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Everything posted by beecee

  1. The worst thing about "free to air TV" in Australia, is the flooding with these idiotic so called "reality" TV shows. They literally make me want to be sick!!
  2. Sorry, I've been a rather busy little beaver. Others have explained the BH, EH and GR correctly. Secondly all matter/energy warps or affects the geometry of flat spacetime, [it curves, warps, twists spacetime] and we feel that geometry as gravity. So any perfect vacuum, that is space without any light or any form of energy would be perfectly flat. The only possible perfect vacuum state I think [willing to be corrected on this] is inside the EH of a dormant BH, that has obtained perfect temperature equilibrium with the outside. And while this is certainly curved by the collapsed mass at the core, it does not "no gravitational influence of its own" to pinch the phrase from Phi for All.
  3. A BH in actual fact is nothing but critically curved spacetime, with the mass squashed at the centre at or below the quantum/Planck level. To speak of BH density is not really a valid concept. Let me add to that, while certainly never ever being able to observe what is inside the EH of any BH, GR does tell us that once the Schwarzchild radius is reached [which is the EH] then further collapse is compulsory. We can logically then accept that due to GR's excellent track record, that the mass continues to collapse, at least up to the quantum/Planck level where our laws of physics and GR fail us.
  4. Particularly since we observe that the expansion is accelerating. I suppose though that that scenario would rest on whether the DE will always be there.
  5. Space Radiation Doesn't Seem to Be Causing Astronauts to Die from Cancer, Study Finds: By Rachael Rettner 2 days ago Human Spaceflight Outer space is a notoriously harsh environment, exposing astronauts to high levels of radiation. And radiation exposure can increase cancer and heart disease rates in earthbound humans. But a new study has some good news: Space radiation doesn't seem to increase astronauts' risk of death from cancer or heart disease, at least not at the doses they experienced during historical missions. Still, longer missions — such a mission to Mars — will likely come with much greater radiation doses that could pose larger health risks, the authors said. Space travel exposes the body to higher levels of ionizing radiation than those typically experienced on Earth. And at high doses, that radiation has been tied not just to cancer and heart disease, but to a host of other health problems as well. more at link..... ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Interesting results to say the least.... But, [1] Are these studies too small for any valid conclusion to be arrived at? [2] Most of these would be from the ISS, so are the studies any indication of radiation further from Earth and/or for longer periods?
  6. What will it take to live on the moon? With NASA planning to revisit the lunar surface by 2024 and send multiple expeditions by 2028, Rutgers University's Haym Benaroya is optimistic that people will someday live on the moon. Benaroya, a distinguished professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Rutgers University–New Brunswick, has spent most of his career focusing on lunar settlement and space exploration issues. Benaroya, who works in the School of Engineering and wrote "Turning Dust to Gold: Building a Future on the Moon and Mars" and "Building Habitats on the Moon," and specializes in designing structures for extreme environments, discussed the challenges of living on the moon. more at link...................
  7. Japan's Hayabusa2 probe makes 'perfect' touchdown on asteroid: Japan's Hayabusa2 probe made a "perfect" touchdown Thursday on a distant asteroid, collecting samples from beneath the surface in an unprecedented mission that could shed light on the origins of the solar system. "We've collected a part of the solar system's history," project manager Yuichi Tsuda said at a jubilant press conference hours after the successful landing was confirmed. "We have never gathered sub-surface material from a celestial body further away than the Moon," he added. "We did it and we succeeded in a world first." extract: Hayabusa2's first touchdown was in February, when it landed briefly on Ryugu and fired a bullet into the surface to puff up dust for collection, before blasting back to its holding position. The second touchdown required special preparations because any problems could mean the probe would lose the precious materials already gathered during its first landing. more at link.......
