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Everything posted by jimmydasaint

  1. I did not say all the gut bacteria. You are right, of course, the appendix is a storage facility for bacteria. this then raises another question. What about people with their appenidix removed due to appendicitis? Is there a higher incidence of certain diseases as a result?
  2. I think humans would live for more than 2 hours without gut bacteria. It seems that gut bacteria can be destroyed by bacteriocidal (bacteria-killing, as opposed to bacteriostatic antibiotics which stop bacteria from reproducing) antibiotics use could allow internal body fungi (eg yeast) to proliferate in numbers at the advantage of dying bacteria. However, the bacteria 'bounce back' in large numbers from eating yoghurt and foods. It seems that daily intake of yoghurt may be beneficial. However, I cannot find information which states if ALL gut bacteria are destroyed by antibiotics or not. On a side note, it seems that cattle are fed antibiotcs regularly and we now have loads of antibacterial products in toothpastes, washing up powders etc...This may be worth a separate Thread but is society creating a possible ecological disaster by over-use of antibiotics which may lead to antibiotic resistance being widespread in bacteria?
  3. I don't think Aaron Filler is a creationist or has an agenda. He is just trying to make a point that bipedal behaviour was around 21 million years ago and uses his extensive knolwedge of anatomy to prove his point. I find it astounding that he is not taken seriously and is seen as a 'troublemaker' because he does not concur with the consensus.
  4. This is an intriguing thought from a 'proper' scientist, not a nutcase, who thought that the age of bipedal motility could be pushed back to around 21 million years ago rather than the conventional 6 million years consensus. I don't treat this as speculation but rigorous logic, yet I cannot find another slot for it: http://www.uprightape.net/ Any thoughts, disagreements, agreements?
  5. When you think of something about yourself - it may come true, or your thinking changes about it. For example, how do we explain the amazing placebo effect commonly used by psychiatrists? I have read that when asthmatics were given water in inhalers without their knowledge, it still opened up the airways in exactly the same way as when proper medicinal anti-inflammatory chemicals were used. You are being too universal. Apply the same 'philosophy' to yourself only. I believe it is called the Law of Attraction or something like that. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_Attraction
  6. The Modern Synthesis can be thought of as a pulling together of various strands of Biology (hence the 'synthesis' bit) around the Darwinian evolutionary concept of overpopulation --> selection of favourable characteristic--->reproduction (Natural Selection). Population genetics had confirmed that Mendelian genetics showing how genes combined to produce a phenotype was thoroughly consistent with Darwinian theories. Saltationism (from Latin saltus- to leap) which suggested quick drastic genetic changes from one generation to the next, leading to speication was rejected. Paleontology suggested that rate of change in the features or phenotype were not at a constant rate but consistent with the fossil record. Everything was rosy and a central dogma had been suggested for biological evolution. However, remember the date -1942. All I want to do is open up a discussion for why Extended Evolutionary Synthesis is required and to ask if it really adds anything substantial to the Modern Synthesis? http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/ee/pigliuccilab/Papers_files/2007-Evolution-EES.pdf
  7. Got it now. The Dalluge et al paper explains it very clearly and should ameliorate the apparent 'controversy': http://jb.asm.org/cgi/reprint/179/6/1918?ck=nck
  8. Are you not on holiday yet? Anyway, try here and if it does not help, give us a message. http://www.revision-notes.co.uk/revision/271.html I quote: Dude, you have to watch these brilliant animations: http://www.learner.org/channel/courses/biology/archive/animations/hires/a_hiv1_h.html
  9. Charon Y could you please give me some references to papers etc.. online. I want to read up further on this because it seems odd that one or two bases affect the integrity of a crosslinked 3-D structure.
  10. This is a BIG deal and a frightening thought. Bearing in mind that the ozone layer is relatively depleted, do you think that the effect of these charged particles will be increased? Just cross-contextualising but is it possible that such an event occurred when dinosaurs became extinct and the dino's died of massive cancers?
  11. It seems that the Earth may experience a reversal in the Geomagnetic Poles so that the Magnetic North and Magnetic South get reversed. Now, I can see this being a problem for migrating birds and marine animals that may use fields to navigate. However, it is not likely to affect humans to a significant extent, for example to cause large numbers of casualties... or is it? Any thoughts? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomagnetic_reversal from: http://www.mnh.si.edu/earth/text/4_1_5_0.html
  12. Excellent points John B. I think there is controversy about the strongly held views of one important person here - Professor Hapgood- who was convinced that these maps were genuine. you are right in mentioning that the map was a compilation of previous maps. However, the critical point is in showing if the Piri Reis map agrees with the Antactic land mass under the ice. If it does, and it can be confirmed, that would indicate that a civilisation existed which mapped the area at least 6000 years ago and then passed on the information to later generations of sailors. http://www.world-mysteries.com/sar_1.htm I wonder if the ancient Harappans had also managed to map the ancient world about 9000 years ago. So Hmmm again... http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1768109.stm
  13. Hmmm - thanks for the links to Wiki and I agree with you, the map seems dubious doesn't it and with duplications of rivers etc... would not be accurate to today's standards. Therefore it is a reasonably accurate map for its time but not the most accurate and probably not as mysterious as it seems.
