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CharonY last won the day on January 17

CharonY had the most liked content!

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2073 Glorious Leader


About CharonY

  • Rank
    Biology Expert

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  • Location
    somewhere in the Americas.
  • Interests
    Breathing. I enjoy it a lot, when I can.
  • College Major/Degree
  • Favorite Area of Science
    Biology/ (post-)genome research
  • Biography
    Labrat turned grantrat.

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  1. Yes and no. Getting rid of solvents completely just by drying works reasonably well for ethanol, but is difficult with DMSO. PhilGeis has touched on other points.
  2. TBH, even if not applicable it is one of the things that POC often face when getting criticized for something that their peers are not. Overtly, it is never about race but something else. Weirdly, however, there is much larger pile of the "definitely-not-related-to-race-issues" on someones desk. Of course no one ever acknowledges it and the imbalance must clearly always be about something else.
  3. I somehow missed that it has to be a disc-diffusion, so much of what I ranted about earlier does not really apply (no idea how, it is prominently in OP). DMSO often takes quite a while to evaporate fully.
  4. ! Moderator Note Since we got already several threads discussing/debunking common arguments of climate change denial, this thread is closed for now.
  5. This is also the process to create echo chambers. It is especially devious as obviously false information is much easier to create and disseminate.
  6. AFAIK there are no established methods to help you there. For the most part folks stick to solvents that are only mildly toxic for the organism (such as ethanol) and hope for the best. Controls are, as you mentioned, the solvent without the compound of interest. Perhaps trivially, another rule of thumb is getting the stock as highly concentrated as possible in order to minimize the volume of the solvent to be added to the assay. One issue of course is that once in media, it is often unclear how the compound behaves, things like micelle formation or aggregation can become issues, which may need to be analyzed in a cell free system. Specifically DMSO can be problematic as it enhances membrane permeability quite a bit and if you do molecular assays (such as proteome analyses) you will often see quite some drastic changes in the bacterium in response to it alone. However, while it may be dubious for real-life use, in most cases folks are content (at least for publication) if one shows significant effect above solvent alone.
  7. I think this is misconception many folks have, and it is quite pervasive throughout Europe (i.e. it is not limited to the UK). I think there are several reasons for that, but I feel it is first necessary to contextualize the term racism a bit. Many folks see racism as the expression of racist attitudes or sentiments by individuals which range from stereotyping to harboring certain ideals of racial superiority (or inferiority). That in itself is not a issue in isolation, as that would be individuals being arseholes and you will find them in each society. What is different is mostly what is considered permissible (to state openly) , which in turn are obviously heavily influenced by respective histories. There is an obvious difference in black-white relationship due to the historic suppression of black African American communities up until very recently, for example. There are also different entanglements between certain races, social attitudes, influence of wealth and class and so on. It is relevant to state that most of our Western modern thinking about race and associated stereotypes are heavily influenced by enlightenment theories on human races, which, in turn, were strong affected by colonialist attitudes. As such you will find in quite a few Western countries, presumably also in the UK (where my knowledge is at best second hand) but certainly in Germany the stereotype that e.g. black folks are more physical and aggressive, for example. As such while there are interesting overlaps, the expression and permissibility of racist attitudes between countries is nuanced and it is easier to talk about the difference in form and impact rather than level. One cannot really state that racist attitudes are not as pervasive as they are in the US. Europe as a whole has many ethnocentric tendencies (which is far less nuanced in the US), which we see very prominent with the rise of popularism throughout Europe and movement such as Brexit have been heavily influenced by explicit and implicit prejudice. While not all of them are along racial lines, it is undeniable that these are strongly correlated. In Germany many folks make a distinction between ethno-Germans (sometimes semi-jokingly called Bio-Deutsche) and those with a migration background, but rather obviously the latter are singled especially if they are non-white. However, that is not the whole story and perhaps not even the important one. As mentioned racism as a phenomenon on the individual level is not a huge issue per se, but it begins to become an issue if they result in systemic effects. This is often why folks distinguish between racist attitudes within minority and majority groups as the latter can lead to issues that are more commonly discussed academically. These issues include racial discrimination and racial inequality. While it is easy to conflate these terms there are very different mechanisms at play. For example racist attitudes can be foundational in the creation of either racial discrimination or inequality, it does need to persist in order to continue. Often things like implicit bias rather explicit belief in racial superiority are important drivers or even just historic decisions that have not been questioned. Even something as simple as not addressing issues that are not deemed important by the majority but have significant impact on minorities can create racial inequality. In that light many parts of Europe do have similar patterns as the US. Some of them are borne by the fact that minorities traditionally (but less so in recent immigrants) have been working in low-skill jobs. But at the same time multiple studies have found discriminatory practices where certain minorities with same CVs are evaluated worse, for example or are less likely employed, have less social mobility than their equally poor majority counterparts and so on. A big difference is that since there is not such an overt historic conflict, it is rarely discussed as openly as currently in the US. There has always been the demand that minorities should assimilate and thereby become invisible as such, which obviously does not work well with visible minorities. What is different is potentially (but I am not well versed in UK politics) is that in the US there is a more concerted effort in suppressing the rights of African Americans. Such voter suppression strategies are, to my knowledge, not present in (most) European systems. However, historically (perhaps less so in the UK due to their empire) minorities in Europe often had little political engagement as a whole. Many, even those in the second or third generation were still seen as foreigners or immigrants rather than full citizens. But in recent years I have seen an attitude change (but, as noted, there are also strong countermovements). So here we have a needlessly long answer which could presumably be summarized that a) on needs to define more clearly what one means with racism and b) whatever it is, it is difficult to quantify except some of its effects and c) racism and its effects are different between countries but I am not certain whether I would subscribe that the US is more (or less) racist (again, which measures?) than the UK.
  8. It is more about power over others rather than being cool with it.
  9. Do you have any specific questions that you want to address? Otherwise I would recommend you to look at text books, such as Kromidas: "The HPLC‐MS Handbook for Practitioners". Depending on your reading level you could also start with basic lectures that you can probably find online and/or wikipedia entries.
  10. My recollections is a little bit different (especially with the equivocally part), but to be honest, I was very young and my memories are likely to be colored by articles on the incident I read over the years. But I am fairly sure that while the US has expressed regret, they did not consider to be at fault (i.e. considered it a regular wartime incident). What I am quite certain about is that compensation was paid under Clinton after a lengthy court battle and that the settlement included on admission of wrongdoing.
  11. ... she was still in the race?
  12. I agree, though I found that the references in wikipedia for many topics are not that great, sometimes general textbook references are given other times there are papers but not always the ones that folks in the field would consider to be really relevant or important. The reason of course being that the editors are often not experts themselves and there is the tendency on the web to cite whatever google shows up in a given topic. The danger there is that there is a disconnect in terms of what the internet seemingly tells you what important research is being done versus what experts actually think. But obviously, the quality varies and especially for basic concepts linking to text books is not actually a bad thing.
  13. A) measuring free amino acids does not allow you to quantify proteins. You'd have to measure proteins to do so. B) You can measure the various metabolites (though I am not sure why you picked those particular selection of sugars), but you would need different methods. Fatty acids used to be a bit easier on GC/MS but newer columns are decent at separating those, too.
  14. Or conversely, model organisms such as Escherichia coli are the ones where we identified basic molecular functions (such as gene regulation), metabolism. Due to a vast array of tools available for genetic manipulation, availability of genome sequences etc. There still new functions being characterized, though some research focus has switched to systemic analyses.
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