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Buckeye

Environment and preventing the next global pandemic

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About 70% of microbial diseases are caused by zoonotic pathogens. These pathogens cause human disease when spillover occurs from the animal host to a human host. Certain environments are conducive to bringing about spillover events. Environments which bring humans into close contact with animals under unsanitary and unhygienic conditions can cause viral spillover. The current global pandemic caused by Sars-cov-2 got it's start about the middle of last November when patient zero contracted an infection from a wet market in Wuhan province when he purchased a pangolin from a wet market which he had for dinner. What can we do to prevent the next global pandemic? What environmental regulations can be implemented to prevent viral spill over which could cause the next global pandemic?

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A) I think zoonotic diseases are about 70% of emergent diseases, not of all

B) The source for SARS-CoV-2 is still unknown, better not to spread wild rumours as facts

C) Unless you want to ban all animal farms and limit folks entering animal habitats and eradicate all potential vectors, there is no way to prevent infections occuring. What we need to focus on is to identify, trace and limit transmissions. The issue is we keep forgetting that after a few years of no major pandemics (or if the happen far away).

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4 minutes ago, CharonY said:

C) Unless you want to ban all animal farms and limit folks entering animal habitats and eradicate all potential vectors, there is no way to prevent infections occurring.

Zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted from original animal to human through intermediate host such as mosquito, flea or fly..

Zoonotic pathogens can be in excrement and urine and contaminate water, food or surface, which human is drinking, washing, eating, or touching.

 

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Regarding sars-cov-2, the origin is referenced in "European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and infectious Disease 2020 Apr24 1-7 Author Huihui Wang who states"Corona virus disease first emerged in Hubei province China in Dec 2019.

Regarding the role of spillover in sparking the next pandemic, reference is " Infection Genetics, and Evolution"2016 March:volume 38 44-46 author James E Hollenbeck

I recommend reading How to survive a pandemic by Michael Gerber MD( newly released), "Spillover Animal Infections and the next Human Pandemic" by David Quammen.",Pandemic:How Climate, the environment, and Superbugs increase the risk.

I suggest people google "wet markets" and click on image, also click on CAFO and click on image. Safe and responsible agricultural practices should be followed by producers and consumers. I'm a retired microbiolgist (BS, MS).

 

 

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1 hour ago, Sensei said:

Zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted from original animal to human through intermediate host such as mosquito, flea or fly..

Zoonotic pathogens can be in excrement and urine and contaminate water, food or surface, which human is drinking, washing, eating, or touching.

 

Contracting infections can be minimized or even totally avoided in most cases. as an example, mosquito borne infections: mosquito netting impregnated with insecticide, draining wet mosquito breeding areas,using insect repellent, and stocking small ponds with fish that eat mosquitoes larvae . The US had malaria in the past and it was brought under control. Controlling future pandemics falls under the responsibility of the health dept. Early in my career I was a microbiolgist at the Ohio dept of health, before I went back to Ohio State and got my masters. Public health might not be able to completely eliminate all infectious diseases, but that doesn't mean we all shouldn't help our health depts do the best that they can to help all of us to stay safe.

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I am aware that this is not the point of the thread, so sorry for nitpicking on this. But since CharonY's point B) was my initial reaction when I saw this thread, I'd like comment on this: Saying that "Corona virus disease first emerged in Hubei province China in Dec 2019" is much less specific than the "current global pandemic caused by Sars-cov-2 got it's start about the middle of last November when patient zero contracted an infection from a wet market in Wuhan province when he purchased a pangolin from a wet market which he had for dinner". Specifically, "first emerged" can be read as "was first discovered", which is actually very different from "was first transmitted to a human" (i.e. patient zero). That sounds like it could be correct to me. Your story sounds like an American president could have made it up while straying away from an unrelated question asked by a reporter.

I cared much for the origins of Covid-19, so I am not even an interested layman on that topic. But the very first Google hit I get on "origin of Covid-19" is a relatively recent report about a WHO spokesperson saying that Wuhan may not even be the location of patient zero (let alone a pangolin sold at a seafood market): https://www.foreigner.fi/articulo/coronavirus/who-admits-wuhan-may-not-be-the-origin-of-covid-19/20200803155142007196.html

 

@Buckeye.: I am aware this post may appear a bit rude. That is not my intention, and no offense intended! I just feel you should question if what you think you know is really correct, and I don't know enough about the topic myself to do that in a more constructive way.

