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Everything posted by Sensei

  1. When you will move magnet above wire or piece of metal, electrons in that wire/metal will start flowing in one or the other direction. When you will move wire above static magnet, you will have the same effect. The faster movement, the more energy is produced (the higher current, or the higher voltage, or both). It's energy coming from movement of wire or magnet. If magnet and wire are static (their velocity relative to each other is 0), current doesn't flow.
  2. Answering post #34 takes less than 5 minutes or so..
  3. After that comment, I have no doubt that you don't even know what is energy of proton, electron without looking to Internet, and how to calculate energy emitted by fusion or fission. Please show me that I am wrong. Show us for instance what will be energy released by for instance decay of Carbon-14, math step by step.. Stars indeed are emitting photons, neutrinos, accelerated to relativistic velocities protons, electrons and other particles. But mainstream physicists don't consider them to be dark energy.
  4. I agree that there should be performed set of experiments sending radiowaves and light photons parallel to each other to see whether there will be delay or not between them. Quite easy to perform experiment on small distances, but much harder to perform on larger cosmic scale. Nothing should be taken for granted, without extensive experimental proof. The majority of scientists believe in it. I have seen swansont mentioning it constantly in many threads for example. Don't forget about neutrinos coming from supernovas arrive a few hours before photons. And it's explained by medium between us and supernova that is absorbing and emitting photons, slowing them down. And neutrinos don't have such absorption cycles arrive before them, even though according to SR they should arrive later (because of mass). Of course these discoveries are much much newer than Einstein theory and he could not predict everything with limited data. Experimental data are quite bended to match well established theories. It's easier for scientists than completely abandoning theory and starting from scratch. You can see this clearly with mismatching GR with galaxy scale, velocities of stars around galaxy center, by introduction of DM.
  5. Every day is beauty. It's just relative to where you are.. The most happy day to somebody, might be the worstest day of life for somebody else. Thousands peoples, millions animals, and billions of vegetables are dying in a day, and thousands peoples, millions animals, and billions of vegetables are born in the same day..
  6. Ideal gas law is primary or secondary school knowledge.. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ideal_gas_law Pressure * Volume = Quantity of Particles/Molecules * kb * Temperature The higher temperature, the higher must be volume and/or pressure. For instance, Earth's air molecules have velocity ~340 meters per second. If you will cool them they will move slower, and volume or pressure will have to change accordingly. How to check this? Fill balloon with air or other gas. Place something cold inside (like f.e. dry ice, or piece of metal going to outside and constantly cooled down). Balloon will start shrinking when gas inside will start cooling down. Velocity of gas particles will be slower and slower. Kinetic energy of gas particles will be lower and lower. We could even change gas particles to liquid, and then solid in extreme situations.
  7. Not "some" but "all". In the mainstream physics all photons always have speed of light by definition. You mixed states of matter with massive/massless particles. Matter can be in states: solid state, liquid state, gas state and plasma state. You should say: "no particle with mass can move faster than speed of light". It is postulate of special relativity. Radio waves are not atoms. Calculate how many atoms have human. Calculate how many data you have to transfer. Calculate how many data you can transfer using given radiowave frequency. Calculate time you will spend sending data.
  8. Photons emitted by your LCD/LED monitors are the most likely polarized. You just need polarization filter to see effects. I have made photos and showed in this thread: http://www.scienceforums.net/topic/80366-particle-location/page-3#entry783255 Have you read this? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarization_%28waves%29
  9. Pigeons with attached camera during flight revealed that they don't fly straight line to target. They're using well known by them objects on the ground such as roads, rivers, train tracks, mountains as guides to where they want to travel. Making path much much longer than optimal straight line. It was visible even in Top Gear episode (Series 4, Episode 4) where James Mays and Clarkson tried to beat pigeons (some of them had attached camera, so it was visible how they are flying). Search for it on YT. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Top_Gear_%28series_4%29 "Time Challenge: Can a Ford SportKa, equipped with the world's most advanced (and expensive, at ?2500) satellite navigation system beat a flock of racing pigeons? May forgot to use the postcode search and wasted 25 minutes to reach the right address, having originally arrived at an identically named road in the wrong suburb. Regardless, the fastest pigeon won with 30 minutes to spare even after discounting May's mistake, with thirteen others arriving in-between. Clarkson called the SportKa way, way better than a Citroën C2, and ridicules May for losing."