  8. In a recent paper in Nature Astronomy, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute/AEI) in Potsdam and from the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in Saclay, Paris suggest how the planned space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA can detect exoplanets orbiting white dwarf binaries everywhere in the Milky Way and in the nearby Magellanic Clouds. This new method will overcome certain limitations of current electromagnetic detection techniques and might allow LISA to detect planets down to 50 Earth masses. In the past two decades, the knowledge of exoplanets has grown significantly, and more than 4000 planets orbiting a large variety of stars have been discovered. Up to now, the techniques used to find and characterize these systems are based on electromagnetic radiation and are limited to the solar neighborhood and some parts of the galaxy. In a recent paper published in Nature Astronomy, Dr. Nicola Tamanini, researcher at the AEI in Potsdam and his colleague Dr. Camilla Danielski, researcher at the CEA/Saclay (Paris) show how these limitations may be overcome by gravitational-wave astronomy. "We propose a method which uses gravitational waves to find exoplanets that orbit binary white dwarf stars," says Nicola Tamanini. White dwarfs are very old and small remnants of stars once similar to the sun. "LISA will measure gravitational waves from thousands of white dwarf binaries. When a planet is orbiting such a pair of white dwarfs, the observed gravitational-wave pattern will look different compared to the one of a binary without a planet. This characteristic change in the gravitational waveforms will enable us to discover exoplanets." more at link..... the paper: The gravitational-wave detection of exoplanets orbiting white dwarf binaries using LISA Abstract: So far, around 4,000 exoplanets have been discovered orbiting a large variety of stars. Owing to the sensitivity limits of the currently used detection techniques, these planets populate zones restricted either to the solar neighbourhood or towards the galactic bulge. This selection problem prevents us from unveiling the true galactic planetary population and is not set to change for the next two decades. Here, we present a detection method that overcomes this issue and that will allow us to detect massive exoplanets using gravitational-wave astronomy. We show that the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission can characterize new circumbinary exoplanets orbiting white dwarf binaries everywhere in our Galaxy—a population of exoplanets so far completely unprobed—as well as detecting extragalactic bound exoplanets in the Magellanic Clouds. Such a method is not limited by stellar activity and, in extremely favourable cases, will allow LISA to detect planets down to 50 Earth masses.
  9. Light-sensing system could show distant galaxies in unprecedented detail: Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have developed an ultra-sensitive light-detecting system that could enable astronomers to view galaxies, stars and planetary systems in superb detail. The system works at room temperature—an improvement over similar technology that only works in temperatures nearing 270 degrees below zero Celsius, or minus 454 degrees Fahrenheit. A paper detailing the advance is published today in Nature Astronomy. The sensor system detects radiation in the terahertz band of the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes parts of the far-infrared and microwave frequencies. more at link..... the paper: Room-temperature heterodyne terahertz detection with quantum-level sensitivity Abstract: Our Universe is most radiant at terahertz frequencies (0.1–10.0 THz) (ref. 1), providing critical information on the formation of the planets, stars and galaxies, as well as the atmospheric constituents of the planets, their moons, comets and asteroids2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. The detection of faint fluxes of photons at terahertz frequencies is crucial for many planetary, cosmological and astrophysical studies10,11,12,13,14. For example, understanding the physics and molecular chemistry of the life cycle of stars and their relationship with the interstellar medium in galaxies requires heterodyne detectors with noise temperatures close to the quantum limit15. Near-quantum-limited heterodyne terahertz detection has so far been possible only through the use of cryogenically cooled superconducting mixers as frequency downconverters15,16,17,18. Here we introduce a heterodyne terahertz detection scheme that uses plasmonic photomixing for frequency downconversion to offer quantum-level sensitivities at room temperature. Frequency downconversion is achieved by mixing terahertz radiation and a heterodyning optical beam with a terahertz beat frequency in a plasmonics-enhanced semiconductor active region. We demonstrate terahertz detection sensitivities down to three times the quantum limit at room temperature. With a versatile design capable of broadband operation over a 0.1–5.0 THz bandwidth, this plasmonic photomixer has broad applicability to astronomy, cosmology, atmospheric studies, gas sensing and quantum optics. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: My first thoughts actually were in application to taking photos of BH's using an array of 'scopes with this ability? Or even for researching in spiraling accretion disks and imaging further along the red end of the spectrum? In essence, a fantastic discovery if development continues. Are they valid considerations?
  10. have spotted a distant pair of titanic black holes headed for a collision.Each black hole's mass is more than 800 million times that of our sun. As the two gradually draw closer together in a death spiral, they will begin sending gravitational waves rippling through space-time. Those cosmic ripples will join the as-yet-undetected background noise of gravitational waves from other supermassive black holes.Even before the destined collision, the gravitational waves emanating from the supermassive black hole pair will dwarf those previously detected from the mergers of much smaller black holes and neutron stars."Supermassive black hole binaries produce the loudest gravitational waves in the universe," says co-discoverer Chiara Mingarelli, an associate research scientist at the Flatiron Institute's Center for Computational Astrophysics in New York City. Gravitational waves from supermassive black hole pairs "are a million times louder than those detected by LIGO."more at link......extract:"The gravitational waves generated by supermassive black hole pairs are outside the frequencies currently observable by experiments such as LIGO and Virgo. Instead, gravitational wave hunters rely on arrays of special stars called pulsars that act like metronomes. The rapidly spinning stars send out radio waves in a steady rhythm. If a passing gravitational wave stretches or compresses the space between Earth and the pulsar, the rhythm is slightly thrown off".the paper: of a Close-separation Binary Quasar at the Heart of a z ~ 0.2 Merging Galaxy and Its Implications for Low-frequency Gravitational WavesAbstractSupermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries with masses of ~108–109 M ⊙ are expected to dominate the contribution to the as-yet undetected gravitational wave background (GWB) signal at the nanohertz frequencies accessible to pulsar timing arrays. We currently lack firm empirical constraints on the amplitude of the GWB due to the dearth of confirmed SMBH binaries in the required mass range. Using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 images, we have discovered a z ~ 0.2 quasar hosted in a merger remnant with two closely separated 13 or ~430 pc) continuum cores at the heart of the galaxy SDSS J1010+1413. The two cores are spatially coincident with two powerful [O iii]-emitting point sources with quasar-like luminosities (L AGN ~ 5 × 1046 erg s−1), suggesting the presence of a bound SMBH system, each with M BH > 4 × 108 M ⊙. We place an upper limit on the merging timescale of the SMBH pair of 2.5 billion years, roughly the universe lookback time at z ~ 0.2. There is likely a population of quasar binaries similar to SDSS J1010+1413 that contribute to a stochastic GWB that should be detected in the next several years. If the GWB is not detected this could indicate that SMBHs merge only over extremely long timescales, remaining as close separation binaries for many Hubble times, the so-called "final-parsec problem."
