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About Alfred001

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  1. I'd appreciate some help here from US or UK folks (especially UK). Is there a name for an exam that a person has to take from some state body to be able to work in a certain profession. I often hear reference in the US to a "bar" in the context of law. The context I need it in is a person passed this test for being a librarian. Is there a name specifically for that?
  2. How do people defend utilitarianism?

    I'm not sure what the distinction here is. You seem to be saying that you require a net increase, but not a maximum increase, but that seems odd. You say there are different varieties, but what variety resolves the problem I mentioned?
  3. In the West and, ideally, disaggregated by country.
  4. How do people defend utilitarianism?

    I've noticed recently a lot of people describing themselves as utilitarians and I'm always puzzled by this, because there are old objections to utilitarianism and I'm not aware that anyone resolved them. Utilitarianism being the maximum amount of happiness for the maximum amount of people would permit killing an innocent person for the purpose of harvesting their organs and saving 3 dying people. This would increase the amount of happiness in the world. How do utilitarians defend from this?
  5. Ideally, I'd like to see liberal, conservative and libertarian, if it were sliced down to a more granular level, though, that would be great. I'd prefer to see IQ test results, I don't think education is a good measure of intelligence (though I'm sure there's some correlation).
  6. Does anyone know of any data on average intelligence in different political factions?
  7. Let me first say that by best I mean best for health, with no regard at all for body building (weight loss or muscle gain). I'm wondering whether anyone is familiar with any research that could answer the following questions: #1 Which type of exercise is best for health (paying no mind to weight loss or muscle gain)? HIIT, steady cardio or weight lifting? #2 If I am already doing HIIT or steady cardio, is there any additional health benefit to be gleaned adding weight lifting into the mix?
  8. Godel's wife

    Well, I would guess typical would be a professional woman, if not another academic. Doctor, lawyer, businesswoman, something of that sort.
  9. Godel's wife

    Anyone else find it strange that Godel's wife was apparently a dancer? You'd figure she might have been a fellow academic or some other kind of professional. Mathematicians don't typically marry people from showbusiness. Does anyone know of any online sources that give info on this, seemingly, unlikely pairing?
  10. Finding a researcher's bibliography

    But that would give me only the stuff they've published in that database, no? If they've also published stuff in journals not included in that database I wouldn't get those.
  11. Pardon the noob question but how would one go about finding everything a researcher has published (or every paper he has published, if it's not possible to search for books and other publications), presuming you had to do it through databases, rather than going to wiki or his personal website.
  12. I'm reading this article and I hit on this part This notion that consciousness is uniquely human is one I've heard expressed many times, though usually in more philosophical discussions of consciousness and it's always seemed to be just a guess people make based on intuition. This is a more scientific article (although it again seems that the writer is just guessing), so it made me wonder - is there some scientific reason to believe consciousness is unique to humans?
  13. I understand there's been a lot of research recently on the consequences of fathering children at an older age. From what I've seen most research has shown that the older a guy gets the more mutations happen in the DNA his sperm carries, which has been associated with a greater risk of mental health in offspring. I've seen some people suggest that it's correlation rather than causation with the reasoning, IIRC, that maybe the kind of guys who have children later in life are the kind of guys who have DNA that carries a greater risk of mental problems and that it's THAT that the studies are detecting, not a result of mutations. But this seems to be the minority view, from what I understand. On the other hand, there's also been research showing that older fathers produce offspring with longer telomeres, which gives greater longevity (and health?). I'm wondering whether anyone's aware of any other research into this and which do you think is better, given this and any other potential research - early or late fatherhood?
  14. Is it possible to describe everything that happens inside a cell in terms of physics? Like is it possible to tell the story of creation of protein in terms of physics or are these things just biological dynamics and givens that can't be reduced to physics?