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studiot

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Everything posted by studiot

  1. I have been trying to find the density of the detergent powder particles themselves, before attempting an explanation. Unfortunately all I can find is lots of information on the bulk density of the powder, which includes the voids. Clearly I can't directly measure this by a displacement method, as the particles are soluble! So if anyone can help with this I would be grateful as it is the density of the particles (relative to the liquid) that determines what they do. Any object following a curved path (ie non straight) is not in equilibrium - that is it has a net force acting on it, even if its speed is constant. This net force is called the centripetal force, which is a real force that must be supplied by some agent, eg the rope tied to block swung around your head. D'Alambert invented a system of reducing such systems to equilibrium by applying an imaginary force opposing the real net force, thus allowing the equations of equilibrium to be used. This imaginary force is called the centrifugal force. It should be noted that the motion is at right angles to the resultant of the real and imaginary force and is the direction the object will travel if either is removed eg by cutting the rope. That is the object will fly off tangentially, not radially. So there is nothing forcing partcles radially outwards. These systems are called 'central forces' and are often analysed by accelerations, rather than forces directly.
  2. You are going to be a lot more precise to make any headway. What is "the Natural/Real set" ? And what properties do the members of 'the set of square roots of prime numbers enjoy' that have already been proven ?
  3. What might throw some light on your question would be for you to tell us about your printing process. (No trade secrets required. Just is is water bases, oil based or what. Silanes are chemical compounds that penetrate fine cracks in ceramic materials to repel water. Glass surfaces are not as smooth at the microscopic level as you might think and have microcracks. We used to use silanes to do something similar in concrete.
  4. On top of what @joigus said so clearly (+ 1), You have to delve much deeper into the philosophy of Mathematics beofre you can start using symbols such a = ; + ; n+1 and so on. Consider. Until you have defined what a number is how can you define addition ? So how can you give meaning to n + 1 in the definition of a number ? Note in Mathematics defining means loosely 'give meaning to' .
  5. Here is your biggest hurdle. This makes the system non conservative. SHM represents a conservative system. That said when we consider the eqautions of SHM we equate the sums of system forces or energies to zero (because it is conservative) We can introduce non conserative 'forcing functions' by equating an SHM system to the forcing function. Normally we then try to solve the result by building onto the solutions to the SHM core (or 'kernal').
  6. Why ? Like the engineers and physicists of the 1890s 'guessed' the age of the Earth ? Or like the E & S guessed that fusion was 20 years away in the 1950s, 1970s, 1990s, and again in the 2020s ?
  7. Pure guesswork, no better than the "we will have fusion within 20 years" guess of the 1950s. Surely we are talking about now ? A further point I forgot to mention in my last post. The big difference between my proposed human hypothesis and any known AI is that once one human has stated it, pretty soon many humans will understand it and be using it, discussing it and developing it. As far as I know a human would have to reprogram this famous chess AI if you wanted it to 'diagnose like a doctor' or answer symbolic maths questions like Wolfram or MathCad or ........
  8. Some further thoughts. On replication. Sure a robot (note not a just computer but a lot of other sesigned parts) could, if the materials were available, eventually build another robot. We know that robotic arms can perform specific tasks more accurately than human arms. But maroon a robotinson crusoe on another planet. Would it be able to even think of mining silicon to repair its crash damaged brain ? On teamwork. Sure we have linked a couple of computers together to enhance their combined power. Even many hundreds of thousands in the genome project for instance. But these were all outside directed activities. Evidence of a bunch of robots/computers that could think of and implement this for themselves are a long way off in my opinion. On rational thinking. This is my example proposed in the computation thread. When will an AI/computer appear that could have the following train of though by itself? In North America the main mountain ranges run North - South and there are wide open spaces between, also running North - South In Europe, the main mountain ranges run East-West. Both of these northern continents have been subject to many ice ages and partly covered by ice sheets. During such times the southern edges of these ices sheets advance and retreat periodically as the climate was not constant. In modern times it is known that the variation of natural or indigenous species, both flora and fauna, is much greater in North America than it is in Europe. I would like to learn of an AI that could winkle out these facts and then produce a hypothesis as to their connection.
  9. @Genady No criticism but you have spread the subject of the difference between human and AI ( and perhaps other digital computer) thought processes over several threads, some of which are now being left behind and forgotten. This leaves me in a quandrary as I want to post an important comparison, relevant to this topic, but is not computation so would perhaps be off topic here. I have already referred to some differences in the other thread(s).
