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Sensei

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Everything posted by Sensei

  1. We are digging only at a few km depth. The most abundant isotopes of Carbon C-12 98.9%, C-13 1.1%, are stable and don't decay. Radioactive C-14 is trace radioisotope http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trace_radioisotope Find how much carbon is worldwide mined. Multiply it by 200-300 years and you will have absolute maximum of carbon mined by human kind. Calculate mass of C-14 (<10^-12 of all carbon) Compare that value with mass of Earth. It's pretty meaningless small.
  2. Source- laser. Target- photoresistor, photodiode, phototransistor or solar panel. Connect target to amplifier and record result in oscilloscope preferably connected to computer through USB. It would be good that computer will be controlling laser. Length of cables must be known. Between signal starting laser and moment in which photo element will detect beam of photons there will be delay. If you will place f.e. water container between laser and photo element delay should be longer. Instead of air you can have fiber wire. It would make easier long distance measurement. ps. What a coincidence. I just returned from the electronic shop with new photoresistor..
  3. It's theory, or rather hypothesis, that it changes mass. Because we don't know what really happens at Sun core. Just have theories what happens, basing on what we have in labs. It's extrapolation, to fill gap in missing data. To confirm that this really happens we would have to know states at the beginning and at the end. For now we know just the end. Do you see differences between hypothesis, theory and law in physics? Every (most?) scientist wants to add his/her building block to better understanding nature and become famous respectful person with success in area they work in. Otherwise work would be unproductive and senseless, don't you think so? Scientists do hard work to find something unique that nobody else found before. In science there is very few dogmas (f.e. for now speed of light being a limit). Find violation of them, and you will be famous too. But first you have to become experimentalist. Theoretic, with little knowledge, won't be able to convince scientists to his/her theory and whole work will be meaningless and easily forgotten. But what with mesons, other baryons than proton and neutron, and leptons? Muon- is decaying emitting two types of neutrinos (muonic & electron). If sub-particle is building block of everything, shouldn't it be the smallest thing in the Universe? Classic analogy- how can brick be bigger than house made of bricks.. ? Do you saw Gold foil experiment? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geiger%E2%80%93Marsden_experiment Beam of alpha particles is emitted in direction of thin foil. When alpha particle hits gold nucleus, it's reflected (at various angles). If no nucleus is hit, alpha particle is detected behind foil.
  4. It's true only for special cases like f.e. Hydrogen and Oxygen in gas or liquid state of matter. Simply result of that the higher density, the more atoms/molecules in the same volume. I thought so you are interested in comparison of completely different substances like f.e. methane, ethane, propane, gasoline, methanol, ethanol, isopropyl. f.e. methanol has more molecules than ethanol per cm^3 but has less energy per kg and per L. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density
  5. More than radius of whole Hydrogen atom? More than radius of nucleus? That doesn't make sense to me.. Some people estimate proton radius to be 0.85 fm (0.85*10^-15 m)
  6. I don't understand.. You asked me what is mine opinion about "change of mass of neutrinos". So I gave you contact to scientist that is working with neutrinos on a daily basis, to ask him what is his opinion about subject. Who has the most knowledge about heart than cardiac surgeon.. ? Rules of this forum is that OP is speculating and all others are replying with mainstream answers for speculation. I can't introduce mine own speculations in yours speculative thread, even if I would like to. If I recall correctly I never gave you any rep points. I don't debate with people to give or receive rep points, so discussion in private is not problem for me. I don't need large audience to read mine posts. Answer somebody question in mainstream forum, and I am sure somebody will appreciate it, if it will be correct and helpful.
  7. ~782333 eV is energy of antineutrino + kinetic energy of electron + kinetic energy of proton. 939565378 eV - ( 938272046 + 510999 ) = 782333 eV According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_neutron#Stability_and_beta_decay 0.782 ± .013 MeV is kinetic energy of electron so for antineutrino there is just 333 eV left! You have to realize that how much energy one particle will take with it, is not constant, it's variable. We are calculating just averages. Sometimes electron takes less, and neutrino more, sometimes reverse. Same unstable isotope decaying in cloud chamber might have different length traces. I don't know whether you know but there are neutrinoless beta decays. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double_beta_decay#Neutrinoless_double_beta_decay You rather mean chamber. There is no single reason why you wouldn't have to build one by yourself. 50 usd is not much. Some make it in tea glass (not very practical though). One can be result of other to some level. Same problem is with distant galaxies - small quantity of photons coming from them = little informations about them. I will better send you in private message contact to Ephraim Fischbach. To mine taste there is too little data to have definite answers. There is too little known about fusion process inside of stars. And there is no way we will extend our knowledge without miracles, as no device is able survive travel to Sun core, to gather data and send them back to Earth. "Change mass" - we would first have to know what was initial mass (or energy) to tell that change really happened. If you measured mass once, then let it go, and measured second time, if it's the same, then you know it's pretty constant over time. Sun core has density 150 g/cm^3, that's 770% of gold on Earth. That's ~1.67 millions times density of gas Hydrogen on Earth. So maybe neutrinos are also "squashed" and as such are ejected from core and 8 minutes later appearing on Earth with much more high energy than lab neutrinos.
