CharonY

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Everything posted by CharonY

  1. Iron preserves soft tissue dinosaurs

    The article refers to preservation of a protein. I.e. biomolecule, not tissue. In this case it depends on precipitation of the protein, though it is still not clear how that alone could preserve the proteins for the indicated amount of time.
  2. Non verbal communication/technology

    I think research is pretty much still ramping up. After all we are roughly at the point where kids growing up with heavy smartphone use are getting into college (which is the common test cohort for these kind of studies).
  3. That is only half correct. The latter part is correct (to my limited knowledge based on second-hand knowledge from medical professionals) hypothermic patients should warm up slowly. But it is not that sudden heat will lead to heat loss or that cold blood will cause heart attack as the major issue. The core temp may have an intermittent drop, but it is usually only an issue if the warming efforts are aborted because of that. Rather it is because sudden shift in temperature can a) be extremely painful and can b) cause a sudden drop in blood pressure if the extremities start warming up (plus the blood in extremities will be rich in lactic acid, possibly causing additional heat issues). I.e. baths could be used if one carefully warms up the trunk first (as opposed to extremities) . Again: not medical advice, just somewhat informed second-hand knowledge. I also note that the point about shifting preferences in dependence on exertion, liquid content (flavouring), environmental temperature as well as the fact that preferred temps still allow some bacterial growth are being ignored as well. Indeed, the main point being that learned behaviour does strongly affect our actions (a point that is only selectively acknowledged...).
  4. So who's going to win the world cup?

    So.... France?
  5. Two things, even assuming preference for cold water, you would not know whether it was due to microbial avoidance or some other aspect that makes us enjoy it (either directly the temperature or taste). Second, as I mentioned in other mammals such as rats it is known that they prefer warmer water. Except when they are overheated, then they prefer cold and after sufficient hydration prefer warm again. The general preference, however, is below body temp (which has room for much simple speculations). Even so you seem to have a lot explanations that do not add up. E.g. if bacterial avoidance is the only or main reasons, then why is the preferred temp at 12-16 rather then lower, where we have more effective bacterial inhibition? If certain taste preferences can be learned why do you think is it only true for certain cases and not for others? Why do you think that there must be a overriding evolutionary mandate, if on the other hand simple peer pressure can eliminate it? As a rule of thumb, simple explanations without evidence have to face scrutiny and should not be taken at face value. Otherwise it is too easy to make some overarching just so stories, sometimes with rather nasty consequences (though arguably not in this case). Yes eating or drinking cold helps lower body temperature. The hot drinks in hot temperature is not complete rubbish, but works only in certain circumstances and it does not work for dogs. The basis is this, increasing temperature by drinking hot beverages (or soup) can cause a disproportionate amount of sweating (relative to ambient temp increase). Provided that the resulting sweat can evaporate effectively it can lower your temperature more than drinking cold beverages. However, if sweating is not effective in cooling (e.g. high humidity or having lots of clothing) it won't work. Likewise, dogs do not cool down by sweating and hence, would not have a positive effect.
  6. Basic Universal Income (BUI)

    In the US they are called standard deductions (12k for individuals). However, that is somewhat different than the concept of BUI. The latter is, among others, supposed to replace complex welfare systems. A tax-based equivalent (or at least something with similar effects) would be a negative income tax. In that case if one earns less than a minimum amount (e.g. 9 or 12 k in the above examples) would get some kind financial aid. Different models exist for the precise amount.
  7. Look, what you describe is in a nutshell the issue the whole field of evolutionary psychology (and some other disciplines such as sociobiology) have and which is much research in that area is discredited. It is easy to weave evolutionary stories but it is much more difficult to find evidence to support those notions. In this case, I am still waiting to see any study that found a link between temperature preference and bacterial avoidance. Even worse, what is being ignored are pretty obvious cues that others already mentioned: the preference shifts depending on environmental temperature and exertion. Or the the preference of temperature based on expectations. If bacterial avoidance was a deeply ingrained evolutionary behaviour why did we develop all the other patterns? And if those behaviours are indeed that fluid, how would you identify the evolutionary component? The fundamental issue is that behavioral traits are highly malleable and massively influenced by individual experience as opposed to evolutionary history. As such it is incredibly difficult (as researchers found out) to separate those aspects. As such in the absence of rather intricate research these evolutionary stories have proven to have little explanatory value.
  8. Has the Republican party lost its collective mind?

