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beecee last won the day on November 25

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About beecee

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  • Birthday 07/18/1944

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    Maroubra Sydney
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    cosmology, Astronomy, general science
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  1. Fields and ether

    Just something that I have been going to ask for a while.... "Einstein is generally credited with eliminating the need for the aether. However, as documented in the book “Einstein and the Ether”, from 1916 until his death he believed in the aether in some form. In these years, he used the terms “relativistic ether” and “physical space” to convey this idea. For example, in 1934 he wrote “Physical space and the ether are different terms for the same thing; fields are physical states of space.” The standard model is a field theory where all fundamental particles are considered “excitations” of their respective fields. For example, there is an electron field, a muon field and a Higgs field. Do these fields physically exist in spacetime? If so, can they be described physically and collectively described as a relativistic aether? The recent detection of gravitational waves (GWs) has elevated this discussion because one model says that GWs are waves of gravitons propagating at the speed of light through the empty void of space. The competing model advanced by D. B. Blair et al is that GWs are “ripples in the curvature of spacetime which propagate in a very stiff elastic medium. Spacetime has a characteristic impedance of c3/G.” This is describing the physical properties of spacetime encountered by GWs as an elastic medium with a tremendously large impedance. The word “aether” is not used by Blair, but perhaps the elastic properties of spacetime, the multiple fields of the standard model, and the vacuum fluctuations or quantum field theory should be lumped together into the collective term “relativistic aether”. Is space an empty void which messenger particles propagate through or does space have physical properties which justify the term “relativistic aether” and call for further analysis?" <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Any comments? I'm not perturbed one way or the other in actual fact, and do not see it as causing a problem. This paper may also be open to some comment...again, I'm unable to see any problem one way or the other.... Space, Time and Aether Received Date: September 25, 2016; Abstract: At the end of the nineteenth century a luminiferous aether was considered necessary to explain electromagnetic interactions and the propagation of light waves. As this aether could not be detected it was disregarded and mathematical theories were developed to explain physical interactions without reference to the aether. Now, over a century later, it is generally acknowledged that a major part of the universe consists of Dark Energy. This article considers that dark energy could be the same entity as the elusive luminiferous aether and looks at implications for time, space and gravity. The conclusion is that results can be obtained by this method that are equivalent to those obtained according to Einstein’s theories <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> And I find this interesting......................... extract: "In 1920 Einstein said about ether corresponding with classical ether. But in his paper in 1924, named “Concerning the Aether”, Einstein explained the “aether of general relativity” is not absolute, because matter is influenced by the aether, just as matter influences the structure of the aether. So the only similarity of this relativistic aether concept with the classical aether models lies in the presence of physical properties in space. Therefore, Einstein’s use of the word “aether” found little support in the scientific community, and played no role in the continuing development of modern physics"
  2. Fields and ether

