This whole question is self contradictory.
There is no exact meaning.
Any further the meaning is changing over time.
Bacon was different sort of scientist from Newton, who was a different sort of scientist from Thomson who was....
You might just as well ask
What does "plumber" mean ?
Modern plumbers do very different things and work in a very different way, from plumbers of even just 50 years ago.
no,I asked it because there are differences between the definition's itself depending on one country to another country.
For instance, a "scientist" or more properly an "academcian/academics" needs to be approved by any university. I mean she/he needs to work at any university with suitable academic position. (Turkey)
On the other hand we know that (at least in the past) any scientist should not have to be approved by any university.
yet, obviously there are some stupid applications.
(for instance I read some requirements from registration of some academic journals or over their webpage (directly) and they require that the author who would submit his/her paper should have suitable academic title. This is stupid. Sometimes, we can see the extension of such dogmatic beliefs. surely, this is a fallacy.)
having a degree does not mean that you would be qualified one. While we have had this information in the left hand, we can also say that having no official education would not mean that you would not be a qualified or prospective fellow in the right hand.
all in all , I can clearly say that here, the desire and request is effective on some actions to be happened on the issue.
School is in fact,everywhere ,not just a classroom+ labs (etc) surrounding by a classic building (named university)