# Sensei

Senior Members

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1. ## Could matter exist of energy?

How to create antiprotons is described in this article http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/252/particle_creation.html Protons must be accelerated to v>0.99c.
2. ## Does what you wear matter?

And wearing Karategi/Kimono makes you almost Bruce Lee.. One of mine favorite:
3. ## Plasma Railgun

CW generator doesn't work with DC at all. It requires AC, AFAIK. I have tried with 240 VDC, and it simply didn't load at all. You can, or if you're using ceramic capacitors even have to, first convert 240 VAC to DC, then make your own AC from DC with required by device higher frequency than 50 Hz. And then multiply voltage by CW to really high. A lot depends on pressure of gas. Krypton is inside of hermetic tube. It can have pretty low pressure. Checking it would require destroying device. I don't have experience with rail guns nor plasma guns (who on this forum has? ) But I think you mixed two things. (typical) electromagnet requires DC (with pretty low voltage, it's after all just wire with low resistance). And the higher current you will provide to electromagnet (or just wire), the higher magnetic field you will receive surrounding them. If you will swap direction, you will change electromagnet from attracting to repelling. But 50 Hz constantly switching back and forth directions will be probably completely useless for railgun (that's typical transformer). You want attract projectile once, then repel and done. When first stage is repelling, second stage has to be attracting with even more power, so projectile is accelerated in that direction. AC for CW generator is another circuit, independent from electromagnets. CW current is always DC on output. It's purpose to ionize, and nothing more. You don't use such high voltage to power electromagnets (it would be senseless and most probably would blow up wires and/or capacitors). In electron gun, indeed such high voltage is used to attract electrons. And they fly through hole in anode. Real magnets are disallowing them to join with anode, and then they continue flying further in vacuum.
4. ## Plasma Railgun

There are generally two. I can switch between them, by just reconnecting wires. (mine has more than 70 stages)
5. ## Plasma Railgun

No. It's very small red spot. So small you probably wouldn't see it if I would make photo (something like 1-2 mm). Mine point was- you cannot change color of plasma.
6. ## Plasma Railgun

Vacuum would definitely increase distance plasma is traveling Electron gun requires vacuum. It will be ionized. After all it's helium, neon, argon, xenon, etc. gas. That's how these elements were discovered - by spectral lines present in air spectrum. Scientists compared air spectrum (from discharge tube) with pure nitrogen and pure oxygen spectrum (from electrolysis or chemical reactions producing them) and noticed difference between them. Yes, of course. One mine colleague touched it when it was loaded 3 kV and since that moment he doesn't touch anything in lab anymore without asking.. You could smell of burning flesh (literally).. I touched CW generator electrodes with 6 kV accidentally once too. Somebody called me, in the middle of experiment, and I forgot to discharge capacitors entirely. When I returned, touched it and fall it.. Mine hand shake after several hours after that. I had to use something that is not metal. It's 1mm thick cardboard. If we will place it between two electrodes with 25 kV, and wait couple seconds (double or triple as long as without cardboard between them) electric arc will be very powerful and will cut cardboard making pretty big hole in it. There is no glass, there is nothing surrounding it. When you will take glass tube/pipe, attach electrodes from both sides and seal ends, and fill by some gas (hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, I have created from electrolysis, CO2 from dry ice, air), optionally lower pressure, you will have self made discharge tube. Pretty close. They are standard wires for connecting breadboards. Mine cascade generators are on breadboards, so I can freely connect/disconnect them together. Although I saw on the net people are taking transparent kitchen plastic boxes like this one making 4 holes, attaching banana connectors to it from both sides, and putting capacitor bank inside, filling by mineral oil, and sealing them permanently. But if some capacitor will blow up, you have problem how to fix it. Free nucleus is attracting free (or not) electron. Electron is emitting photon, or multiple photons with various frequencies, and is attracted more and more by nucleus. And these photons is what we see as color of plasma. With graphite electrodes I had red sparks.
7. ## What is Quantum computer. i can't get right idea

Increasing core quantity is cheap and easy way to increase power of processor without bothering with smaller scale elements etc. We certainly (and thankfully) didn't hit the limit of how small transistors and elements can be, yet. Graphics cards are now coming with 2880 cores btw. http://www.nvidia.co.uk/object/graphics_cards_buy_now_uk.html CPU can go GFX card route too. But it should be done by changing architecture permanently, and limiting instruction set (which is quite obsolete, basing on Intel 8086 from 1978), which will simplify making core. So there will be possible to pack them together in larger quantity tightly. This would make all currently Intel compiled software obsolete, so industry is trying to avoid it as long as they can.
8. ## Plasma Railgun