    Question....While accepting that the old luminiferous ether was invalidated by Michelson and Morley, could the spacetime of GR possibly be inferred as an ether?
  3. I see the quantum foam as real nothing that has existed for eternity... Irrespective "true nothingness" may simply mean redefining.
  4. Only possibly "nothing" being eternal, depending on how you define "nothing"...perhaps the best definition of nothing we can have is the quantum foam from whence the BB evolved from.
  5. In relation to the title of this thread, "Could time and space be older than the creation of our universe" The prevailing theory that is supported by the overwhelming evidence, is that space and time [as we know them] evolved from a hotter denser state at t+10-43 seconds. The "as we know them" is important.
  6. Innovation increases observable volume of the universe by a factor of seven December 14, 2018, GEO600 Gravitational Wave Detector: The detection of Einstein's gravitational waves relies on highly precise laser measurements of small length changes. The kilometer-size detectors of the international network (GEO600, LIGO, Virgo) are so sensitive that they are fundamentally limited by tiny quantum mechanical effects. These cause a background noise which overlaps with gravitational-wave signals. This noise is always present and can never be entirely removed. But one can change its properties – with a process called squeezing, to date only used routinely at GEO600 – such that it interferes less with the measurement. Now, GEO600 researchers have achieved better squeezing than ever. This opens new ways to improve the international detector network in the next observation runs and is a key step to third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope. Read more at: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Mini-detectors for the gigantic? Bose-Einstein condensates are currently not able to detect gravitational waves: The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. Their effects, however, are so small that they can only be observed using kilometer-long measurement facilities. Physicists are therefore discussing whether ultracold and miniscule Bose-Einstein condensates with their ordered quantum properties could also detect these waves. Prof. Ralf Schützhold from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and the TU Dresden has studied the basis of these suggestions and writes in the journal Physical Review D that such evidence is far beyond the reach of current methods. Read more at: the paper: Interaction of a Bose-Einstein condensate with a gravitational wave: ABSTRACT Partly motivated by recent proposals for the detection of gravitational waves, we study their interaction with Bose-Einstein condensates. For homogeneous condensates at rest, the gravitational wave does not directly create phonons (to lowest order) but merely affects existing phonons or indirectly creates phonon pairs via quantum squeezing—an effect which has already been considered in the literature. For inhomogeneous condensate flows such as a vortex lattice, however, the impact of the gravitational wave can directly create phonons. This more direct interaction can be more efficient and could perhaps help bring such a detection mechanism for gravitational waves a step closer towards experimental realizability—even though there is still a long way to go. Finally, we argue that super-fluid helium might offer some advantages in this respect.
  7. I'm still not sure what you are attempting to say...As far as I am aware, the universe has been found to be flat to within very small error allowances. Our observable universe is around 47 billion L/years in radius, and that is all we can say with any degree of certainty...the universe as a whole may be infinite or very very big, so much so as to be beyond our ability to measure it. Another point worth noting, the BB model only applies to our observable universe. the finality of that article says...."Just because the part of it we can see is indistinguishable from flat doesn't mean it's intrinsically flat in its entirety. But it does mean that the Universe is far larger than we'll ever see. Even taking the minimum allowable estimate for the size of the Universe means that, at most, less than 0.0001% of the volume of the Universe is presently or will ever be observable to us. Once you put our knowledge about dark matter and dark energy in there, you'll realize that we'll never see more of the Universe than we can right now. So all that we see -- the billions of stars in our galaxy, the hundreds of billions of galaxies lighting up the observable Universe -- is just a teeny-tiny fraction of what's actually out there, beyond what we can see. And yet, we can know that it's there. Isn't science wonderful?"
  8. History Section

    You don't see the bashing on both sides?
  9. Multiverse

    The BB is supported by four main pillars of evidence.... [1] The observed expansion:[2] The predicted CMBR: [1] Abundance and nucleosynthesis of the lighter elements: [4] Large scale galactic structure: The BB describes the evolution of space and time from t+10-43 seconds. I accept the BB as the most likely model describing how our universe evolved due to the preponderance of evidence.
  10. Voyager II reaches Inter-Stellar Space.

