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Everything posted by Sensei

  1. @devicemaker I have an idea of device for you which you could build. But from other discipline than biology or biotechnology. Build remotely controlled (in a more advanced version quasi-automatic) submarine drone which will be searching for trash on the bottom of sea and be able to clean it from e.g. plastic or other difficult to destroy by nature trashes. With such pro-environmental ideas, it would be easy peasy to collect enough money using crowdfunding platforms to build a prototype and then production of ready devices. The "island of trash" problem must also be solved: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pacific_garbage_patch
  2. Photons also have left-hand and right-hand polarization. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circular_polarization
  3. "Having mass" is shortcut from "having rest-mass" these days in scientific circles.. Rest-mass (aka "invariant-mass") is strictly tied to rest-frame. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rest_frame https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invariant_mass
  4. ...and POTUS obviously just added fuel to the fire, tweeting that the police will start shooting.. https://www.businessinsider.com/twitter-warning-trump-tweet-george-floyd-glorifying-violence-2020-5?IR=T When something like this happened in Ukraine in 2014, Viktor Yanukovych had to flee his country to Russia..
  5. Majority of inventors died poor, revealing their ideas (or in western countries after XIX century selling for fraction of their price) to people who had money to actually implement them for real.. I am assuming you don't want to end up this way. Anyway you're not inventor, because you're asking us (or university personalities) for idea for invention that you will just realize. Quite understandably, university personalities, are reluctant to reveal their ideas to random person from the Internet who is writing to them unsolicited emails, to not wake up one day seeing their idea is actually implemented without them seeing penny from it.. What I wanted previously to say is that making prototype of device is the easiest part of entire process.. later will be worse! You complain about inability to get access to university personalities to give you ideas for device. Think what will happen if you will have ready device and nobody will want to meet you and buy it.. and people with money (financial investors) will want to flush you out from the business just intercepting patents..
  6. Sensei

    Free will

    I think we should start from completely different discipline.. (discussion about psychology, psychiatry and philosophy are so so much waste of time anyway) I have a question: if we have virtual world, simulation, or game, with A.I. walking in it, do these A.I. entities have free will.. or they don't have free will.. ? Typical 3D modern game stores location of A.I. bots, players, and items, using 3x floats or 3x doubles, which have (2^32)^3 possible values for float and (2^64)^3 = ~6.28*10^57 possible values for double precision. (similar with other properties i.e. rotation and movement of parts of body, even more greatly increasing the amount of possibilities). If in one version of game/simulation A.I. went one way from point A to B, and in second version, it went completely different way, does it count as free will to choose the path.. ? A.I. typically take the most optimal i.e. the shortest or the quickest path between point A and B. (Human and living organisms, in the most of cases, as well, to conserve energy) If in the real world, somebody went one path, and car (or whatever else) accident happened, it cancelled plans and potentially changed everything further in that person life (including end of life). If somebody would went the other path, or has been delayed by seconds or milliseconds, nothing would happen. The moment of getting out of home, pressing gas pedal, taking that not other path, etc., is under free will of human? If A.i. plays chess, it goes through the all possible to be taken moves, regardless their senselessness, either his/her/its own and opponent moves, and judges them. It is repeated in a loop. And A.I. picks up the most optimal branch of movements, in the given by human/creator time (difficulty level). The most optimal sequence of movements is leading to winning (or has the highest probability of winning) the game i.e. there is used the smallest energy / effort needed to do it. Player of chess predicts movements of opponent and his/her reactions for them. The all variables are on the table (unlike typical world). Do A.I. playing chess have free will.. ? Similarly, living organisms try to do the most optimal actions i.e. the most energetically favorable. If a dog walks down the street and finds meat, catches it and eats. Free meal. No big deal. But if a human would walk the street and found wallet full of money. The most energetic favorable action is taking the money (working to be paid requires spending more energy). In the time of gatherers, prehistoric and ancient times, whatever you found was yours and nobody would object that you 'stole'.. Caveman giving up on free meal that he or she found would be considered fool or crazy. Modern "caveman" taking wallet full of money is considered thief.. ("opportunity makes a thief") Somebody here, or in similar free will thread, showed article where computer was foreseeing what person will do with great precision. A.I. or computer algorithm just analyzed gathered data about a person (or general human behaviors), and output the most energetically favorable actions. I am analyzing you and telling that the most of you would quit the job the next day after winning the lottery with multi-millions award.. Do you have free will in this action? Foreseeing the most energetically favorable actions is easy. Some even divorced prior getting cash from lottery to not have to split award.. LOL! What a "great" example of optimization of energy/greediness.
  7. In 3D computer graphics, we have couple typical transformations that can be performed using a matrix: translation, rotation, scaling, and projection from 3D to 2D, and eventually inversed projection from 2D to 3D. Conversion from object-space to world-space and reverse operation. How to construct transformation matrix you can find in e.g. OpenGL and Direct3D tutorials and manuals. There is often explained entire math used to get said matrices. e.g. https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/direct3d9/transforms https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/win32/direct3d9/viewports-and-clipping How to make example 3D to 2D projection matrix in OpenGL: http://www.songho.ca/opengl/gl_projectionmatrix.html (OpenGL/Direct3D use 4x4 matrices with 4d vectors) Even if someone is not interested in 3D computer graphics, but is a novice in matrices, should read these articles, because they are better (more clearly) written than by mathematicians.
  8. I thought so it is the easiest part of your journey... Once you will have your "dream device", you will have to persuade them (universities, labs, companies?) to buy the product.. That's the hardest job. You will have to get to the right people and persuade them to spend thousands, maybe dozen thousands of dollars, to buy the device. It requires worldwide marketing. Creating your own website, promotional films, promotional materials, brochures, participation in scientific conferences etc... All this will cost millions of dollars. You will need to find the right people from marketing industry to do this job for you and pay them good to get quality product i.e. worldwide recognition of your "dream device".. Literally you will need to spend millions of dollars to be taken seriously and sell your "dream device" to anybody.. Otherwise you will create your "dream device" and nobody will ever hear about it, nobody will buy, and the all work and money involved in making it will be wasted..
  9. Sensei