  10. This is an oft misunderstood belief. That is why I asked the question. Modern computers in general tend to operate on 'digital' principles and for anything computed this way a TM can indeed be programmed to implement a digital computation for. However there are other types of machine that can be used to perform some of the same computations by other (non digital) methods and indeed can perform some computations that a TM cannot perform directly. The extraction of powers, roots and reciprocals, the solution of polynomial equations and even differential equations and also both the integral calculus and the differential calculus can all be performed graphically by a competent draughtsman. So a drawing board, and its associated equipment constitute a computational machine.
  11. I note we have yet to have guidance from our OP as to what sort of 'computational machine' we are discussing. Turing machines are not the only sort of computational machine, and I don't don't see why I can't assume that if Genady meant to limit the discussion to Turing machines he would not have specified one of these.
  12. Me for instance. That said, and with respect to Genady, the OP is poorly phrased. What is a computational machine ? My slide rule is undoubtedly a 'computational machine', but I could dig the garden with it, or stir the soup or with my model make physical measurements with it. Does 'computation' include making measurements ?
  13. Some further rambling thoughts comparing development of AI/Computers and Humans. From earliest times humans developed the concept and implementation of teamwork. that is how they would have taken down a wooly mammoth for instance. Obviously that required lots of humans. On the other hand computers are not (as far as I know) developed in the environment of lots of cooperating computers/AIs. Humans learn and grow up under the guidance of older humans, thus using one way of passing on skills and knowledge. This might even have led to the concept of a guiding being and religion. Computers don't follow this route, so could a computer develop such a concept ? Humans have the advantage of other living beings of being able to participate in evolution of a species by reproduction passing on gene. Again as far as I know this is unavailbale to computers.
  14. But it needs to develop its response to be correct ! Humans don't seem bothered by this difficulty.
  15. There are many stories in fiction where the hero ha to ask a question of a super intelligent/ super logical being, often the guardian of some gateway. Our Heroine baffles the guardian by asking a version of one of the many known (logical) paradoxes. The English language is also rich in statements that contain an inherent paradox, although everybody knows what is actually meant. Here is one such statement "My jigsaw has a missing piece" Yet by definition a 'missing piece' is one that the jigsaw does not 'have'. How would a computer / AI resolve this ?
  16. Thank you for the reply. I am more familiar with construction lasers which are mostly pretty safe at the distances involved. Here is some oficial safety information about these. https://osha.oregon.gov/pubs/newsletters/constructiondepot/OSHAConstructionDepot/archive/2012/08/cd201208-002.html But these are all pretty expensive pieces of kit, el cheapo stuff only reaches a few metres.
  17. Last night on our regional news there was a member of the local air ambulance crew asking some (unknown) sad individuals to desist from shining laser lights at the air ambulance as it tries to land to pick up an emergency patient. He further said that a week earlier someone had tried to similarly stop a police helicopter landing. That individual had been caught and was now facing prosecution. But he also said that the aircrew has suffered real eye damage in the incident. So my question is how could joe average get hold of a laser capable of such damage?
  18. The easiest way to visualise this since the circle is symmetric is to consider the simpler function f(p) = pe-p, where p = (x2 + y2) any plane section will have this form. When p = 0.5 f(p) is approximately 0.3 When p =1, f(p) is approximately 0.4 When p = 2 f(p) is approximately 0.2 and f(p) is continuous so there is a max between p = (x2 + y2) = 0.3 and p = (x2 + y2) = 2
  19. +1 Another point, usually overlooked in 'discussion' about evolution is that external factors which bring about upward evolution can also lead to degeneration or even species extinction. There is strong evidence of this latter in the recent geological records of Europe as compared to North America.
