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Everything posted by Mordred

  1. Handedness of Charge

    Belief isn't very scientific. Charge handedness involves vector symmetry. This isn't based on belief but on the mathematical relations of vectors under symmetry. Right handed and left handed charge is rather meaningless as charge polarity itself is an arbitrary choice of which to assign as positive or negative. In point of detail handedness is involved in charges other than the electromagnetic. In all cases it is an assigned vector relation under graph ie an increase in right handed trends towards an increase in positive values. Its only fundamental purpose is its behavior when modelled under graphs in the same manner posotive and negative charge behaves when graphed. Charge is simply a term assigned to attraction. The stronger the attraction the greater the amount of charge.
  2. test Ameba test

    You need to place [math] on each side in the latter half so I don't activate the command tags replace the % with a / [math] \Delta [%math] [math]\Delta[/math] You will need to refresh the page to see if it worked as well
  3. Question about Rotation

    Where is the fun of learning in that type of answer
  4. What is a vacuum?

    Under Cosmology applications, as Swansont mentioned above the definitions vary. The vacuum is a scalar field with no inherent average directional component. The mean energy density itself can be greater or less than the mean ground state ie positive/negative vacuum. The ground state would be some arbitrary baseline state that is set at zero mathematically. Though its true value can be a nonzero energy/mass density.
  5. What is Space made of?

    FAQ article development, feel free to ask questions or make suggestions. (I'm still working on the Einstein field equation section. Probably keep that portion seperate to minimize length) This question is amongst one of the most commonly asked questions in relativity. Numerous articles both in pop media and peer reviewed articles refer to terms such as space time fabric, space time curvature. This leads the new learners with a common misconception that space has some mysterious fabric or material like property. To answer this properly we need to describe a few principles. A) gravity influences mass B) energy is a property of particles, or physical configurations such as feilds. Energy does not exist on its own. C) space is defined as a volume only. That volume contains the standard model particles and feilds. It is not something form of ether. In GR space is mapped in an arbitrary coordinate system. Without the time component the coordinates are in 3d. D) spacetime is any metric that includes the time component as a vector. This is the 4th dimension, in GR the time component is treated in coordinate form. E) General relativity is a coordinate system metric. This coordinate system makes use of manifolds. Which is a topological space that is resembles Euclidean space at beach point. For example a Euclidean space (flat space), can undergo a homeomorphism to curved space via relativistic effects such as inertia and mass to an observer. The rubber sheet example is one such homeomorphism. A good YouTube video is Keep in mind the rubber sheet analogy is just that. An analogy, it was never intended to state that space time is a materialistic fabric or ether. A classical example of a homeomorphism is the coordinate change from Cartesian coordinates (Euclidean flat space) to polar coordinates. (Curved, spherical geometry) Now with those in mind, we find that spacetime curvature is a geometric coordinate relation of how the strength of gravity influences the particles that reside in the volume of space. In short it is a geometric description of how gravity influences particles not the volume of space. The terms fabric, curvature, sretches are misleading. They are analogies used to explain the change in geometric relations. 2) How is space time created? The volume of space simply increases, space itself is just volume filled with the standard model particles.
  6. Why is time called a 4th dimension?

    Not that I am aware of. In many metrics the coordinates will often employ the following [math] {ct,x,y,z}={x^0,x^1,x^2,x^3}[/math] where the superscripts are indices and not powers. The indices can be interchanged to the subscripts ie [math]x_0[/math] following the covariant and contravariant rules under Einstein summation rules. GR,QFT and String theory all use the latter x coordinates. There is advatanges to using the latter when you use Natural units. particularly under symmetry/ assymetry group relations
  7. Why is time called a 4th dimension?

