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Everything posted by fredreload

  1. Hmm, you'll need a bacteria to smuggle the amount of DNA of this size. 150 million base pairs. Oh yeah
  2. Well, the DNA strand would get turned into a chromosome inside the nucleus, if it is made correctly = =, now this part is speculation. I know there are chromosome repair mechanism, but I dunno how it factor into this. The university of John Hopikins have successfully built an artificial chromosome on scratch, they know how to integrate it with histones and other thing for yeast chromosome
  3. I've prove that transdifferentiation is possible, check my other post on transdifferentiation. This is a scientific speculation of how it should work.
  4. 1. Pack a pre-built copy of your X chromosome's DNA into a virus. It is a strand of DNA with 155 million base pairs that hopefully would fit through the nucleus pore. A chromosome cannot fit through the nucleus pore, so we send it in as a strand of DNA and have it built into an X chromosome inside the nucleus. 2. Make sure each cell in your body receive a copy of the virus package. I dunno how to get this to work, each cell only needs one copy of the X chromosome, having more than one would be troublesome. The epigenetic tags on the X chromosome might also need to be different for each cell, that I have not consider. The packaged DNA would enter the nucleus through the nucleus pore and gets integrated into an X chromosome. 3. Now you have a XXY chromosomes in each cell, destroy the Y chromosome by sending in crispr cas9 enzyme to target the Y chromosome. The crispr cas9 enzyme would target the centromere of the Y chromosome and attempt to destroy it. 4. Now every cell has a XX chromosome, initiates regeneration on the entire body for patterning and structural formation. The regeneration technique is induced without scar formation. When the patterning signaling factor is added in it would attempt to restructure the whole body based on the chromosome.
  5. Alright, so based on idea of smuggling and inflating a chromosome into a nucleus. I will have to prove that transdifferentiation is possible. And I speculate that dedifferentiation is a form of transdifferentiation. The way that somatic cells becomes induced pluripotent stem cell is a form of cellular transdifferentiation, and therefore all method of transdifferentiation is possible. Let it be liver cell to neuronal cell or muscle cell. I speculate that it should be possible for direct conversion.
  6. Essentially all the chromosomes need to exist inside the nucleus, not outside. It's like football and you need to get it into the nucleus to touch down. So transformer wise, we smuggle DNA sequence in chunks(like messenger RNA) through the nucleus pore into the nucleus, and we assemble an entire chromosome inside the nucleus with DNA ligase. What I want to do with Crispr Cas9 is to destroy the original chromosome else having 3 copies of a chromosome could be a problem. P.S. Like 2 million pieces of DNA, assemble by hand/automatic
  7. According to Wikipedia on scar. "The scarring is created by fibroblast proliferation,[25] a process that begins with a reaction to the clot." Fibroblast is a biological cell according to Wikipedia. Liver also has immune pathogens from blood so I am ruling that out.
  8. Alright, improved version. 1. Stays 2. Forget about mounting a laser on a machine and put it into the body. This could work but not in the next one hundred years. God knows how it will move and cut DNA at the correct place. The answer, use the enzymes that is already in the body. Helicase, DNA polymerase, and other enzymes are working at, if I must say, 100% perfectly to keep our body function readily. So any improvements will be an add on to the already existing enzyme. And there is Crispr, I am not taking credits for this, and it is not working 100% of the time until it could be adapted for human use.
  9. Alright, forget bout crispr, there is never going to be a time where crispr can modify every single parts of the body and at a precise location. That gives two methods which is currently science fiction based. 1. Modify DNA with optogenetics. Simple as that, we got the light tweezer, we target a cell, and we use light to "cut" and "piece" together DNA to the desire strands we want. We either use one laser to modify every single cells in a fast pace, or have multiple beams that modify all cells at once. In other words it won't drift too far apart from magnetic field control. 2. Modify DNA with nanomachines Well, talk about advancement in machinery in the nanometers. This programmed robot is precise in such a way that it works 100% of the time and is error proofed. While having a wireless connection with the outside computer. Talk about coordinated controlled drones. I want you to tell me which method is more likely to be done, and in how many years.
  10. Apparently it's something that the adult stem cells lack and embryonic stem cell has. Summary: 1. Both adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells proliferate to differentiate new tissue. 2. Adult stem cells sometimes produce scar, also know as fibrous cells/fibrous tissue. 3. Adult stem cells create compensatory growth, embryonic stem cells completely regenerate.
