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Everything posted by studiot

  1. This food technology course looks to answer your questions. http://ecoursesonline.iasri.res.in/mod/page/view.php?id=4025 The link starts at lesson 27 "jams jellies and pickles."
  2. Thank you for your continued responses. I remember the 1960s/1970s quite differently. That was the era central governments started failing us in a big way, the big banks starts playing roulette with their customers money. Of course back then there were those voices in the wilderness (myself included) who held the same opinion I have just offered. We are still making similar mistakes today. Hydroelectric you say ? Yes there is enough reliable tidal power available around our shores to power the whole of western europe if we chose. We could have that 'bridge' to Ireland complete with motorway + railway +all the cables and pipe you wish, generating most of our own power from the exchange water between the Irish Sea and the Atlantic. Also the 1960s/70s is the era we started pulling out of peaceful nuclear power. Here in Britain we have this unseemly scamble to cobble together 'a deal' to feed ourselves. A deal ? Why does the government not take charge and do the job properly ? Tory financial dogma.
  3. Indeed so but you have not addressed my basic point that people are people and do not act in a technologically optimum way. As a matter of interest why do you think they stopped using steel and iron pipes for low pressure work in the gas and water industries, and are even replacing them in high pressure work these days ?
  4. Or is that because Centrica has many other income streams ? Pesonally I think the whole gas market stinks and has done since privitisation. (pun intended). A far better and safer solution would be (have been from the 1960s) to concentrate on using electric heating and cooking rather than gas, as has been done in countries like Norway and Switzerland, and conserve the use of oil products for better purposes. That way two sources of inefficiency would be eliminated in the generation to end user chain as electrolysis and recombustion would not be necessary.
  5. I was taught that (conventional chemical wisdom is ) that hydrogen is particularly dangerous because. 1) It is a very small molecule and therefore difficult to contain, most especially in old perhaps poorly maintained equipment. Leaks are more likely than with say propane. 2) If there is a leak, which there is when you change a propane bottle and can often be smelled around caravans, hydrogen is more dangerous because of its more explosive nature. What might happen if you changed over a hydrogen bottle in the same way ? What about the energy released is it not also greater with hydrogen ? Hydrogen releases 142 MJ /kg compared with your other fuels, gasoline, natural gas, methane etc are all in the 40 - 55 range so hydrogen is nearly 3 times as energetic. Solid fuels come in even lower with wood at 15 -20, coal at 20 -30. Alcohols are also in the 20 -30 range. All I am saying is that the use of hydrogen presents greater dangers than ordinary people are used to with the fuels, containment vessels and technology they already have. Perhaps fuel cells, being liquid/ionic phase will be safer but there is still the issue af a tank of a substance that is very dangerous if it gets out. I am not saying we should not avail ourselves of the technology, just that people cut corners (nuclear technology history confirms this as did London's largest ever explosion which was in a TNT factory). We should always take and enforce extra care with extra dangerous technology.
  6. +1 But more than that, it is a dangerous storage medium compared to some others. However perhaps fuel cells are a way forward. (one day).
  7. I have started a new thread for this as it raises an important interesting question that is not really 'Science News' Suppose beecee's dream is realised and one government or several governments research and develop really good hydrogen technology. Who benefits ? Big business ? The people ?
  8. Yes, indeed there have: one of my more distant relatives was the fire officier in charge of dealing with the Buntsfield disaster. However I looked back to a time when gas that came through the pipe to consumers contained hydrogen gas because:- The changeover to pure hydrocarbon mixtures (mostly methane) started in 1960. And there have been significant disasters with this updated gas as well, for instance Ronan Point . I worked (a very little bit) on the aftermath at what was then called the Building Research Station.
  9. Perhaps you have a short memory. Here are a couple quickly found https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pittsburgh_gasometer_explosion https://www.scmp.com/magazines/post-magazine/short-reads/article/3008553/sudden-and-terrifying-explosion-claimed-40
  10. The use of hydrogen as an energy source is as old as the hills. The use of hydrogen as an energy source commenced in 1792 when William Murdoch lit his house and office in Redruth, Cornwall from town gas, which is a mixture of hydrogen carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Since that time the have been sundry vaiations on that formula with 'water gas', 'producer gas' and other combustible formulations. History has also taught us of the dangers of these mixtures, both from poisoning and explosion. A different compound, hydrazine is also available and only marginally less dangerous. In case it is proposed that such materials be confined to industry, there have been many unintentional disasters in industry - industrial scale disasters, of course.
