for new people for work, then be sure to introduce yourself to people where you work now, ask them what they do, and get on a friendly basis. Talk to them when you see them. If you are in information technology for instance you can go to symposiums, take classes, join user groups. These are all opportunities to meet the right type of people. You may want to seek out someone who is in a position you'd like to achieve someday yourself. Ask for an introduction, tell them what your goals are, and ask if you can meet periodically to talk. Bottom line is that you want to get to know people well enough that you are willing to do things for each other. When people talk about 'networking' I believe they are talking about something more personal than finding a person in the Yellow Pages. You may very well do business with them, but you may use them to help you find information, tell you abut job openings, explain something to you, tell you about opportunities they know about, mentor you...
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