  11. Isn't this at least partly due to DE? What I'm saying is that the gravity from the denser regions of space, are acting to pull galaxies together, and so making the voids larger due to the effects of the expansion over larger scales.
  12. Good to see you back in the swing of things.
  14. OK, thanks fellas...Obviously I'm not an inhabitant of California or North America, and thankfully I exist on and in a reasonable stable continent...not that we also do not have our own "natural" problems, particularly drought, living on the driest continent, other then Antarctica of course!!
  15. It certainly would. What needs to be looked at is material etc that can deflect or absorb cosmic and/or galactic radiation. Not sure if such protection is as yet viable, but they must be working already on such a project. Which to my way of thinking illustrates the importance of such branches of science as Nanotechnology.
  16. Gee, quick off the mark this chilly morning Strange!! Thanks for the answer though. OK, how many bloody fault lines exist there?
  17. They are calling this the " Ridgecrest event"....I presume Ridgecrest California, is on or near the San Andreas fault line?
  18. For anyone interested here is the official original press release of the Apollo 11 mission...256 pages of it.
  19. 'Ghost Base' Perched on a Growing Ice Chasm in Antarctica Is Running on Its Own: A remote science station in Antarctica forced to close over the polar winter by a dangerous ice chasm is completely empty of human life — a ghost base of sorts. Even so, its vital science experiments keep on ticking. It is the first time that important science experiments at the Halley Research Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf have been operated remotely, thanks to a high-tech electricity generator that will run continuously for nine months in the below-freezing conditions. The generator and the science experiments that depend on it — including measurements of the ozone hole over Antarctica and global monitoring of lightning activity — passed the middle of the southern polar winter (complete darkness) a few days ago, on June 21. [Antarctica: The Ice-Covered Bottom of the World (Photos)] That's already more than four months of continuous operation, including times when the temperature was more than minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius), and the polar winds were blowing snow at up to 50 mph (80 km/h) , said Thomas Barningham, the project leader for the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). "That is a significant milestone for us, so we are very pleased with the progress of the new power system," Barningham told Live Science. The Halley scientific research station has been operated by the BAS on the Brunt Ice Shelf since 1956, and rebuilt in the same location several times. more at link........................
  20. This bloke Tour and his claims have been put as irrefutable facts elsewhere by a former participant here and arrogantly challenged anyone to refute. Your link [in which I see I took a limited part but had forgotten about [old age is the excuse! ] is invaluable and I hope no one objects me using some of the scientific reasoning and videos in refuting this former member elsewhere. Thanks again!
  21. Yeah 100% correct and highlighted by the fact that along with Abiogenenesis this clown also dismisses evolution. My motives for posting this btw was simply because I did not have the expertise to invalidate his silly claims myself. Apologies if it starts dragging any like clowns out of the closet. ps: Thanks for the link...
  22. Is there an expert chemist/Biologist in the house? Can someone detail the errors and/or nonsense in this blokes critique of Abiogenesis. He also has one supposedly refuting Evolution. His name is James Tour Yes he certainly has his share of religious baggage, as he is a fanatical "Messianic Jew" What's one of them I hear someone ask? here..."Messianic Judaism[a] is a modern syncretic[1]religious movement that combines Christianity—most importantly, the belief that Jesus is the Hebrew messiah—with elements of Judaism and Jewish tradition.[2][3][4][5] It emerged in the 1960s and 1970s." The following is a video of his claims and dismissal of Abiogenesis.....Thanks in advance..... It's about 15 minutes long. The next one is 1.5 hrs long with obviously far more detail....if needed.