    Lol actually you guys have accurately answered the Op's question. I would only like to add that by using the displacement of c via the usage of {ct} we get the dimensionality of length for the time component.
  8. Thanks for all the help so far. Thankfully there is enough hotspots around to connect that its not too great a worry lol just anooying
  9. This problem started after the last server repairs. If I recall it was on the New years when the hard drives were being serviced. Since that time my mobile phone has not been able to connect using data however reliably connects using my home wifi. The message I recieve is "connection refused." I tried both full and mobile version from my phone same message.
  10. Yes tried restarting phone. (usually my first step to troubleshooting electronics lol) yes bill is paid Tried a factory reset of software as well (after backing up data)
  11. Quantum Entanglement ?

    Out of the 6 String theory books I read, the link above teaches String theory in the most easily understood manner. It starts by detailing how String theory works with relativity and QM and provides valuable insights into all three topics. For example the fundamental differences between Heisenburg vs Schrodinger operators is discussed in one of its chapters. Its earlier chapters detailing the weak field limit on GR via the weak field approximation using the Minkowskii tensor via two observers S and S primed and how this relates the the lightcone gauge to the covariant and contravariant indices is one of the best methodologies I have yet to come across. In essence the book doesn't assume any priori in other related physics topics though still requires the priori of Calculus and differential geometry. PS the lightcone gauge itself is the null geodesic characteristics for massless particles such as the photon with ds^2=0 line element you mentioned above. The book does an excellent job describing the differences on the ds^2 worldlines for massive and massless particles.
  12. Lol my most nightmarish project over 20 years ago was a non profit company hired me to build a 12 by 10 by 6 foot rifle display cabinet. They had so little funds available that they supplied me with old wood from railroad tracks that they salvaged. I only had an 8 inch table saw, 1 jackplane and odds and ends hand woodworking tools. I build a table to support larger wood cuts on that 8 inch table saw and had to design my own jigs guides and antikickpack arrestors. I never wanted to photograph the end project even though the company liked the work. I personally was disgusted with the project. Though it was rewarding on one aspect. The sheer creative usage of making such a large project with a highly limitted selection of tools and materials. My clamps was made out of the same material and rope to tighten the clamps. (challenged my rope skills lol) as one example.
  13. Yes including other forums. The problem started precisely the same day as the server downtime to repair/replace the harddrives this particular repair Prior to that zero problems for over a year on same phone and phone provider. edit tested wife's phone same provider plan and phone make and model same problem.
  14. No its a personal phone through a Telus provider.
  15. Swansont did an excellent job answering this question. I would just like to add that I am glad to see you take the time to ask questions on my posts. Far too often I am forced to describe very complex topics as simple as possible. In many cases I end up forgetting to add essential details or go a little too heuristic. No worries I would rather people question my posts than simply accept them verbatim. How else does everyone learn lol. Its a common misconception that GR and QM are incompatible as mentioned above by Swansont QM does involve though when it includes GR involves a large body of particles sufficient to have messurable effect
  16. Can you witness the birth of the Universe?

    Your forgetting a critical detail on thermal equilibrium. electrons etc can form at higher temperatures but they quickly annihilate. Also temperature is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. photons do exist before electron decoupling their mean free path is still too short so while not decoupled they still form but with extremely short mean free path. I might be wrong but I think the detail you may be missing is how thermal equilibrium relates to expansion rate. ie how a particle decouples but the rate of expansion prevents its immediate annihilation. Individual particle species can form just not with any stability. For example from the following arxiv discussing boson/fermion particle species during the electroweak symmetry breaking. "EW symmetry breaking arises, while one is retained in the one single dynamical charge neutral Higgs component. In the massless stage, the SU(2)×U(1) theory has 4×2=8 gauge degrees of freedom where the first coefficient is the number of particles (γ, Z, W±) and each massless gauge boson has two transverse polarizations. Adding in 8c × 2s = 16 gluonic degrees of freedom we obtain 4+8+16=28 bosonic degrees of freedom." Quoted section is under figure 4. Seems to me the misconception is what is meant by decoupling and thermal equilibrium. It does not mean the SM particles are not present only that they haven't decoupled.
  17. Quantum Entanglement ?