6 kV is not very high. I have Cockcroft-Walton generator producing ~40 kV (and expanding its capabilities with time). It's used in experiments with x-rays in cloud chambers. To fully load you need couple seconds (by 240 VAC @ 50 Hz). At least with electrolytic capacitors (which have pretty high capacitance). These are screen-shots from video with ~25 kV setup. I have videos showing difference between 6 kV, 10 kV, 25 kV, 40 kV setups. I can send you videos privately if you're interested. (whole "explosion" takes less than 1 frame of recording it camera, so sometimes there are misses, recorded just voice without actually picture. I will need to get high speed camera some day..) That sounds to me that you want to accelerate plasma using quickly changing magnetic field in barrel. Is that right? Plasma is highly reactive. It will steal electrons from surrounding it matter, and unpredicted chemical reactions will happen. Production of ozone is very high with mine above setup (especially with continuous coronal discharge when we will prevent "explosion"). You feel like after summer thunderstorm in seconds.
9. ## What is "real" in physics?

Shape of physical object changes depending who is watching it, and distance to object. Distant galaxy seen by naked eye or cheap telescope looks like spherical blob. Metal plate, or wall, looks flat to us, but after large zooming by microscope they will reveal to be mountain-like irregular. So, observed shape is or might be just an illusion, depending on capabilities of observer or device and/or distance. Just a thought irrelevant to whole discussion. ps. I have no idea why it was moved to Philosophy..
10. ## How to measure distance between two objects wirelessly?

For Earth's scale objects typical method is sending photons to object and after reflection, detecting returning signal delay (t=2*d/c) It's used in radars, using radio waves. But if you attach mirror to object, or retroreflector (like on Moon), you can use normal visible range photons. For our solar system and galaxy scale distant objects we can use knowledge about position of Earth around Sun and Pythagoras triangle. At one day of year Earth is closer to some star or planet, at other day of year Earth is farthest from it. You can deduct that tangent alpha is equal to ~1 au (=~150 mln km) divided by distance to measured object (from Sun). I have made picture for you to visualize:
11. ## Producing energy from the pressure at the sea bed

That's not an issue. That's normal. You misunderstood idea described in article. It's meant to be storage facility, not regular power station. Energy is produced elsewhere, and solar panels and windmills are example power stations that are periodically working. Once they lost energy source (at night, or when there is no wind), energy is restored from storage and customer continuously receive energy. I stay doubtful. How did you calculate that your idea will be 95% efficient?
12. ## Will this ever reach us? (question about expansion)

Each light year is approximately 299792.458 * 60 * 60 * 24 * 365.25 = 9.46*10^12 km 53.0 million light years * 9.46*10^12 = 5*10^20 km distance between us. 3.2 mln km/h = 888.9 km/s 5*10^20 km / 888.9 km/s = 5.641*10^17 seconds That's 1.78*10^10 years. 17.8 billion years. Not millions. Article is wrong by factor 1000. Not first and not last time journalist shows his inability to calculate. "First of all, even at its current speed, it will take more than 17.5 million years to get here."
13. ## What is "real" in physics?

We have protons at rest. Accelerating part of them to v > 0.99c and hitting them to other protons at rest. Result is production of protons and anti-protons: p+ + p+ -> p+ + p+ + p+ + p- Like this has been showed in this article at the bottom: http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/252/particle_creation.html And from frame-dependent kinetic energy of particle, two new real particles appeared..
14. ## Will Super AI Be Good or Bad for Humanity

Start > Run.. regedit Then search for HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run And add new key. With value path to executable. Or rundll32.exe [dll name] [function name] if it's linkable library (or Windows service - this one can be controlled by administration service panel). The most of mine Windows applications have option to run them with Windows, minimized, and in tray icon. I like to have them at hand.
15. ## Producing energy from the pressure at the sea bed

According to article, wind turbines or solar panels are producing energy first and using it to pump water out from tanks on the ground of ocean, when there is windy weather or sunny hot day. Tanks are now empty. Then water pass through turbines and fill tanks back. producing energy (according to article 80% of that produced in 1st stage, so 20% is lost). That's smart idea. Currently power stations have to lower their production when there is not enough power consumers on the other end of wire. On the other hand, instead of building it at ocean ground, we can simply make large artificial lake. Wind turbines and solar panels will be all the time used to pump water from ocean to lake, no matter if consumers need it or not. And then energy will be just produced in normal dam. Which "their issue"? In article I don't see they mention any issue. Do you mean you have created 5 times stronger concrete?
16. ## What is "real" in physics?

You can't beat protons & antiprotons in magnetic traps.. Today I read economic article that in the next 25-50 years there will appear the first trillionaire (10^12). And the first thought was that it could be somebody who will find a cheap & fast way to produce antiprotons.

18. ## How to Include Web Snippets in Website?

Do you mean how to show sample source code? <code>A piece of computer code</code> W3Schools is good resource about HTML/CSS http://www.w3schools.com
19. ## CO2 plus H2O solar kerosene?