    Yes. I see iNow already answered this. As a side note. You can call member of this forum by using character "@" and somebody name (pick it from drop-down list of names, then finish with LMB click or press enter).. You will see something like this: @zkutch Member of the forum will receive information about you mentioned him or her. When you are happy with replies i.e. they were useful answers to your queries, you can award member of the forum by pressing drop-down button with heart and giving "upvote". If you will be writing polite, senseful, helpful replies, other members of the forum will award you with upvotes, and your rank will grow.
  10. ..become student of scientific course.. you will immediately have easy access and know names of your professors.. and they will know who you are.. not some random person from the Internet (who might be hacker or foreign country spy, interested just in penetration of their university internal network).. Build on-line portfolio of devices that you built. Full of photos and eventually videos to show how they work, with English native speaker lector. Upload them to YouTube and Vimeo. Make YouTube, Vimeo, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram accounts. Look up names of professors on FB and invite to your FB account. Talk to them through FB. The more professional your accounts and videos will be made, the more seriously you will be taken by people.. It reminds me sentence: ""It's not what you know. It's who you know".. (I obviously disagree with it.. but world is full of such knowing-nothing-but-well-connected personalities in the all areas)
  11. ..if it will be under a hermetic container or building i.e. greenhouse, it might be even on the Moon or Mars.. Problem of desert is not just shortage of water, but shortage of nutrients. Normal soil is thousands of years accumulating the remains of living organisms, from the smallest fungi, microbes, to the biggest trees,. which died, were consumed and expelled by other living organisms and they became soil. Barren soil lacks nutrients required for plants to grow. ..because it is not profitable.. If population of the planet will be growing at current rate, prices of food will be growing as well with higher demand, new technologies will be created to feed the world. Only the richest will be able to buy food as we know today, created natural ways vegetables, fruits and meats. The poorest will get some genetically modified organisms, or compounds expelled by GMO microorganisms (like currently yeast expel ethanol that we drink).
  12. Sensei