  23. Like whirlpools in the ocean, spinning black holes in space create a swirling torrent around them. However, black holes do not create eddies of wind or water. Rather, they generate disks of gas and dust heated to hundreds of millions of degrees that glow in X-ray light. Using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and chance alignments across billions of light-years, astronomers have deployed a new technique to measure the spin of five supermassive black holes. The matter in one of these cosmic vortices is swirling around its black hole at greater than about 70% of the speed of light. The astronomers took advantage of a natural phenomenon called a gravitational lens. With just the right alignment, the bending of space-time by a massive object, such as a large galaxy, can magnify and produce multiple images of a distant object, as predicted by Einstein. more at link...... the paper: Constraining Quasar Relativistic Reflection Regions and Spins with Microlensing: Abstract: We present an analysis of Chandra spectra of five gravitationally lensed active galactic nuclei. We confirm the previous detections of FeKα emission lines in most images of these objects with high significance. The line energies range from 5.8 to 6.8 keV, with widths from unresolved to 0.6 keV, consistent with emission close to spinning black holes viewed at different inclination angles. We also confirm the positive offset from the Iwasawa–Taniguchi effect, the inverse correlation between the FeKα equivalent width (EW) and the X-ray luminosity in active galactic nuclei, where our measured EWs are larger in lensed quasars. We attribute this effect to microlensing, and perform a microlensing likelihood analysis to constrain the emission size of the relativistic reflection region and the spin of supermassive black holes, assuming that the X-ray corona and the reflection region, responsible for the iron emission line, both follow power-law emissivity profiles. The microlensing analysis yields strong constraints on the spin and emissivity index of the reflection component for Q 2237+0305, with a > 0.92 and n > 5.4. For the remaining four targets, we jointly constrain the two parameters, yielding a = 0.8 ± 0.16 and an emissivity index of n = 4.0 ± 0.8, suggesting that the relativistic X-ray reflection region is ultracompact and very close to the innermost stable circular orbits of black holes, which are spinning at close to the maximal value. We successfully constrain the half-light radius of the emission region to <2.4 r g (r g = GM/c 2) for Q 2237+0305 and in the range 5.9–7.4 r g for the joint sample.
  24. Nice point!! Which sort of puts and end to my hypothesis here.....
  25. The amount of ice circling Antarctica is suddenly plunging from a record high to record lows, baffling scientists. Floating ice off the southern continent steadily increased from 1979 and hit a record high in 2014. But three years later, the annual average extent of Antarctic sea ice hit its lowest mark, wiping out three-and-a-half decades of gains—and then some, a NASA study of satellite data shows. In recent years, "things have been crazy," said Mark Serreze, director of the National Snow and Ice Data Center. In an email, he called the plummeting ice levels "a white-knuckle ride." more at link..... the paper: A 40-y record reveals gradual Antarctic sea ice increases followed by decreases at rates far exceeding the rates seen in the Arctic: Significance: A newly completed 40-y record of satellite observations is used to quantify changes in Antarctic sea ice coverage since the late 1970s. Sea ice spreads over vast areas and has major impacts on the rest of the climate system, reflecting solar radiation and restricting ocean/atmosphere exchanges. The satellite record reveals that a gradual, decades-long overall increase in Antarctic sea ice extents reversed in 2014, with subsequent rates of decrease in 2014–2017 far exceeding the more widely publicized decay rates experienced in the Arctic. The rapid decreases reduced the Antarctic sea ice extents to their lowest values in the 40-y record, both on a yearly average basis (record low in 2017) and on a monthly basis (record low in February 2017). Abstract: Following over 3 decades of gradual but uneven increases in sea ice coverage, the yearly average Antarctic sea ice extents reached a record high of 12.8 × 106 km2 in 2014, followed by a decline so precipitous that they reached their lowest value in the 40-y 1979–2018 satellite multichannel passive-microwave record, 10.7 × 106 km2, in 2017. In contrast, it took the Arctic sea ice cover a full 3 decades to register a loss that great in yearly average ice extents. Still, when considering the 40-y record as a whole, the Antarctic sea ice continues to have a positive overall trend in yearly average ice extents, although at 11,300 ± 5,300 km2⋅y−1, this trend is only 50% of the trend for 1979–2014, before the precipitous decline. Four of the 5 sectors into which the Antarctic sea ice cover is divided all also have 40-y positive trends that are well reduced from their 2014–2017 values. The one anomalous sector in this regard, the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas, has a 40-y negative trend, with the yearly average ice extents decreasing overall in the first 3 decades, reaching a minimum in 2007, and exhibiting an overall upward trend since 2007 (i.e., reflecting a reversal in the opposite direction from the other 4 sectors and the Antarctic sea ice cover as a whole).