  11. I disagree. I agree. The difference is, of course, that fly by wire is only a small part of the system necessary to fly remotely. Remote telemetry is still very complicated, and all that gear would need to be added to a simple fly by wire air or space craft. And then there is the time lag which becomes ever more significant with distance.
  12. There are several ways to handle catenaries, but I often find that splitting the vertical axis into two with one section constant and the other parallel to the horizontala axis, as in the following.
  13. So is there a problem making the substitution ? You have nearly done the question.
  14. A very insightful comment, without any need to refer to index notation. +1
  15. Why is this not in Homework ? Hints What is s ? What is velocity in terms of s? What is acceleration in terms of velocity ?
  16. The problem with the rubber sheet is that the curvature of a rubber sheet is of the wrong sort of curvature. There are two sorts of curvature, extrinsic and intrinsic. The curvature of the manifold in GR is intrinsic. The curvature of the rubber sheet (manifold) is extrinsic. A further comment is that a single point has no curvature. A line has no intrinsic curvature but may have zero extrinsic cirvature or some value of extrinsic curvature. A surface can have no curvature, both extrinsic and intrinsic curvature or just extrinsic or intrinsic curvature. These situations can all be drawn or sculpted in our 3D world. Once we move to 3D however we cannot draw or sculpt extrinsic curvature and it is very difficult to imagine.
  17. Stromatolites. Amongst the first living organisms on earth circa 3.5 billion years ago and still going today. They were responsible for releasing the oxygen into a toxic (to us) atmousphere and making it breathable for oxygen breathers. https://www.bushheritage.org.au/species/stromatolites https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stromatolite You may have seen the BBC series The Power of the Planet, presented by Iain Stewart https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00gczg5 An interesting reverse (geological not biological) process is the 'rusting of the rocks' https://www.newswise.com/articles/how-rocks-rusted-on-earth-and-turned-red
  18. Really ? What is n ? That leaves me still waiting for some unit free constant that couples length to any one of the other independent physical dimensions I have mentioned. Do you know what they are? If not are you not curious about my symbols ? I certainly don't agree that all forms of 'Energy' in general are proportional to temperature.
  19. Hi Markus, I know we are always stressing there is no fabric. Have you heard of the cosmic Fabric model of gravity ? https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjM-ouXq4PzAhUKxRQKHfQwDd4QFnoECAIQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.worldscientific.com%2Fdoi%2F10.1142%2FS0218271819500962&usg=AOvVaw3Kqo9MvdIjk3xvl4NsgsTR
  20. +1 to Markus for his patient conversation and explanations to Conscious Energy.
  21. Sounds like you are already doing lots of good things for her. Hopefully you realise she will not see DNA with the sort of microscope you are talking about - That sort probably costs more than your house. Thnking and asking about abstract things she can't see at age 6. Wow. May I also suggest some horizon broadening ? Cooking with mummy helps learn how to handle materials. I don't know where you live but perhaps you could take her to a Science Centre, there are some really good ones in Europe (including the UK). Also try to link to things you can see such as plants, animals and the world around her. The changing seasons. some fresh air. Maybe visit a farm. Tell here the world is one big laboratory. But don't get to heavy. That's my advice for starters.
  22. I'm sure you understand the point. My examples are just that. Let us just suppose that every Scot applied to do Higher Pictish Studies and the Scottish Government funded this. Where would Scotland get its future teachers, doctors, engineers, lawyers, and so on from ? And who would employ all the those with a Batchelors or Masters of Pictishness ?
  23. Should higher education be free (a la European) ? Well no one seems to care what constitutes higher education but I see that the expected lines have been drawn so let me ask the question in thelight of the following hypothetical situation. Higher Education in Scotland is free to Scots. (not hypothetical). Suppose everyone only wanted to study higher Pictish studies. Should that also be free ? or If you prefer to consider the point of my question. Should all higher studies be free and how do we persuade folks to take up other more useful studies?
  24. Just a short answer is needed to start with, not an entire exposition of Physics. If I can understand and agree with it I can then follow all your other long posts that have taken so much effort. As a matter of interest the MLT system is not unique, nor is it specifically SI, although yes Système International d'Unités has adopted it. But there are also other systems in use for instance one with mass replaced by force - the FLT system. The FLT system finds favour in Fluid Mechanics as it make this system easier (at least for Fluid Mechanics) as can be seen from this small table. (after Olson : Engineering Fluid Mechanics) Note at the bottom of the table the comment about temperature. I did ask and you have not said how your L system handles temperature.
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