  10. If nanobots would self replicate it sounds like the end of human kind.. Viruses don't self replicate. They introduce their DNA to living cell, and cell is turned to be virus factory. To reproduce there is needed source of energy and matter that will be used to building thing. Nanorobots currently don't exist. You cannot control such small device with radiowaves.
  11. Swansont was talking about Pu-238 , Half-life 87.7 years http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutonium-238 "Plutonium-238 is a very powerful alpha emitter and – unlike other isotopes of plutonium – it does not emit significant amounts of other, more penetrating and thus more problematic radiation. This makes the plutonium-238 isotope suitable for usage in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and radioisotope heater units – one gram of plutonium-238 generates approximately 0.5 watts of thermal power." "This same RTG power technology has been used in spacecraft such as Voyager 1 and 2, Cassini–Huygens and New Horizons, and in other devices, such as the Mars Science Laboratory, for long-term nuclear power generation." Pu-238 is a good test for verification of mine previous calculations of decays per second in post #3. 87.7 y half-life = 2,767,601,520 seconds 1 gram of Pu-238 = 6.022141e+23 / 238.049553 = 2529784628497080000000 atoms. Enter that in OpenOffice SpreadSheet Initial Quantity and Half-Life, and we're receiving decays per second = 633,585,795,072 Each decay is releasing 5.593 MeV, which is 8.959986e-013 Joules. 8.959986e-013 * 633,585,795,072 = 0.5676919854 Joules per second (article mentioned 0.5 Watts) Pretty close.
  12. Uranium-238 has Decay Energy 4.27 MeV 4.27 MeV is 6.84*10^-13 J To heat 1 gram of water for 1 C you need 4.1855 J of energy. 4.1855 J / 6.84*10^-13 J = 6.12*10^12 atoms of Uranium-238 would need to decay to detect increase of temperature of 1g water for 1 C. That amount is 1/100,000 of 1/1,000,000 of mole. But U-238 is quite stable. Half-life is 1.41*10^17 seconds (nearly 4.5 billion years). If you have 1 kg of pure U-238 now, you will have 500 grams of U-238 after 4.5 billion years (and other products of decay), and 250 grams after 9 billion years. Some time ago, I have made application for calculating quantity of decays per second: Unpack ZIP, and load it to OpenOffice, and enter in the second row Initial Quantity of unstable atoms and Half-Life in seconds. They will be spread to the all below rows. And show decays per second and graph. Unfortunately 1.41*10^17 seconds is too much for OpenOffice to handle it (math issue of application). But in second example I used 1.41*10^14 seconds (1/1000 less) (=~4.5 million years half-life) and 1 mole of Initial Quantity (6.022141*10^23). Result shows that there is approximately ~3 billions per second decays. So for 4.5 billion years half-life there will be ~3 millions per second decays. You would need to wait nearly 576 hours to heat 1 g of water for 1 C if you would have 238 grams of Uranium-238. Energy in the core of Earth has nowhere to go, so it will add up. Half life calculations.zip
  13. That looks like similar issue to yours: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/8011692/valueerror-in-decoding-json http://stackoverflow.com/questions/16018780/decoding-json-with-python
  14. These paths are Windows-like. Server is Windows? I don't think so.. They're rather Linux-based..
  15. If you have code: if( x > y ) { z = x * a; } else { z = x * b } You can replace it by f.e. z = ( x > y ) ? ( x * a ) : ( x * b ); or simpler z = x * ( ( x > y ) ? a : b ); Comparison operators > or < can be replaced by subtraction (they're subtraction in fact in CPU, but result is forgotten and remaining is only CPU flag register). So, ( x > y ) can be replaced by a=x-y; and then you have to check whether a is positive or negative value, or equal 0 (x is equal y). If value is negative sgn() or sign() function will return -1. If value is positive sgn() or sign() function will return +1. If value is 0, it'll return 0. So, if( x > y ) can be replaced by: sgn( x - y ) max( x,0 ) will return 1 only when x is equal 1. max( -x, 0 ) will return 1 only when x is equal -1. (assuming x is result of sgn()) So whole equation should looks like: ( max( sgn( x - y ), 0 ) * ( x * 100 ) ) + ( max( -sgn( x - y ), 0 ) * ( x * 50 ) ) which should be equivalent to if( x > y ) z = x * 100; else if( x < y ) z = x * 50; I hope so I inspired you a bit.
