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Everything posted by Area54

  1. I've placed this in Earth Science, rather than Astronomy, because it is, in essence, a geological tale. And I've put it in Earth Science, rather than Science News, because I'd like to see this sub-forum get more traffic. Three interesting papers have been presented at the 49th Lunar & Planetary Science Conference in The Woodlands, Texas that address tectonics on Venus. The lithosphere of Venus has been broken and, in places, mobile Venus crustal tectonics analagous to jostling pack ice Life potential on early Venus connected to climate and geological history The majority of planetary scientists consider Venus to lack plate tectonic activity. Though some researchers have occassionally pointed out features that could be evidence for plate tectonics, these notions have generally been dismissed and Venus has been viewed as having a stagnant lid - a single, fixed lithospheric plate, rather than the multiple mobile plates found on Earth. This lid is thought to have overturned in the last billion years as a mechanism for heat loss, a heat loss otherwise restricted in the absence of plate tectonics. The first two papers discuss an alternative, presenting the evidence for thin crustal plates that engage in small, irregular movements at their contact areas. This is not the large scale movement, with subduction, generation of new crust and creation of transform faults, in which plates can be transported across the planet, broken up and welded onto other plates, but a comparatively minor "rubbing together". Nevertheless this can modify the topography and facilitate heat loss. The third paper considers the impact of Venus's tectonic regimes for supporting viable conditions for life (as we know it). This article from Science News contains a digestible discussion for those who do not wish to read the papers themselves. Understanding the range and character of planetary tectonics will be essential (though obviously not sufficient) in properly estimating the probabilties for life on exoplanets.
  2. Do you routinely stop participating in threads when you've been handed your ass? When may I expect a proper response to my repeated queries in the thread on planetary energy? Too frightened to continue discussion?

    1. StringJunky


      What do you want him to do, capitulate and preen your ego? :P 

    2. hypervalent_iodine


      Area54, I hardly think this is appropriate. Please use your better judgement when engaging with members here, and refrain from acting so hostile.

  3. Yes, humans are inherently racist. However, some of us are fed up with that oudated, antiquated, destructive instinct-derived mindset and have deciced to say, loudly and clearly, fuck racism, fuck racists, fuck idiots who make a positive argument for racism. (If required, I can provide a lengthier and more eloquent justification for that position.)
  4. This is true, but has already been pointed out by others, in-law tensions can occur because of other diferences: religion, income, educational background, work ethic, etc. If you want to experience true in-law tension go to Glasgow and find a Rangers supporter who has married a Celtic supporter. Do you wish to claim that the Scots and Irish are racially distinct? Such a claim would be inline with your other errors. I am not even certain this is true, but is the possibility of requiring a bone marrow transport really high on the list of critical concerns when deciding on your life partner? On the other side, as pointed out already, there will be distinct advantages of a mixed race marriage related to hybrid vigour. Breaking News: raising children is a complex process filled with challenges. These challenges can be viewed as limitations and threats, or as enriching opportunities. Then again, their exposure to diversity may well have broadened their minds, deepened their experience and made them more interesting and attractive. Tell me, do you actually know anyone from a different ethinic group or culture, or are all your contacts from Central Casting's Hicksville?
  5. What about them? The second denotes intent. Course may include intent, but need not. Heading might, in some contexts, contain a whiff of intent, but it would generally be absent. They are contrasting words, rather than different ways of saying the same thing.
  6. That is an enormous difference in my lexicon. A boulder dislodged from a mountainside by an earthquake has a heading, but it has no purpose.
  7. can you give a full list a plant-like animals?

    Comparison of genomes reveals the relative closeness of animals and fungi. Further information here: For one thing, plant have chloroplasts, fungi do not.
  8. can you give a full list a plant-like animals?

    Fungi are not plants, though many people think of them as such. They are more closely related to animals than to plants. In an indirect way that matches your question.
  9. Those on this forum who have chosen to give you advice have decades of personal experience that says otherwise. If you can write an analytical essay you can better analyse real life problems; make well informed decisions; manage your time effectively; organise events; plan projects. The list is a long one. That is a defeatist attitude. Just because you cannot do something today does not mean you cannot do something tomorrow. Very few people are naturally talented at writing, yet many are skilled at it. That skill was developed through commitment and practice. Thank you for your thanks. The most sincere way of expressing your thanks would be to make a determined effort to improve your writing skills. That would be a genuine reward for all who have contributed their suggestions.
  10. The major benefits would appear to be the same as attach to any relationship. If I were a concert pianist and married a Brazilian cellist I would have much more in common with her than if I married a punk rocker with a drug habit who was raied in the same town as me. Same for the major cons. People are different and the significance of some of the differences may not emerge until some considerable distance into the relationship. @mad_scientist What are your views on the matter? (Another member has made the suggestion you are unlikely to reply. I would not advise that approach.)
  11. Oh, I know precisely why they exist: humans are often a disreputable, weak bunch of assholes. I certainly don't intend to encourage weakness and immorality by remaining silent. Now I have not looked at in detail at any of these sites, so it may be that some of them offer services that are commendable. My distaste is directed against those which prey upon the lazy, or upon those who lack confidence in their own abilities. You almost appear to be saying: well that's the way the world is; I can't fight it, so why should I be placed at a disadvantage by not also making use of it. I hope that's not what your thinking. I'd be interested to know either way.
  12. In the thread "Gun Control, which side wins?" John Cuthber made this remark . . . . you can legislate for better gun control, and you can't legislate for "better culture" . . . I reflected on that and reached the conclusion he was probably mistaken. It would have taken the thread off-topic to discuss there, hence this new thread. I support my doubt with a couple of examples,, both from the UK, both relating to automobile safety. 1. When I got into a car in the UK in the second half of the 60s and put on my seat belt, I automatically apologised to the driver for wearing one, noting that it was not because I thought he was an incompetent driver, but because of the other crazies out there on the roads. That has been unecessary for several decades. The legislation enforcing the use of seat belts is primarily responsible. You can argue that extensive advertising campaigns have contributed, but for me the sequence is this: Legislation requiring seat belts >> penalties implemented >> behaviour changed >> leads over time to ---attitude change = changed culture 2. Again, in the 60s and 70s, drink driving was commonplace and rarely frowned upon. Not so today. The same sequence of legislation, enforecement, behaviour change, attitude change, culture change, applies. I am interested in reactions to my general thesis, for or against, and in any telling examples supporting it, or demonstating that the claimed examples are faulty.
  13. The behaviour would be inappropriate if the partner felt uncomfortable about the comments. If they felt very uncomfortable then the behaviour would arguably be immoral and certainly crude and uncaring. However, as String junky and Prometheus have pointed out, most (many) people are not concerned by it. One could use this argument. If one is in a positive and rewarding relationship, this relationship has arisen because of our ability to find individuals attractive. That ability is an innate and instinctive part of our make up and as such is an integral part of our character. To deny that ability now would be dishonest and undermine the foundation of the relationship. People are diverse. Don't sweat it.
  14. Photons