There is "just" 0.035% of CO2 in the air. To create just 1 cm^3 of Kerosene there would be needed to process (with 100% efficiency) 3656 Liters of air. You can't do it during flight. Boeing 747 burns ~4000 cm^3 (4 L) of fuel per second.
20. ## Automated Data Collection and Analysis

That's job for somebody who has a few years everyday experience in writing software.. Figuring out device models and checking manufacturers websites for SDK, if not found maybe writing e-mail to them is the first thing you need to do. Such devices often comes with software to install, so maybe SDK is already on CD/DVD or installed?
21. ## making naoh?

What voltage you used? Try high voltage at beginning, and then lower it with time. This can be done automatically by stabilizer. If you ever produced f.e. iron oxides, aluminum oxides, copper oxides (or hydroxides) in higher amounts using electrolysis, you probably noticed how current increases over time (and very fast). (couple times I had 15-17 A while iron oxides production after >20-30 minutes) Stabilizer is the only feasible way to have good rate of production, and you won't have to control it all the time..

23. ## making naoh?

At least I tried to answer "how to make NaOH at home". Your answer was "go to shop and buy".. In post #3 I just described "home version" of Chloralkali process in easy to understand words http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloralkali_process You can read in the article that positive electrode should be made of titanium. Rethink once again what was initial quantity of salt and water. 59-60 g of NaCl and 18 g of H2O That's exactly the same number of molecules = 6.022141*10^23 of both. Each NaCl has corresponding it H2O. They are in pairs. Now, negative electrode is producing H2 which is instantly escaping our system and never comes back. There is 2x -OH and 2NaCl left. -OH joins with Na+ and we have NaOH + Cl- 2 Cl- on positive electrode are joining together and neutral gaseous Cl2 is produced (are you now inspired how important is shape of titanium positive electrode in this process to get rid of Chlorine in gaseous state?) If I see 1 Liter volume of Hydrogen produced in one container, and 1 Liter of Chlorine volume in another container, then I am pretty sure that quantity of impurities is pretty low. If some Cl will not escape it, but joins with water, equivalent it molecule of NaCl won't be able to change (there is equal number of pairs of NaCl and H2O after all). So we will have: NaCl, NaCl, HCl, HClO. That's why so important to produce gaseous Cl2 ,which I said: "But whole point of this setup is to produce Chlorine gas. We want to Cl2 bubbles to escape it as soon as they're formed on positive electrode." If both gases escaped setup at the same rate, the same volume, remain should be NaOH mostly. Impurities produced by this method are quite meaningless (especially if it's just boomstickbob's home experiment) in comparison to business production using Chloralkali process, which can even leave traces of mercury in NaOH. Quote from the nearly beginning of article: "Additionally, the chlorine and sodium hydroxide produced via the mercury-cell chloralkali process are themselves contaminated with trace amounts of mercury. The membrane and diaphragm method use no mercury, but the sodium hydroxide contains chlorine, which must be removed."
24. ## making naoh?

Did you performed it ever in your life? I was doing it dozen of times (last time week ago). Usually with current I between 2A to 5 A. And high voltage. It is normal procedure of production of NaOH and HCl (indirectly - from gaseous Cl) No oxygen is produced this way- because it cannot be produced - because there is so little water. You can't breath after 5-10 seconds since start up with I=5 A, because of Chlorine gas. If water would be in significant amount, right, oxygen would be produced, but it would be no longer Hydrogen+Chlorine production but regular electrolysis with Hydrogen+Oxygen produced. ps. I didn't say a word about copper. It would be indeed bad idea to use it. I have tried it with bad results. Cu immediately reacts with -OH and we will have at least bluish Cu(OH)2. (Regular electrolysis with a lot of water with copper electrodes is instantly producing Cu(OH)2 . I had it plenty in containers. After week or two it all disintegrated to CuO and H2O. Easily visible because it changed color from bluish to dark) Right. But whole point of this setup is to produce Chlorine gas. We want to Cl2 bubbles to escape it as soon as they're formed on positive electrode. And then (usually) collect it in another container with fresh water, so HCl and HOCl will be produced in it. I wouldn't care much about NaClO. If gaseous Cl2 dissolved in solution (which is undesired), there will be also HCl present. Which will react with NaClO. NaClO + 2 HCl → Cl2 + H2O + NaCl
25. ## making naoh?

Take 59-60 grams of salt NaCl, 18 grams of water, mix, plug some electrodes that don't react with neither HCl nor NaOH, and pass direct current through it, you will smell Chlorine gas (it always reminds me primary school swimming pool) on positive electrode, and there will be Hydrogen gas on negative electrode. With steady current I=1 A you will need 26 hours 45 minutes to change all above to NaOH (in theory). Really easier is to buy it (but less fun).
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