  16. Result of plasma shot is destruction or damaging of thing that you shot, not "exerting a force" like it would be some kind of slowly moving ball... On website's movies where you found above screen-shots you can see how they damaged target. Space shuttles and space station look like Swiss cheese (under microscope) due to constant hitting them by protons accelerated to relativistic speeds from the Sun and other stars. Holes have diameter of single atom or so. Imagine you have piece of metal/iron, and turn on powerful electromagnet above it. Metal "jumps" attracted to electromagnet. So imagine couple electromagnets in row, one more powerful than the other. And they are switching in right order, precisely synchronized. When previous stops working, next one in queue is starting attracting... Difference between particle accelerators and plasma railgun is just in details (like using vacuum in accelerators (which limits loses of energy), large size, and circular path). Positive electrode of DC circuit attracts electrons. Electron escape atom, and goes to circuit. Then atom that's near first ionized atom gives its electron to previously ionized. And it goes and goes through medium. Electrons starts flowing through path made by positively charged atoms. Negative electrode of circuit has excess of electrons (they are residing inside of capacitors) and gives them to ionized atoms. At 10-12 kV of DC made by CW generator I can see how it SLOWLY happens. It builds up a few seconds. It's the best view in darkness. Violet photons are emitted by thin a few cm length thunderbolts. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corona_discharge http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_discharge When these lines of ionized atoms from positive electrode join negative electrode, there is "explosion" and instant discharge of CW capacitors (and we see flash, loud voice, and sphere of plasma like in #3 post), and everything starts from beginning. Energy is charge in Coulombs * Voltage E=Q*U Q=I*t Q divided by e is quantity of electrons in this case. 1 C/1.602*10^-19 C = 6.25*10^18 electrons. If we have voltage like 6 kV it will make plasma when distance between electrodes is like 1-2 mm or so. If we will move them a bit further, nothing will happen. But when we will increase voltage to f.e. 12 kV, it will again start working. After further moving away, it's stopping working again. For really large distances there are needed millions of volts.
  17. You can see it on your own eyes, not just on photo, in cloud chamber.
  18. You should watch this video: Don't try to lost consciousness on street in cheap cloth (at least in France).
  19. Sensei

    solar energy

    Inverter should be after electricity meter.. When solar energy is produced, energy goes to inverter, and is used by electric devices. But when there is no sunny day, or night, obviously solar energy is unavailable, and used is energy from power station. If you're outside of home whole day, and returning at night, obviously you're mostly using power station energy, not solar energy. There is needed storage for solar energy, so whole sunny day it'll be loaded, and then used at night.
  20. How to create antiprotons is described in this article http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/252/particle_creation.html Protons must be accelerated to v>0.99c.
  21. And wearing Karategi/Kimono makes you almost Bruce Lee.. One of mine favorite:
  22. CW generator doesn't work with DC at all. It requires AC, AFAIK. I have tried with 240 VDC, and it simply didn't load at all. You can, or if you're using ceramic capacitors even have to, first convert 240 VAC to DC, then make your own AC from DC with required by device higher frequency than 50 Hz. And then multiply voltage by CW to really high. A lot depends on pressure of gas. Krypton is inside of hermetic tube. It can have pretty low pressure. Checking it would require destroying device. I don't have experience with rail guns nor plasma guns (who on this forum has? ) But I think you mixed two things. (typical) electromagnet requires DC (with pretty low voltage, it's after all just wire with low resistance). And the higher current you will provide to electromagnet (or just wire), the higher magnetic field you will receive surrounding them. If you will swap direction, you will change electromagnet from attracting to repelling. But 50 Hz constantly switching back and forth directions will be probably completely useless for railgun (that's typical transformer). You want attract projectile once, then repel and done. When first stage is repelling, second stage has to be attracting with even more power, so projectile is accelerated in that direction. AC for CW generator is another circuit, independent from electromagnets. CW current is always DC on output. It's purpose to ionize, and nothing more. You don't use such high voltage to power electromagnets (it would be senseless and most probably would blow up wires and/or capacitors). In electron gun, indeed such high voltage is used to attract electrons. And they fly through hole in anode. Real magnets are disallowing them to join with anode, and then they continue flying further in vacuum.
  23. There are generally two. I can switch between them, by just reconnecting wires. (mine has more than 70 stages)
  24. No. It's very small red spot. So small you probably wouldn't see it if I would make photo (something like 1-2 mm). Mine point was- you cannot change color of plasma.
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