  8. Check what is said in preparation of CuI http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper%28I%29_iodide
  9. How we know that we can not go that deep? Gamma rays are high energy photons. On Earth usually made by annihilation of electron with positron. Gamma photon energy will be absorbed in Compton scattering very quickly http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compton_scattering There are hypothesis that if Earth would be on path of extremely high quantity of gamma rays from distant f.e. exploding star, they would destroy protection layer of ozone in upper region of atmosphere. And that would be the end of life we know. What on Earth thermodynamics has to do with gamma rays? There are billions of billions of gamma rays from decay of unstable isotopes inside of Earth per second. They travel a few mili meters and are absorbed by particles. Result is heat.
  10. Magnetic field is caused by liquid iron/metal core of Earth. Gamma rays from cosmos don't penetrate that deep. If they would reach surface of Earth in large quantity no life would exists on the Earth. Ionization is one of the worst est enemies of life. Ions are very reactive and causes unpredicted chemical reactions. Magnetic field is decreasing very slowly, but as a result of cooling down core of Earth. This process will be taking billions of years. Internal temperature of the Earth is result of radioactive decay of unstable isotopes present in Earth. Quantity of these isotopes is very large but finite. So some day the all of them will decay to stable isotopes and no longer energy will be released by radioactive decay. And liquid core will freeze to solid state.
  11. What really matter is what you can see in f.e. Cloud Chamber.. Imagine you have unstable isotope which is decaying through neutron emission. You know what is mass of isotope, so you can calculate mass of nucleus (no electrons). Both parent and daughter isotopes. Then you know how much mass-energy is "missing" between them. If it's > 939.565 MeV then there is enough energy to emit neutron. That's the case when parent isotope is He-5 and daughter isotope is He-4. So if you would inject He-5 to cloud chamber there should be neutron emitted and alpha particle. And neutron should decay to proton and electron and anti neutrino. At least alpha, proton and electron should leave traces. That's in the link that I gave you yesterday.. Didn't you read it already? No. They don't have any antigravity ability. Positron has positive energy, positive mass. Dirac was mistaken. So the same with photons produced by annihilation of them with electrons. If you would learn how to calculate Decay Energy, you would see it by yourself. I have sent you in private example calculation. There is very few of them. If I calculated right there is > 5 mln times more of photons from the Sun than neutrinos.
  12. I will explain you how to measure Doppler Effect. Imagine we have laser with well know frequency (so also energy/momentum/wavelength is known). And container with atoms which are reacting for this frequency. If we will place laser on vehicle, airplane or rocket. And laser will be pointing to container with above atoms. We can see transition. Then when we will start moving it in direction to/from container, transition will stop happening - frequency will be higher or lower than needed for transition to happen. In the case of external source of photons, such as Sun or star, we have to rely on well known absorption/emission spectral lines to calibrate Similar method was used in measurement of gravitational shift, but laser was pointing down and it was failing down.
  13. I think so he was talking about that we know nothing about photon until it's absorbed, and when it's absorbed, it's gone from the system.
  14. Google bankrupted? Query: "python download file" http://stackoverflow.com/questions/22676/how-do-i-download-a-file-over-http-using-python Query: "pytesser" https://code.google.com/p/pytesser/ Answer: it needs image. Such as PNG, JPG etc. Why on earth do you want to OCR PDF when you can get raw text without OCR? Query: "python pdf reader" http://stackoverflow.com/questions/25665/python-module-for-converting-pdf-to-text
  15. putin's quote of the week "It's too cold to annex Alaska".. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/04/17/vladimir-putin-annex-alaska_n_5166598.html
  16. I don't think so it's correct value. Earth can be at aphelium 152.1 mln km from Sun, and Mars can be at it's own aphelium 249.3 mln km but on reverse side of Sun. (152.1+249.3)/0.299792458 = ~1338.7 seconds = 22 minutes 18 seconds. (signal can't pass through Sun, so it's just theoretical. We would have to take into account also orbital inclination) Of course it's theoretical the worst est situation, when distance is the furthest.