    I don't think that the US media system is such as huge exception as you might think. In Germany in the 90s and now some of the biggest drivers of public resentments were /are tabloids. What we see in modern times is a bit more of fragmentation. I.e. in the 90s the view of refugees was universally worse in Germany with mainstream media being far more critical than now. However, there is a strong push not only from traditional conservative media, as you might expect, but also from other sources, predominantly social media. And I think that part is different to before and it is not endemic to the US.
  9. And yet it is still conjecture. Just because some connections make sense, does not mean that there are evolutionary origins. That is why we need actual research. So what does that say? So let's start slow. In rats a commonly observed effect is that mice prefer warmer water. So, at least we can assume that bacterial growth is not a major determinant in all mammals. So let us concentrate on humans. What does data say? In fact, the literature shows quite a range of values, most obtained from people after physical exertion. The interesting trend you will find is that most find colder temps more pleasurable. However, actually ingestion rate peaks at 12-16C. I.e. at values at which bacterial growth actually occurs. While it may be slower, in most waters you will assume that they had plenty of time for bacterial growth. There are far more relevant aspects at play. For example, in warm water minerals and other deposits have a much stronger taste and depending on what is in the water (such as chloramines) it may be less pleasurable than at lower temperatures. Moreover, if we talk about beverages in general, we also find that taste preference is strongly connected to expected taste. For example, red wine was more pleasurable at RT than cold, whereas for soft drinks the opposite was the case.
  10. Has the Republican party lost its collective mind?

    To be fair, folks are making it far too easy. Remember the war in former Yugoslavia? Folks were losing their minds about refugees back then, too. Politicians were quick to ride that wave of animosity, as they do today.
  11. Well and like many evolutionary stories they are just that: stories. I am quite certain that lower temp preferences is especially seen during physical exertion and/or high ambient heat, as others pointed out. Hot beverages (especially coffee) are the second most popular beverage in the US after water, for example.
  12. Triglycerides VS Glucose

    A) Structurally and chemically very different. B) Different pathways in uptake C) Different pathways in metabolization (though interconversion is possible via central metabolitic pathways) D) Different physiological effects (e.g. of high/low levels).
  13. Has the Republican party lost its collective mind?

    I'll just leave this one here. https://www.vox.com/2018/7/9/17525860/nazis-russell-walker-arthur-jones-republicans-illinois-north-carolina-virginia
  14. That is a horrible example as they are just different stages of the same organism.
  15. Basic Universal Income (BUI)

    In that case, how about a perfectly even distribution for everyone typically eligible for benefits, including documented foreign workers after one year of employment? Perhaps with a cap on high incomes. Alternatively, how about a negative income tax as a similar tool?
  16. Basic Universal Income (BUI)

    So technically you are talking about disadvantaged segments of the population and the impact of BUI on them, which, does not seem to be a different discussion than the overall pros and cons of BUI. As noted, the impact of BUI on them would dependent a lot on how it is implemented what levels are being proposed etc. Of course you could in theory propose a model which would systematically disadvantage certain folks (like many current policies still do). But again, that would be a criticism on the implementation not on BUI itself. It is akin to saying that the criminal justice system is enforced unequal and thus we should not have one.
  17. Basic Universal Income (BUI)

    I think you are conflating a huge set of very different issues here. You seem to imply that only or predominantly undocumented immigrants are taking over these jobs. However, this is only true for certain sub-sectors. As a whole, the majority of low-income jobs are filled by regular immigrants. Also, you seem to be under the impression that they are stuck in these jobs forever. In fact there is generational increase in income among immigrants (documented as well as undocumented). The limitations are less about citizenship, but rather legal status. Documented immigrants can have decent jobs without ever getting citizenship. What really is happening with regard to immigration and low-skill worker is that over time the children move up to better jobs (as indicated by higher educational attainment and higher average income over time) and the pool is replenished with new 1st gen immigrants. DACA would not change that aspect. It is true that undocumented immigrants face barriers that will pose hard limits, but I do not see a possible connection to UBI. Yes there should be a solution for undocumented immigrants in good standing but it looks like an entirely different discussion. In fact, I would think a separate thread would be far more beneficial to an ordered discussion as it seems that this thread is jumping from topic to topic with only the most strenuous connection (other that it is all about economics).
  18. Basic Universal Income (BUI)

    If you wanted to enact policies to counteract that, you would effectively have to ban or severely limit immigration. Let me explain: according to research on the impact if immigration, including unskilled labour, the effect was not a direct competition in the job market. I.e. immigrants are not taking away jobs from citizens or even depressing wages (at least not universally). What ends up happening is that there is a) an increase in the overall job market (due to demands of a larger population) and b) there is a re-allocation of the citizen workforce. Essentially immigrant workers take over the low-paying jobs but seem to open up other opportunities for the citizens (including immigrants that became citizens or PRs). I.e. the effect that you fear that would come from UBI is already happening as a direct consequence of immigration of unskilled workers. It does not seem like a good argument against UBI specifically. Moreover, it seems that you assume that UBI would only go to citizens. However, if it is used to replace welfare income, it would most likely have to be available for all legal residents, who would otherwise be eligible for benefits.
  19. Basic Universal Income (BUI)