  14. The scientific method uses logic, deductive logic or the hypothetico-deductive method involving hypothesis, experiment, falsification, and then the formulation of a new hypothesis. However, IMHO, there are cases where logic cannot work and a sensible hypothesis cannot be made, leaving only speculation. For example, the map made by a Turkish Fleet Admira, lPiri Reis, seems to include a perfect map of the Northern coast of Antarctica showing the coastline UNDER ICE. A quote from the article indicates the problem: [urlhttp://http://www.world-mysteries.com/sar_1.htm[/url] There are a number of other mysteries on this site. Are there cases where pure logic does not prevail or is it just the old chestnut of 'we don't have enough information at this point...' I prefer to believe that mankind is older than our estimates or that intelligent life has arisen before our estimates...What about you?
  15. It may be because I taught in a single sex school recently. However, I think the setting of students helps immensely. For example, the most able are given are placed in classes where they would never have contact with less intellectually able students.
  16. As a teacher I am somewhat puzzled by the choice of a person to become either an 'outcast' in a class or a person that becomes the target of bullies. I have tried to find something that is different about the bullied but cannot see it. For example, I taught a girl that was bullied by the rest of the class. The class would make comments about her, for example: 'she smells'. However, she was clean. The members of the class that indulged in the bullying were a cross-section from 'good' to 'naughty' students. In another case, a boy was tortured daily by others in the class verbally. I could not see any difference between him and the others. It was not racist because other members of the same race were participating in the abuse. A speculation could be the type of response to an insult by a pupil. If the response is not measured and extreme from a bullied child, it becomes a source of constant amusement to 'press the correct buttons'. The more extreme the reaction, the more sustained the bullying. Curiously, though, the very bright are exempt from the bullying regardless of individual eccentricities because the 'lads' and 'ladettes' actually wish they were as bright and respect brains. Any other speculations though on the choice of the bullied by the bully? [i should mention that I am appalled by bullying and do everything I can to help the bullied]
  17. Thanks for the correction. I should have sussed this out. However, the controversy of the OP is about the presence of T in tRNA hence he/she regards this as controversial. So far, he/she has not recived an answer.
  18. I don't know about ESS but I assume it is too simplistic to assume that mutation, selection and reproduction in Natural Selection provides a complete description of an organism's interaction with its environment and the inheritance of subsequent traits. (I would also add in facilitated differentiation as a sub-note to phenotypic plasticity). I quote: http://lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:17924956
  19. Thymine is in DNA. DNA has four bases: Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G) and Cytosine ©. DNA has two strands with these four bases bonded to each other and able to make long sequences millions of bases long in and arranged in a number of chromosomes. Sites on the DNA which are more 'open' for the start of making messenger RNA (called transcription) tend to have runs of Adenine and Thymine because there are only two hydrogen bonds between A and T. G and C on opposite strands have three hydrogen bonds. RNA is found in three forms - tRNA, rRNA and mRNA. The Adenines are bonded to Uracil (U) a different base from thymine. IMHO the uracil can be recognised by enzymes that bind to RNA. Is that what you meant?
  20. YT - great stuff. Why did the green trees not look green when the green filter was held in front of them? Just a simple question which probably has a simple answer.
  21. I hate to be a spoiler of this good atmosphere but I don't know if we can extrapolate from yeast to man in that way even if genes are conserved there are whole modules of gene control which are not taken into account for a motile organism which is independent of its environment- I would still stick to decaffinated mocha latte
  22. Try smallpox or other viruses from bodies defrosted from tundra http://www.livescience.com/environment/080327-smallpox-corpses.html or bacteria being released from defrosting and 'reawakened' after millenia or even, theoretically, millions of years. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7019473
  23. This is a simple minded explanation (typical for me) but I regarded epigenetics as the study of the way that certain genes are switched on and off in response to environmental conditions, for example, starvation, in a way that is inherited by future generations. However, in any single organism, the chromatin must be packaged in a way that certain genes are 'on' or 'off' by mechanisms mentioned in the previous posts, so that epithelial cells (epi=outside; thelial = layer) will always be replaced by other epithelial cells when damaged or killed. IMHO, the organisation of chromatin is central to all differentiation anyway, which is the process in which cells containing identical genes become different - some becoming muscle and others becoming skin etc... however, in cases of starvation, it seems that the 'on' and 'off' pattern of genes is inherited by at least a generation after the original starving generation. This, I think gives the name to epigenetics.
  24. I take it you want to examine immune response in terms of blood and lymph antibodies and then examine celllular responses from cell 'munchers' e.g. macrophages. There is a really simple system for measuring the antibody responses to the molecules that cause an immune response called antigens. This is called radioimunoprecipitation. Firstly, choose a particularly obvious marker from tumour cells. Next, radio-label it using easily purchased reagents (e.g. Bolton hunter reagent to label lysine amino acids on proteins or protein-containing antigens). Next perform an antibody extraction using serum from the affected animals. concentrate it if necessary and then add whole serum to the radiolabelled antigen (cell surface marker). After incubation, separate antibodies from captured antigens using SDS or mercaptoethanol and run an SDS-PAGE gel of all the antigens identified. Use a lane of the gel for common molecular weight markers and also include a negative control and a pre-treatment control. Any extra antibody response can be picked up quite nicely. If you want to examine non-cellular responses, this is a bit more complicated. tell me if this advice makes any sense because I suspect you may be looking at purely non-specific responses.
  25. Wonderful! I will use these in my teaching. Kids love the sheer excitement of Chemistry. Well done mate. Funny and informative. Now, if only teaching was like that!
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