  11. So you need another patterning molecule to formulate the liver as it is regenerating, even adding that molecule alone to the compensatory organ should cause it to reform given that it already has the regenerating ability. I've been searching for that molecule and as far as I know it is called Sonic Hedgehog from the hedgehog pathway. But with the liver case it seems to be something presented only in the embryonic state
  12. Alright so, both hydra and starfish are capable of complete regeneration. But what would happen if stitch half of hydra and half of starfish together. Here is the below speculation. 1. The hydra and starfish cells fight to the death, each trying to take over the other in cell signaling war and immune response war. 2. The hydra and starfish grows into separate beings without fighting each other, hydra and starfish. 3. Also if you put human cells next to it would it attempt to take over the human cells?
  13. After studying stem cells usage on heart tissue repair I found this message. The stem cells do not turn into heart cells themselves, but their growth factor help the heart cells to proliferate into new heart cells and clearing away scars. This means if I inject patient A's stem cells into patient B, I do not start growing patient A's cells in my body. Is this correct?
  14. Remote delivery drones with some improvements. First of all a remote camera so you can see where it is flying toward, and if someone took your package. Secondly, you can fly it manually, or auto destination. Third, it needs to be big, like airplane big. Four, a good source of battery life.
  15. Thanks, I'll just read some article online. Still trying to find out if liver regeneration is perfect or not. It seems you are correct
  16. It seems to me that all wounds are compensatory growth now.
  17. So you are saying that only liver adult stem cell is capable of regeneration in contrast to say neuronal adult stem cell. Well but where do these fibrous cells come from? I have a feeling they are also generated from the adult stem cells. Is the scar tissue alive at all, I mean it is a cell type. It could be a compensation for the missing organ/tissue. Keep in mind liver does not scar, and from what I found they are as good as the original liver after regeneration. P.S. If you can show me an example of a "wound site that healed without scar"(ex. like an amputated arm that healed without growing an arm back but has "no scar" on the amputated site, just muscle and bone tissue), then I would deem your statement correct, that scar is not blocking the healthy tissue from regeneration P.S. Liver regeneration->no scar/no fibrous tissue, spinal cord regeneration->scar/fibrous tissue. Why is that?
  18. True, but what marks the difference between liver adult stem cells and adult stem cells from other tissues as liver is capable of complete regeneration? Is it because the liver adult stem cells are different or because its nearby cells ECM does not create scars during regeneration :D? Skin is also a tissue, but skin scars sometimes.
  19. What is the difference between the two? Yes these adult stem cells are found in the tissues, but how do these adult stem cells differ from embryonic stem cells? P.S. The answer to regeneration and adult stem cells is in the liver tissue as liver is the only organ capable of regeneration
  20. Alright Charon, sorry about my limited understanding on this. My reasoning is focus on the adult stem cells lurking within the tissues and their abilities to repair and regenerate. It seems your reasoning is that without scars the wounded area's stem cells would go into an uncontrolled growth. This patterning system would likely be involved in another set of protein known as sonic hedgehog with the research conducted here. But as much as my claim is baseless without experiment there is nothing more I can add =/. Anyway, more research into adult stem cells could be used. " Scientific interest in adult stem cells is centered on their ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely, and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate, potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells. " Wikipedia Adult stem cell P.S. Fred wants to become a female, so he is looking into regeneration
  21. Yes the lizard uses macrophages to create blastema(lizard stem cells) to close up the wound. Lizard does imperfect regeneration, but some organisms can perform perfect regeneration. Does the scar form during perfect regeneration? I wouldn't know. But I could argue that stem cells of endothelial cells or other cell types do proliferate during human wound healing according to Wikipedia, that is mostly overlooked. And I wouldn't know if scar forming is a restrictive mechanism in wound healing. Such stem cells proliferation could close up the wound as well for us mammals. But this is pure speculation :P, clearly mammals are prone to getting injured. I wish I am like Hulk sometimes.
  22. Well, it would be a growing blob of cells which still encases the wound if you look at lizard regeneration with(no scar tissues). The body with healthy immune system should be good enough to counter the infection. Lizard tissue regenerates without scarring right?
  23. Or anyone else that can prove me wrong
  24. I've read this article here and I come to the conclusion that, as long as scar does not develop, all tissues would heal. The only reason that tissues do not heal properly is because scar develops and stops the healing process. Therefore, if the scar does not develop, any tissue would undergoes the healing process of proliferation and regeneration. ClaronY, prove me wrong, this is speculation
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