    That would have been more informative.
  15. Why do humans have the whites the eyes?

    Or to tell us when it's time to shoot.
  16. Physics of Drifting

    And here was I hoping this was a discussion of plate tectonics!
  17. It might help others if you were to state which grade you are in (also which country!). In addition what resources do you have available to you? For example, did a rich alumni gift the chemistry department a high specification Mass Spectrometer-Gas Chromatograph? Do you need to conduct an actual experiment, or could you submit very detailed plans, with abundant, relevant references for a an experimental program to assess the extent and character of soil pollution?
  18. how to turn a believer

    That's because you are living with limeys!
  19. Well, my apologies if your intentions are genuine. The style and content of your OP were reminiscent of many posts I've seen that are designed to promote some product or service by appearing to be a genuine appeal for help that "just happens" to "mention" a supposedly relevant site. I can see the potential benefits of having another party proofread your work. However, to even consider using such an entity to create your work from scratch strikes me as simultaneously ethically appalling and monumentally stupid. On what basis can you possibly defend the idea of having someone else do your work for you? Poor you! You find writing such essays difficult. What made you think the educational process was meant to be easy? It is by tackling the difficult problems head on that we enhance our skills and build our character. On the other hand, if you wish to go through life with major gaps in your skill set and a minimal moral fibre, it might be the right approach. Secondly, if you avoid developing this skill you are going to be at a loss if and when it is called upon in the real world. Worse yet, you will have habituated yourself to avoiding challenges. Hardly a sound combination for developing your career. You say you overthink things when trying to write such essays. Without the details any advice could easily miss the mark, but for what it's worth . . . . . Make a simple list of all the ways the two subjects are similar, grouped hierachically if appropriate. Make a second list for ways in which the two subjects differ. Rearrange the lists to reflect relative importance, or some other significant aspect of character. Write comments on each point, using progressively clauses, sentences, paragraphs and sections depending on their importance. Add an executive summary at the front and a set of conclusions at the back. Job done.
  20. Atomistic III

  21. Why only human can get smallpox?

    The "he" referred to here is you, so now I am the one that doesn't understand. Would you like to explain?
  22. A situation, I suspect, that you are intimately familiar with. Thank you. I have had a disappointing evening, so I found the above really amusing. It cheered me greatly. Not because it is sub-standard, badly written, or irrelevant, but because you patently do notunderstand its significance. Perhaps you would care to use your superior comprehension skills to explain how the document supports the position you appear to be taking. For example, the following extract (2nd paragraph, page 117) describes a situation that runs exactly contrary to the claim for commonality of behaviour by race. Most human genetic variation—approximately 85%— can be found between any two individuals from the same group (racial, ethnic, religious, etc.). Thus, the vast majority of variation is within-group variation. Unrelated people of the same racial, ethnic, or religious group are not particularly similar to each other. This means that people of the same race, ethnicity, or religious background do not necessarily have a great deal of shared or common ancestry; they are not necessarily closely related.
  23. how to turn a believer

    Pay attention! I referenced monkey wrench in my earlier post. It was the 7th wrench related pun in it. Thus: " Well that's enough monkeying around for the moment."
  24. Cultural Change Through Legislation

    I found these sentences difficult to parse. However, based on what I think you were saying here are some responses: 1. While certainly some legislation "seeks to open or limit environmental conditions" this is not an end in itself. The objective of the legislation is to change behaviour. 2. As you say ignore the (changed) conditions at your peril. That is, you will experience pressure to modify your behaviour. That is precisely what I am saying, but I sense you intend to disagree. I hope you can clarify. 3.I have no idea what the last sentence means, or rather I have about five distinct possible meanings for it. Again, can you clarify. This is self evident and entirely consistent with what I have been saying. That is why, in order to change behaviour and attitudes, small steps must be taken. Attempting a major cultural change "against the tide" will not work, whereas a small change can and has been seen to do so.
  25. If I understand current theory correctly - which is not a necessarily the case - space was created by the Big Bang and so did not precede it. Alternatively - and I'm on stronger ground here - there is no such thing space, but rather something called spacetime. If so, that would also contradict your thesis. I don't know if you are out to lunch, but I think you may at least have ordered in a sandwich.