    @zkutch i.e. you need to post thread with [ math ] tags and then when it is already existing on the forum, press refresh page button.. If you made mistake in Latex code, then have to quickly edit post. There is limit for how long you can edit posts.
  13. BTW, are you familiar with Crookes radiometer.. ? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crookes_radiometer It has vanes (with brighter and darker side) placed in partial vacuum.. after shining light on it, it starts moving...
  14. If you will have iron inside it, you can move it by magnet or electromagnet. If you will have electrostatically charged pieces of something, you can move them using electrostatically charged things from outside. Iron powder inside of container with liquid with magnet video that I found on YouTube:
  15. He received the same answer, as you and I gave him, on website: https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/554525/how-and-why-does-an-electron-add-up-enters-in-the-valance-shell-of-an-atom ..but he did not understand our answers... (and didn't bother about reading articles that we provided, where it is even nicer explained) Yes. The inability to speak fluently in English is problematic when discussing such scientific topics.
  16. The closer you are to -30 the better vacuum. I gave you two options to get closer to -30 in the first post in this thread: use double vacuum pumps in series, and use metal and Oxygen technique.. The closer you are to -30 on scale, the less gas you have inside of container, the smaller amount of molecules, with the smaller mass. With cheap analog vacuum gauge you have no idea whether it is -29.1 or -29.5 or -29.7..
  17. On the example of Hydrogen-1 atom: free proton, and free electron have higher mass-energy than bound together proton and electron. Similarly free nucleus (multiple protons and eventually neutrons bound together) and many free electrons have higher mass-energy than when they are bound together. If they join together, energy is released. Usually in the form of multiple lower energy photons. This process can be reversed. When energy is delivered to atom, molecule, electron is ejected. Usually energy is delivered by particles in the form of kinetic energy. Photons with enough energy, electrons with enough kinetic energy, or other particles or molecules with enough kinetic energy. It is what scientists call ionization energy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionization_energy Different particles, different elements, different isotopes, have different ionization energies. e.g. if you have Helium-4 element with 2 electrons it is electric neutral atom. After 1st ionization it changes to positively charged He+ nucleus and free e-. After 2nd ionization it changes to He2+ and two free electrons e-. He2+ is also called alpha particle. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_particle 2nd and further ionizations require significantly more and more energy. Outermost (valence) electrons are the easiest to be ejected. Innermost (the closest to nucleus) are the hardest to be ejected. The example gave by joigus, Lithium has small energy of 1st ionization. As you can read in this table it requires 5.39172 eV energy. For instance ionization energy of Hydrogen is 13.6 eV. Two and half more energy needed to eject electron. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionization_energies_of_the_elements_(data_page) If Lithium has contact with element (let's call it "X") which has not fully filled orbitals, Lithium valence electron is intercepted, and Li+ positive ion and X- negative ions are created. They are still bound by electrostatic forces, ionic bonding https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionic_bonding Similarly, stable isotopes made of multiple nucleons (i.e. protons and neutrons), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleon , bound together are at lower energy state than when they are free. Energy needed to disintegrate their nuclei is called nuclear binding energy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_binding_energy Unstable isotopes have enough mass-energy by themselves, therefore they decay to lower energy state isotopes and various 3rd party particles, in various radioactive decay paths https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decay_chain I hope so this will help a bit for a while. Read carefully the all articles in links that I gave.
  18. On vacuum gauges scale is reversed. i.e. 0 is shown when there is normal air pressure, and -30 is shown when there are near vacuum conditions. Look at any photo of vacuum gauge. https://www.google.com/search?q=vacuum+gauge Look at conversion pressure table picture that I gave in previous post.. Look at any vacuum gauge photography..
  19. @Strange Look at pressure conversion table picture from my post.. 1 atm is 0 inHg.. (..on vacuum gauge scale)
  20. I think @Theredbarron wants to know what is pressure difference between when gauge shows 29 and when it shows 30 i.e. what means "1 inHg" on gauge expressed using other units. https://www.google.com/search?q=inch+hg+to+pascal (eventually change pascal to something else like bar mmHg etc.) If your gauge has maximum -30 inHg and your reading is -29 inHg you should get better gauge with larger scale.. Like we can see on this gauge "in Hg" is shortcut from "inch Hg". Gauge has also second unit in "cm Hg". This chart might be interesting to you. Inches Hg are in fourth column. The get better vacuum scientists/engineers/people use two serial vacuum pumps. https://www.google.com/search?q=two+serial+vacuum+pumps The get better vacuum you can fill container the first by pure Oxygen (e.g. from electrolysis) and place there (before filling) piece of metal or metal wire. Hermetically close it. Then pass current (large one) through wire, and Oxygen will react with wire, taking even more gas from the chamber. This technique was used to make vacuum tubes, light bulbs etc. If you turn off pump, and leave it this way for a while how fast pressure is returning to normal? You could make video on YouTube (but please place camera on tripod). If it is slowly returning (not within seconds), use timelapse. It will be interesting project for you. It will tell how hermetic is your entire chamber and connections.
  21. Once you have the specie name (from Wikipedia article, like I said), you can search net for keyword and get peer-reviewed articles..
  22. In this article you will find the names of the species: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_gastrointestinal_microbiota
  23. https://www.google.com/search?q=gut+bacteria+vitamins "Probiotic bacteria, members of the gut microbiota, are able to synthesize vitamin K and most of the water‐soluble B vitamins, such as biotin, cobalamin, folates, nicotinic acid, panthotenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin, and thiamine, in humans." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probiotic
  24. Start from downloading Android Studio from: https://developer.android.com/studio It can compile projects made in Java and Kotlin languages. You did not specify which language you are interested in. And which language do you know. It comes with a few example projects, which you can compile, try on emulator of Android device, and upload to your smartphone. It will be a good start.
  25. Sensei

    Clap for Boris?

    Long story, short version: politicians/religious leaders/business managers etc. are incompetent and choose similar to them incompetent advisors ("asslickers", sharing the same view as they), later lying and saying demagogic alternative stories to diminish their responsibility caused by their incompetence in the face of their voters or citizens..
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