CharonY

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CharonY last won the day on June 8

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1756 Glorious Leader

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About CharonY

  • Rank
    Biology Expert

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  • Gender
    Not Telling
  • Location
    somewhere in the Americas.
  • Interests
    Breathing. I enjoy it a lot, when I can.
  • College Major/Degree
    PhD
  • Favorite Area of Science
    Biology/ (post-)genome research
  • Biography
    Labrat turned grantrat.

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  1. Iron preserves soft tissue dinosaurs

    The article refers to preservation of a protein. I.e. biomolecule, not tissue. In this case it depends on precipitation of the protein, though it is still not clear how that alone could preserve the proteins for the indicated amount of time.
  2. Non verbal communication/technology

    I think research is pretty much still ramping up. After all we are roughly at the point where kids growing up with heavy smartphone use are getting into college (which is the common test cohort for these kind of studies).
  3. That is only half correct. The latter part is correct (to my limited knowledge based on second-hand knowledge from medical professionals) hypothermic patients should warm up slowly. But it is not that sudden heat will lead to heat loss or that cold blood will cause heart attack as the major issue. The core temp may have an intermittent drop, but it is usually only an issue if the warming efforts are aborted because of that. Rather it is because sudden shift in temperature can a) be extremely painful and can b) cause a sudden drop in blood pressure if the extremities start warming up (plus the blood in extremities will be rich in lactic acid, possibly causing additional heat issues). I.e. baths could be used if one carefully warms up the trunk first (as opposed to extremities) . Again: not medical advice, just somewhat informed second-hand knowledge. I also note that the point about shifting preferences in dependence on exertion, liquid content (flavouring), environmental temperature as well as the fact that preferred temps still allow some bacterial growth are being ignored as well. Indeed, the main point being that learned behaviour does strongly affect our actions (a point that is only selectively acknowledged...).
  4. So who's going to win the world cup?

    So.... France?
  5. Two things, even assuming preference for cold water, you would not know whether it was due to microbial avoidance or some other aspect that makes us enjoy it (either directly the temperature or taste). Second, as I mentioned in other mammals such as rats it is known that they prefer warmer water. Except when they are overheated, then they prefer cold and after sufficient hydration prefer warm again. The general preference, however, is below body temp (which has room for much simple speculations). Even so you seem to have a lot explanations that do not add up. E.g. if bacterial avoidance is the only or main reasons, then why is the preferred temp at 12-16 rather then lower, where we have more effective bacterial inhibition? If certain taste preferences can be learned why do you think is it only true for certain cases and not for others? Why do you think that there must be a overriding evolutionary mandate, if on the other hand simple peer pressure can eliminate it? As a rule of thumb, simple explanations without evidence have to face scrutiny and should not be taken at face value. Otherwise it is too easy to make some overarching just so stories, sometimes with rather nasty consequences (though arguably not in this case). Yes eating or drinking cold helps lower body temperature. The hot drinks in hot temperature is not complete rubbish, but works only in certain circumstances and it does not work for dogs. The basis is this, increasing temperature by drinking hot beverages (or soup) can cause a disproportionate amount of sweating (relative to ambient temp increase). Provided that the resulting sweat can evaporate effectively it can lower your temperature more than drinking cold beverages. However, if sweating is not effective in cooling (e.g. high humidity or having lots of clothing) it won't work. Likewise, dogs do not cool down by sweating and hence, would not have a positive effect.
  6. Basic Universal Income (BUI)

    In the US they are called standard deductions (12k for individuals). However, that is somewhat different than the concept of BUI. The latter is, among others, supposed to replace complex welfare systems. A tax-based equivalent (or at least something with similar effects) would be a negative income tax. In that case if one earns less than a minimum amount (e.g. 9 or 12 k in the above examples) would get some kind financial aid. Different models exist for the precise amount.
  7. Look, what you describe is in a nutshell the issue the whole field of evolutionary psychology (and some other disciplines such as sociobiology) have and which is much research in that area is discredited. It is easy to weave evolutionary stories but it is much more difficult to find evidence to support those notions. In this case, I am still waiting to see any study that found a link between temperature preference and bacterial avoidance. Even worse, what is being ignored are pretty obvious cues that others already mentioned: the preference shifts depending on environmental temperature and exertion. Or the the preference of temperature based on expectations. If bacterial avoidance was a deeply ingrained evolutionary behaviour why did we develop all the other patterns? And if those behaviours are indeed that fluid, how would you identify the evolutionary component? The fundamental issue is that behavioral traits are highly malleable and massively influenced by individual experience as opposed to evolutionary history. As such it is incredibly difficult (as researchers found out) to separate those aspects. As such in the absence of rather intricate research these evolutionary stories have proven to have little explanatory value.
  8. Has the Republican party lost its collective mind?

    I don't think that the US media system is such as huge exception as you might think. In Germany in the 90s and now some of the biggest drivers of public resentments were /are tabloids. What we see in modern times is a bit more of fragmentation. I.e. in the 90s the view of refugees was universally worse in Germany with mainstream media being far more critical than now. However, there is a strong push not only from traditional conservative media, as you might expect, but also from other sources, predominantly social media. And I think that part is different to before and it is not endemic to the US.
  9. And yet it is still conjecture. Just because some connections make sense, does not mean that there are evolutionary origins. That is why we need actual research. So what does that say? So let's start slow. In rats a commonly observed effect is that mice prefer warmer water. So, at least we can assume that bacterial growth is not a major determinant in all mammals. So let us concentrate on humans. What does data say? In fact, the literature shows quite a range of values, most obtained from people after physical exertion. The interesting trend you will find is that most find colder temps more pleasurable. However, actually ingestion rate peaks at 12-16C. I.e. at values at which bacterial growth actually occurs. While it may be slower, in most waters you will assume that they had plenty of time for bacterial growth. There are far more relevant aspects at play. For example, in warm water minerals and other deposits have a much stronger taste and depending on what is in the water (such as chloramines) it may be less pleasurable than at lower temperatures. Moreover, if we talk about beverages in general, we also find that taste preference is strongly connected to expected taste. For example, red wine was more pleasurable at RT than cold, whereas for soft drinks the opposite was the case.
  10. Has the Republican party lost its collective mind?

    To be fair, folks are making it far too easy. Remember the war in former Yugoslavia? Folks were losing their minds about refugees back then, too. Politicians were quick to ride that wave of animosity, as they do today.
  11. Well and like many evolutionary stories they are just that: stories. I am quite certain that lower temp preferences is especially seen during physical exertion and/or high ambient heat, as others pointed out. Hot beverages (especially coffee) are the second most popular beverage in the US after water, for example.
  12. Triglycerides VS Glucose

    A) Structurally and chemically very different. B) Different pathways in uptake C) Different pathways in metabolization (though interconversion is possible via central metabolitic pathways) D) Different physiological effects (e.g. of high/low levels).
  13. Has the Republican party lost its collective mind?

    I'll just leave this one here. https://www.vox.com/2018/7/9/17525860/nazis-russell-walker-arthur-jones-republicans-illinois-north-carolina-virginia
  14. That is a horrible example as they are just different stages of the same organism.
  15. Basic Universal Income (BUI)

    In that case, how about a perfectly even distribution for everyone typically eligible for benefits, including documented foreign workers after one year of employment? Perhaps with a cap on high incomes. Alternatively, how about a negative income tax as a similar tool?