    Agreed, on "The Farthest" doco...excellent stuff. I'm not sure if that is entirely right, but I'm open for correction. I was of the opinion that due to its trajectory it was only ever meant to have a close encounter with Jupiter and Saturn...The Titan decision was simply convenient I think.
  11. Articles on physorg today concerning climate change......... Arctic's record warming driving 'broad change' in environment: study: Global warming is heating the Arctic at a record pace, driving broad environmental changes across the planet, including extreme storms in the United States and Europe, a major US scientific report said Tuesday. Persistent heat records have assaulted the fragile Arctic for each of the past five years—a record-long warming streak, said the 2018 Arctic Report Card, released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Read more at: >>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Degrading permafrost puts Arctic infrastructure at risk by mid-century: Seventy percent of the current infrastructure in the Arctic has a high potential to be affected by thawing permafrost in the next 30 years. Even meeting the climate change targets of the Paris Agreement will not substantially reduce those projected impacts, according to a new study published in Nature Communications. "Much more needs to be done to prepare Alaska and Alaskans for the adverse consequences of coming changes in permafrost and climate," said Vladimir Romanovsky, a scientist with the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute who has been monitoring permafrost across Alaska for 25 years. Read more at: <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Slow flow for glaciers thinning in Asia: Providing water for drinking, irrigation and power, glaciers in the world's highest mountains are a lifeline for more than a billion people. As climate change takes a grip and glaciers lose mass, one might think that, lubricated by more meltwater, they flow more quickly. However, satellite images from over the last 30 years show that it isn't as simple as that. A paper published recently in Nature Geoscience describes how a multitude of satellite images have been used to reveal that there has actually been a slowdown in the rate at which glaciers slide down the high mountains of Asia. Read more at: <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< Scary warming at poles showing up at weird times, places: Scientists are seeing surprising melting in Earth's polar regions at times they don't expect, like winter, and in places they don't expect, like eastern Antarctica. New studies and reports issued this week at a major Earth sciences conference paint one of the bleakest pictures yet of dramatic and dangerous warming in the Arctic and Antarctica. Alaskan scientists described to The Associated Press Tuesday never-before-seen melting and odd winter problems, including permafrost in 25 spots that never refroze this past winter and wildlife die-offs. Read more at: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: I'm surprised sometimes that the climate scientists don't just pack up and leave humanity to fend as best as it can. Why isn't this stuff in the general media? Perhaps they see it as not sensational enough? What chance have we got? In my opinion only in the hands of our young people who will afterall have to do the fending as best as they can.
  12. Voyager II reaches Inter-Stellar Space.

    Yep, Voyager 11 actually showed that when the opportunity did present itself, [a planetary alignment] that Newtonian mechanics could enable us to rendezvous with all four of the gaseous and ice giants of the outer solar system, a feat in itself, and an indication of how powerful the superseded use of Newtonian mechanics could be. Path viewed from above the solar system Path viewed from side, showing distance below ecliptic in gray
  13. The following is an article detailing the second man made object to reach Inter stellar space, or that region where the Sun’s flow of material and magnetic field no longer affect its surroundings. NASA confirms Voyager 2's crossing into interstellar space as Parkes tracks its progress ABC Central West By Joanna Woodburn and Kathleen Ferguson Updated yesterday at 4:14pm PHOTO: NASA's Voyager 2 has crossed through the heliosphere into interstellar space. (Supplied: NASA ) NASA has confirmed that Voyager 2 is now in interstellar space, some 18 billion kilometres from Earth — and its progress is being tracked from central-west New South Wales. The probe, launched in 1977, is the second human-made craft ever to enter interstellar space. The first was its partner, Voyager 1, which made the crossing in 2012. Since early November the CSIRO's Parkes Radio Telescope has been tracking Voyager 2, which can no longer be observed from the northern hemisphere. more at link....... <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
  14. Multiverse

    Hi.....Firstly in actual fact, it isn't a scientific theory, [which is the highest accolade any scientific model can have] it is simply hypothetical. Secondly mostly all scientific theories and models start out as speculative and hypothetical, and to use a favourite terminology of mine, need to run the gauntlet before reaching theory stage. Thirdly as yet we cannot even say with any confidence how or why the BB happened, and noting that this theory [the BB] only goes back as far as 10-43 seconds after the initial event, of which we are ignorant. So you can see that evidence for any multiverse is unlikely to be evident.
  15. Yes, certainly I get it, At last. To talk of the properties of negative mass as though its something concrete, after admitting it is hypothetical, is rather weird to say the least and what I have already commented on. Yes, I have already given a link that already claims that, so? hypothetical? Speculative? Impossible? methinks you are playing games. Why would anyone actually see any need to discuss such hypothetical stuff with you, after your feelings and unsupported claims re GR are well known. I've seen many examples of what you claim as "quality of content" and most all is hypothetical and fictional and probably anti mainstream. And obviously the few citations also point to the paper's lack of substance and simply repeating what most already know. Your many opinions on science are mostly just that...opinions mixed in with some recognised factual positions of which you do have good knowledge of. It's your opinions not based on recognised mainstream positions that are in question and purely hypothetical at this time.