Edited by timo

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The specific reference regarding patient zero and November comes from a newly released book on the subject:"How to survive a pandemic "by Michael Greger MD I highly recommend it. I've started the chapter on H5N1, which has a 50% case fatality rate. The concern is that H5N1 is several mutations away from becoming as transmissible as sars-cov-2 is now. Greger speculates on the consequences that would follow from such a mutation (spoiler alert) it 's not good.

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6 hours ago, Sensei said:

Zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted from original animal to human through intermediate host such as mosquito, flea or fly..

Exactly, these are all potential vectors. 

 

3 hours ago, Buckeye said:

The specific reference regarding patient zero and November comes from a newly released book on the subject:"How to survive a pandemic "by Michael Greger MD I highly recommend it.

I have not read the book, but ongoing research pretty much makes it highly unlikely that pangolins are the latest source (there may have been admixture but the evidence is low). There is no study able to unequivocally pin the source and as such any specific claims are either speculations or flat out wrong (up until researchers actually find compelling evidence that is). 

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6 hours ago, CharonY said:

A) I think zoonotic diseases are about 70% of emergent diseases, not of all

B) The source for SARS-CoV-2 is still unknown, better not to spread wild rumours as facts

C) Unless you want to ban all animal farms and limit folks entering animal habitats and eradicate all potential vectors, there is no way to prevent infections occuring. What we need to focus on is to identify, trace and limit transmissions. The issue is we keep forgetting that after a few years of no major pandemics (or if the happen far away).

Encouraging alternatives to meat until we improve our healthcare system then sounds like it's a good way to make a dent in climate change and new pandemics alike.

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Just now, ScienceNostalgia101 said:

Encouraging alternatives to meat until we improve our healthcare system then sounds like it's a good way to make a dent in climate change and new pandemics alike.

It is a possibility at least to reduce likelihood. What happens though is that at best one delays the next pandemic. After all, folks are still about, and while reducing or even eradicating cattle farming could reduce huge pool where viruses can mix, there are other sources, including humans as possible sources of new outbreaks. In the end, the only way to fully eradicate risk of pandemics is by eradicating infectious diseases altogether which, for the most part will be impossible. But again, outbreak detection and containment can reduce the risk of a pandemic markedly and arguably would be easier to implement. 

Yet as we have seen after SARS and H1N1 the lack of a long-term memory in folks seems to be the biggest risk factor.

 

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I'm a vegatarian, with proper diet planning, a person can get all the essential nutrients. Applied microbiology will never completely win our never ending war against infectious Disease but we can make health system a lot safer than it is now. I suggest everyone news Google sars-cov-2, every day to follow daily advances in the pandemic struggle.

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2 hours ago, CharonY said:

It is a possibility at least to reduce likelihood. What happens though is that at best one delays the next pandemic. After all, folks are still about, and while reducing or even eradicating cattle farming could reduce huge pool where viruses can mix, there are other sources, including humans as possible sources of new outbreaks. In the end, the only way to fully eradicate risk of pandemics is by eradicating infectious diseases altogether which, for the most part will be impossible. But again, outbreak detection and containment can reduce the risk of a pandemic markedly and arguably would be easier to implement. 

Yet as we have seen after SARS and H1N1 the lack of a long-term memory in folks seems to be the biggest risk factor.

 

The increasingly negative attitude to vaccines in general is more evidence of a short societal memory that can only compound the problem.

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2 hours ago, Buckeye said:

I suggest everyone news Google sars-cov-2, every day to follow daily advances in the pandemic struggle.

I am not sure whether googling is the best strategy. I am not sure about the curation algorithm on google, but other services such as facebook curate news based on ones search and browsing histories. In many ways it is necessary to dig quite a bit to get accurate information. But I do recognize that not everyone has the time and/or ability to go all the way back to primary literature. 

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There were pandemics before there were humans.


There are still pandemics that sweep through the non-human animals and we don't usually notice them (we did spot a few  recently- frogs, bats and, at least locally, dolphins).

Nothing that humans do will stop pandemics.
What we can do is recognise this fact and plan accordingly

For example, we can choose political leaders who don't try to pretend that they pandemics do not exist.
And we can support those politicians who recognise the importance of national and international  cooperation.

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I would also like to add that due to modern travel patterns, the likelihood of pandemics will only increase.

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Deforestation is another factor that can lead to new pandemics. This can result in greater contact between humans and animals. Viral spillover has more of an opportunity to occur as animals seek to find new habitats have more contact with people. We all have seen urban racoons, and read about rabid racoons on rare occasions infecting people.

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I'd not take a book as reliable cite for patient zero.  What are the relevant published data?

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