  17. I don't think so physics negate role of neutrino. There are scientists that are studying it f.e.Ephraim Fischbach and Jere Jenkins. Neutrino detectors are utilizing f.e. isotopes that are prone to neutrino bombardment. f.e. Chlorine changes to Argon, and Gallium to Germanium. After experiment you have to filter out original isotope from newly made to count how many reactions we had in container. This shows how hard is to detect neutrino. Read "Detection techniques" in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrino_detector (~500 tons of substance is not something that everybody have at home, don't you think so?) Neutron decay neutrino has fraction of energy needed for these detectors to work.
  18. In Peltier cooler cooling depends on current flowing through it. So you could adjust it with potentiometer and have lower/higher temperature if needed. Mine Peltier cooler tec1-04905 has max 5 A, 5.8 V = ~30 W. So it would require 8 AA batteries to use it to the maximum (4 serial to increase voltage from 1.25 V -> 5 V, 2 rows parallel to increase amperes from 2.5 A -> 5 A). Their total mass with container would be 220 grams (measured now). They will work for 2000 seconds (33 mins) or so. Device would have much more sense, if it would be built-in shoes soles. Cold plate would be taking heat from feet then to Peltier then to radiators. Nobody would know that your shoes work this way (which addresses swansont's aesthetic feeling). And there would be enough place for 16 batteries. But there is still downside- fast discharge at maximum amperage, and mass of shoes >500 grams higher (I like light weight sport shoes. Mine current one have 332 g each. Additional 220 g is 67% more (and mass of radiators is not counted)). ps. When I the first time saw initial post, without reading, I thought so it will be about generating energy from human heat to recharge electronics.
  19. Sam, imagine you have boat on water. 1) boat is at rest, and water is waving, f.e. 1 meter wavelength (distance between crests of wave). 2) boat is moving in direction of source of waves, and wavelengths will be shrinking, less than 1 m. 3) boat is moving in direction exactly opposite to source of waves, and wavelengths will be expanding, higher than 1 m. The same happens with sound waves in air. Which is easily noticeable when ambulance is approaching and receding us. That's classical Doppler Effect. Add to it constant speed of light, and you will get Relativistic Doppler Effect.
  20. Beryllium-8 is very unstable isotope. It's decaying to two alpha particles. Or, what is much more probable, you have no idea why they are existing. Existence of Helium-4 is doubtless. You can just ask question- why is it stable. I have calculated hypothetical Decay Energy of a few lighter elements, and every time isotope is stable Decay Energy is negative value. Proton, Deuterium, Helium-3, Helium-4 don't have any hypothetical daughter element which is conserving both energy and electric charge. When element is unstable you have Decay Energy which is higher than 0. Helium-5 has Decay Energy > 0 only for neutron emission (DE<0 for beta decay-, beta decay+ and proton emission). And that's the way this isotope is decaying.
  21. Your conclusions are quite ridiculous. How can scientists explain something that never have been detected? Fleischmann detected unexpected heat. At least that's what they said. We have just their words for it. That's it. Their claim that it must be cold fusion, have as much value as your claim that magnetic moment 0 in Helium leads to existence of aether.. Fleischmann did electrolysis of heavy water in vacuum flask. And instead of 30 C he measured 50 C. I have many times reached 100 C (and have to stop) during electrolysis of normal water, but never thought about it as cold fusion. First question that I would ask- what material is vacuum flask made of. Usually they're made of aluminum. We would have to ask Fleischmann (he is dead now) or his team.. We can easily see that if it's made of aluminum, there will be Al(OH)3 floating in it after a while of electrolysis. The more of it floating, the more current is flowing. I have literally kg of Al(OH)3 (and after removing water Al2O3) created during electrolysis. Another question- what electrolyte was used. Are you saying that f.e. proton doesn't have 938.272 MeV etc. with other particles ? If not, which part of nuclear models you don't agree?
  22. There is no single answer. For Hydrogen you can calculate energy of emitted or absorbed photon with some level of precision. You might want to read about Rydberg formula http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rydberg_formula Personally, I like to use this formula E = 13.6/n^2 - 13.6/m^2 (in electron volts) n >= 1 m >= 2 so f.e. for n=1 and m=2 E=13.6/1-13.6/4 = 10.2 eV E=h*c/wavelength so wavelength = h*c/E so wavelength = 4.135667e-15*299792458/10.2 = 1.2155e-7 m = 121 nm You can put this formula in OpenOffice Spreadsheet, and you will receive something like this:
  23. I am not sure what is your knowledge, so will suggest reading about absorption and spectral lines for beginning. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral_line http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absorption_(electromagnetic_radiation) This video should be also useful for showing different photon-electron-nucleus interactions: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4p47RBPiOCo
  24. Smash banana with fork. Then use as filling for normal (i.e. French, flat, no yeasts) pancakes. Roll them. It is superb.
  25. It's in speculations 2nd page. And BlueSpike is author of that thread too.
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