    Well, UBI is expected to have only a moderate effect in this regard. After all, typical models have a fairly income. It does provide an incentive in seeking better education, though. However. what you describe is already a reality. If you look at low-income jobs, especially physically demanding ones, you rarely see non-migrants doing the work. The best example is probably in agriculture, which has ca. 77% of immigrant workers. In Qatar, most of the immigrants work in construction. In the US the rates are lower, but in e.g. Texa or California well above 40% of construction workers are immigrants. Perhaps UBI could increase the rate, but it would be only one of many aspects. As a matter of fact, it is more likely an effect of full employment and resulting lack of labour, combined with having access to low income labour pools.
  20. Basic Universal Income (BUI)

    I was referring to this. I.e. you seem to assert that because of Government incentives Qataris have incentive to work (please clarify if I got you wrong). My counterpoint was that that Qatari are basically fully employed. Importing (and abusing workers) is therefore not due to government incentives (for which I have difficulties finding details on, other than education, health and other subsidies, so maybe you could help out there) but rather a means to grow their economy. The only other scenario that would be consistent with your point is if a) Qataris do indeed receive UBI and b) are still not listed in unemployment statistics. However, a cursory glance at the number of Qataris in working age, it is very close to the number of unemployed citizens. What is true, however, is that for Qataris the government is the biggest employer. However that is different from receiving welfare or UBI.
  21. Basic Universal Income (BUI)

    I would have to check it out in more detail, but I don't think that is an accurate description of the situation. Qatari unemployment rate is close to zero, i.e. they have deficiency of workers. The large amount of foreign workers is not due to Qatari not being willing to work, but rather due to rapid economic expansion. Also, a quick search did not reveal an universal income system, so maybe you could elaborate on that bit? Note that in limited experimental studies implementation to something like UBI has as a whole not shown to be an disincentive to do work. It has, however, resulted in folks getting better jobs by going back to school, for example.
  22. Is automation taking our jobs

    I think most macroeconomic papers seem to suggest that the net impact of automation on the overall labor market is either small or may have a net benefit. However, automation will be disruptive for many jobs and there will be growing pains. The short to mid-term effects are dependent on a number of factors, including penetration speed. A study put out by McKinsey looked at an aggressive automation rate and predicted an overall decrease of ~13% of the workforce to maintain productivity. Traditionally, similar shifts have been already observed (e.g. in agriculture business) and have been eventually been absorbed by the overall labour market. Much is still speculative, of course, but some projections indicate that jobs requiring interpersonal and certain technical skills are likely to be favored in the future. These shifts could be movement to other sectors, or a shift of responsibilities within a sector.An already existing example within a sector are ATMs. Rather than eliminating banking jobs the result was A) that opening became cheaper, and more branches opened and B) bank employees did less money handling but had more customer interaction roles. Similarly, there are predictions that due to automation but also demographic shifts, there will higher employment in health sectors, but also education, for example.
  23. So who's going to win the world cup?

    Funny that you mentioned that, one common contamination that ruins reproducibility are detergents if folks run them through the lab dishwasher, for example.
  24. Energy From Fructose

    If you talk about ATP production from sugars, you should be aware of two mechanisms. One is substrate-level phosphorylation (e.g. direct transfer from a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP) and the second, major component, which is respiration. The former happens for example in the latter steps of glycolysis (i.e. from 1,3- bishphosphoglycerate and PEP). If fructose is introduced via Fru-6P or glyceryladehyde-3P (both of which cost and ATP) the pathway is exactly the same at that point as when you started with glucose. The latter requires synthesis of NADH. which happens mostly in the TCA cycle. Thus substrates that enter it, can contribute to ATP production via that pathway. For possibilities of substrate level phosphorylation, see above post. While not related to ATP production per se, the formation of glyceraldehyde is another deviation, which often branches of to tracylglycerol synthesis rather that phosphorylation (which costs an ATP) and introduction into glycolysis.
  25. Liquid temperature has almost no effect in absorption. Gastric emptying is the first step a and temperature influence on rate is very small. The liquid temp quickly equilibrates so that overall absorption in the small intestine is pretty much the same. However, gastric emptying is dependent on volume and it is possible that one can swallow a larger volume of liquid in one go that is not too hot or cold.