  20. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-61078867 Zika virus may be one step away from explosive outbreak By Michelle Roberts Digital health editor Published 3 hours ago Related Topics Zika virus outbreak Image source, EPA Image caption, The virus has been linked to cases of microcephaly A new outbreak of Zika virus is quite possible, warn researchers, with a single mutation potentially enough to trigger an explosive spread. The disease caused a global medical emergency in 2016, with thousands of babies born brain-damaged after their mums became infected while pregnant. US scientists say the world should be on the lookout for new mutations. Lab work, described in the journal Cell Reports, suggests the virus could easily shift, creating new variants. Recent infection studies suggest those variants may prove effective at transmitting the virus, even in countries which have built up immunity from previous outbreaks of Zika, say the team from the La Jolla Institute for Immunology. Experts said the findings, although theoretical, were interesting - and a reminder that viruses other than Covid could pose a threat. Shapeshifting virus Zika is spread by bites from infected Aedes mosquitoes. The insects are found throughout the Americas - except for Canada and Chile, where it is too cold for them to survive - and across Asia. While for most people Zika is a mild illness, with no lasting effects, it can have catastrophic consequences for babies in the womb. If a mother contracts the virus during pregnancy, it can harm the developing baby, causing microcephaly (unusually small head) and damaged brain tissue. Image source, SPL Image caption, Zika is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito which is most active during the day The Zika virus Although the virus is mostly spread by mosquitoes, it can also be sexually transmitted Few people die from Zika and only one in five people infected is thought to develop symptoms These can include fever, a rash and joint pain Since there is no treatment, the only option is to reduce the risk of being bitten Scientists have begun work on a Zika vaccine to help protect pregnant woman The researchers recreated what happens when Zika passes back and forth between mosquitoes and humans, using cells and living mice in their experiments. When Zika passed between mosquito cells and mice in the laboratory, small genetic changes occurred. This meant it was relatively easy for Zika to mutate in a way that allowed the virus to thrive and spread, even in animals that had some previous immunity from a similar mosquito-borne infection called dengue. More investigation Lead investigator Prof Sujan Shresta said: "The Zika variant that we identified had evolved to the point where the cross-protective immunity afforded by prior dengue infection was no longer effective in mice. "Unfortunately for us, if this variant becomes prevalent, we may have the same issues in real life." Prof Jonathan Ball, an expert in viruses at the University of Nottingham, told the BBC: "We've heard so much lately about the rapid evolution and emergence of coronavirus variants, but this is a timely reminder that shapeshifting is a common feature shared by so many viruses. "This work shows just how rapidly a single letter change in the genome sequence of a virus can arise, and the stark impact it can have on the disease capability of a virus. But viruses that share these changes haven't often been seen in outbreaks and, as the authors point out, these intriguing insights require more thorough investigation." Dr Clare Taylor, from the Society for Applied Microbiology, said: "Although these findings were seen in laboratory experiments and therefore have limitations, it does show that there is potential for variants of concern to arise during the normal Zika transmission cycle and reminds us that monitoring is important to follow viruses as they evolve." She said it might be possible to predict which variants could cause significant issues in the future and intervene early. Prof Paul Hunter, Professor in Medicine at the University of East Anglia, said past infection with Zika might still offer some protection against new variants - as has been seen with Covid. More on this story India's Kanpur reports latest Zika virus outbreak 8 November 2021 Zika vaccine for pregnant women sought 22 February 2018 Related Internet Links Cell Reports The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Related Topics
  21. By 'prohibit' do you mean absolutely or just prevent some creativity ? I don't know of any bar to creativity per se, but observe that creativity is often driven by other factors than preset goals and can arise spontaneously as when a doctor diagnoses a previously unknown disease or condition. Or, sticking with medical examples Patient, " I have sore tendons" Doctor, "You have tendonitis" Would any AI ever be cheeky enough to 'invent such a condition ? Or how about this questio for an AI "Where do I start filling to create a particular embankment on sloping ground of unknown variable terrain" ?
  22. Hello @Mr.Cat I have a real problem understanding your points. In Science we give words very carefully specified definitions to be able to reason and discuss scientifically, as scientists consider that it is very important that all parties to a discussion understand and use the same meaning for all important words. Very often there are also barroom definitions to these same words for those who like to shoot the breeze in the bar. Your use of these barroom definitions of words like entropy, evolution, random, order, disorder, theory, fractal, chaos, code, pattern to name but a few, make your text unworkable in scientific terms. So where would you like to start rectifying your misunderstanding of proper scientific use of these terms ?
  23. You have been watching too much Terminator.
  24. I hope you realise that I mean one computer being able to do all those things a human can. I have never met one.
  25. You have demonstrated quite deep thinking about how thing work in several of your threads, rather than just accepting simplified models that you have been offered. I did wonder if your question was prompted by having been given the usual very short explanation about dipoles aligning. People often imagine the atoms and molecules with fixed magnets or dipoles and wonder how these can turn to alignment when the atom or molecule is fixed in space in a solid type material. In order to understand this we need to realise that nothing physical actually turns, when the electric field is applied. What happens is the electrion cloud changes shape. If you would like to pursue this here is the beginning for a single atom. In the absence of an external field the electron cloud is distributed evenly about the (outer parts of) the atom. This is a time averaged evenness and may be regarded as either an even density or that the electron spends on average the same amount of time at each point. I have tried to show this by making the shading as even as I can. When an external electric field is applied the electrons experience an attraction to the more positive end of the field. This increases the density on the + side and decreases it on the - side, or if you prefer increases the time the electron spends on the + side and decreases it on the - side. This immediately generates a small field opposing the externally applied one and the atom is now polarised. This simple idea can be developed a long way towards explaining the effects for molecules and much more. Do you wish to continue ?
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