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  1. Demonstrative pronouns in Turkis: bu şu /shu/ o for near for more distant for the most distant Personal pronouns in Turkish Ben Biz Sen Siz O Onlar / -n- is a connective consonant -y-/as in yes/ and -s- are the rest. Look in English law -----> lawyer. I think once I don't remember the word in English, there was -n- in it. /That consonants are used when word finishes in a vowel and next ending starts with a vowel /-lar, -ler are the endings for plural of nouns in Turkish( look at -ant, -ent, -are, -ere ... in Latin) Latintutorial/youtube Demonstrative pronoun for the most distant O works as Personal pronoun in the 3rd person singular and plural. Turks don't have grammatical gender at all. Only nouns take grammatical case endings. They are simple and are the same for singular and plural of the nouns. zaman - time, season, age, era, epoch o zaman - then, at that time Even in Turkish the demonstrative pronoun for the distant is associated with the Definitive-ness. The book is on the table. = That book(which I know/recognize from the past/then) is on the table. /even if that stood instead of the in front of the noun the meaning would remain the same. Englsh just took the(existing word, form of that) as a word which is HANDY. Germans didn't do that - different mentality of two peoples/ People tend to behave like Powerful or Famous people. In that how people speak/talk there is a lot of Fashion, Snobbishness, Mistakes, Misunderstanding, False Ideas, ... "Adder... ...The modern form represents a faulty separation 14c.-16c. of a nadder into an adder, for which see also apron, auger, nickname, orange, humble pie, aitchbone, umpire. Nedder is still a northern English dialect form." Etymonline (dot) com can ---- could /L in could is not natural but intentionally put!/Etymonline (dot)com -ing(2) vs -ing(1) are same in English but not in German. /-ing Etymonline (dot) com/ If germans who study English knew that they would be happy. And so on. Well, guys, thank you for putting up with me for so long. You were great.
  2. Thank you Sensei for you reply. I am leaving the forum to study more seriously and not bother you with my silly questions. You guys were great. Thank you again.
  3. Hi, At one go I cannot say all. the more the merrier - "by the amount more, by that amount merrier"./copy-paste from the page/ When I see that phrase I don't go to Instrumental nor to Russian - I am not that smart. Nor I go "by the amount more, by that amount merrier" - not that smart either. I do this: 1. all 4 words are known to me - Okay 2. don't pay attention to every each word - I take the phrase as a whole 3. to that phrase I assign meaning(just visualize the situation simplified + how I feel) Of course I don't trust myself and question my conclusions if possible. I gave up German because it is more "HEAVY" than English("light"). Be + past participle(for a few verbs), have + past participle with the same meaning which leads to using of Werden in passive voice(I find it not pleasant at all). Also grammatical cases are annoying. German is between Russian and English(both ends of a transition) - English complete transition - Russian - no transition.(losing all endings - of the verbs, of the nouns; phrasal verbs, ... - not losing nothing, not touching the prefixes of the verb,...) but some things are the same in both languages and so on. German was helpful in 2 aspects though: 1. with german logic in English 2. with phrasal verbs Thanks
  4. Hi there, I will go strait to the business. Let's say Recursion and Embedding are synonymous. You probably think that I don't go to the pages(links you send me). I go and I read. Again about Embedding - it is visual to me and I prefer This name before Recursion( no associations with it in my head). Two types of Embedding as I recall: f calls f f calls g call f I love to watch movies(who doesn't) Movies go: 1. Event after Event( it is okay, it is a standard story) or 2. Let's take Heist with Gene Hackman and Danny DeVito the two Masterminds. Here goes Embedding f calls g calls f ... The mightier goes deeper and wins! This also we see between two Opposing secret agencies, the 1st tap the 2nd and the 2nd pretends that it doesn't know, crossing - double crossing and so on... Jackie Brown, but there there are 3 parties f, g, h. Sleuth(1972) with Michael Cain - what is the Embedding it is hard to me to decide. There probably other possibilities. Am I close? Thanks
  5. Hi again. About links you sent me - Thank you. Link sent me by studiot: I was there a time ago. I preferred to study English as a language with grammatical cases because it simplifies things. Russian/German grammatical cases (their definitions) work in English. Case endings which are missing are not a big problem. the more the merrier - "Here, what appears to be the definite article "the" is actually a demonstrative pronoun in the instrumental case" /I copied and pasted from the site you gave me./ It is easy to translate that phrase in Russian with demonstrative pronoun in Instrumental case word for word. The link which you gave me, Strange: I was there exactly in spring last year. If we go down in that page under Evolution/ Definite articles - "Definite articles typically arise from demonstratives meaning that." /I copied and pasted from the page/ I had to know what the definite article was, because then I studied German - grammatical cases were easy But I didn't know how to handle the definite article. I asked around in the internet and I was told. Then in the summer I met some people from Sweden and because of the map on the site I asked them if it was true. Yes, they put the definite article after the word as suffix. das -->d/as = d- + -as; d- + -er(nominative case masculine ending) = der; d- + -ie( nominative case feminine/plural ending) and so on. After Russian, grammatical cases in German are a joke. Even simpler are grammatical cases in Turkish. They don't have definite article, for "indefinite article" they use bir(one), just like russians and it is not exactly an indefinite article. Demonstrative pronouns give(are used for) not only the definite article but sometimes Personal pronouns - the 3rd Person . Last year I was happy( I still am) because of the simplicity of the idea behind definite article(very, very Practical idea). English is a language nicely simplified. There are things which are messed up or missing in that language. Thank you, dimreepr, for the link. I am watching it now. This is the main reason that I am in English - to watch comedies(+/- sarcasm). Have a nice day
  6. I learnt it by heart years ago. Language is a deadly serious business. that = the = das = тот is one and the same word. In "My name is Earl" the father of Jeff Brides stars. If you go to S03E17 14:20 ...
  7. I am an Italiano vero. Let's give ourselves a time.
  8. I am an italinan! I am the same as everybody else .
  9. Hi sudiot, Thank you for your interest about the theme. It is SIMPLE! English, German, Latin, Russian, "my language" ....("even" French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, ...) ARE the SAME. that = the = das = тот = la , le , les. ... (are Demonstrative pronouns for the far) /English - German - Russian(slavic) - ... / Russians and German(Enlish, Dutch, ...) are Cousins. On the West people Naturally don't understand Latin, Greek, German, English, Russian, French, Italian, Spanish and then Turkish and Semitic languages. Genitive case is EMBEDDING(genitive case is understood by everyone), BUT Instrumental case IS NOT AT ALL UNDERSTOOD!(because it is THE OBVIOUS!) All my posts are about the LANGUAGE. From the 1st. You don't have MATHEMATICS without the LANGUAGE. /just for the attention/
  10. Instrumental case is live and kicking in English. Why german/english nouns have no gender(of course German "has")?! Because they lost their noun/adjective endings in Nominative case.(don't be nitpicking) (and the same is in the other cases - accusative, dative, instrumental) Past participles(active and passive) in English and German have different meaning BUT they look the same. Look at werden in German.
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