    Thanks Migl. What is more complex to explain is how String theory works with open and closed strings on a lightcone. Which is part of the ADS stacking mentioned in the diagram above. A visual image is to take a lightcone. Draw a sinusoidal at some vertical point till it connects to the two outer edges. (open string) now instead of connecting to the lightcone boundaries have the string wrap around the circumference of the lightcone at some arbitrary vertical points till the string connects its two ends with each other (closed string). Each vertical string will have its own hyperslice identity but using strings in this manner one can accurately describe a lightcone object. If I recall correctly this is termed orbifolding under string theory but I will have to double check that. (my string theory textbooks are currently packed). Ie the image above would be more accurate if the cylinder was replaced by a lightcone but that would add confusion. Anyways understanding lightcone relativistic strings takes several chapters. One starts by applying the surface of the lightcone as a boundary condition. (usually using the Minkowskii metric). lol a little side note my string theory textbooks taught me far more about relativity than any relativity textbook I own or read. This article isn't nearly as good as "A First Course in String Theory" however it covers the details though doesn't explain it nearly as well as the textbook above.
  18. Quantum Entanglement ?

    Iteoro you seem to think Strange and I are misleading you. Thats fair so let me provide with a couple of links that describe the holographic principle and compactification. I will for now start with the methodology directly developed by Maldacena notice on that link it mentions compactification of both the [math]ADS_5[/math] 4+1 dimensions into the ADS boundary hyperslice. Then it models the CFT (conformal field theory) as a cylindrical surface boyndary ? From that link... Three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space is like a stack of hyperbolic disks, each one representing the state of the universe at a given time. The resulting spacetime looks like a solid cylinder. Compactification requires complex mathematical objects. (key note mathematical not physical). Look at it this way in order to describe a cube I require height, width and length. Or do I if each side is identical ? If all sides are identical I can remove one of those dimensions. Rougjly speaking each side has a symmetry duality with any given side. Now the compactication above is far far more complex as it literally involves compactification of string theory (which attempts to model all particle degrees of freedom from a fundamental string) that fundamental string (usually a spin 2 graviton but not always) gives rise to other harmonic strings via (as often described by analogy changing the string tension just like tightening a guitar string changes the frequency of superposition of harmonic strings upon the fundamental string frequency). Every particle has a spin characteristic, they also have chemical potential etc described by the particles cross section. In the holographic principle these quantum bits of information of each particle is what is encoded via its temperature contribution to entropy. It is the quantum information defined by entropy of each particle that is encoded upon each boundary surface ie each hyperslice etc. To do this requires the use of gauge groups. There is variations of AdS/Cft that uses different gauge groups under different symmetry group compactification methods that lead to say [math] ADS_7[/math] mentioned in that link above. Wow is that a mouthful. However I was serious when I stated one must examine the math involved to properly understand ADS/CFT. Its just like GR. In order to fully understand how the EFE works one must learn the mathematics. (PS I actually find it rather amusing to see downvotes when a poster is telling the truth.) It simply proves how abused the reputation system actually is. Such examples of abuse is downvotes simply because someone states something that argues against the down voter. Regardless of how accurate the down voted post is. I for one have probably downvoted posts less than a dozen times in three years. However its rather meaningless to me as I will always have my institutionalize credentials ie degrees. I could literally describe all the mathematics behind both ADS/CFT including how they apply to string theory but I know very few readers will be able to follow it.
  19. why do two objects fall same rate in a vacuum

    Umm that makes little sense sorry. Why not start with the Einstein elevator... Which is the principle of equivalence. The latter portion is the principle of covariance (tidal forces due to intrinsic curvature) which isn't required to understand why all objects fall at the same rate. (particularly since the title of this thread specified in a vacuum lol). Which requires parallel freefall paths. However lets start with the basics Notice how mass affects the rate of freefall? ie counters it to the point where the mass term cancels out of the equations? [math] a=\frac{F_{net}}{m}[/math] you can see two examples ie elephant and mouse in that last link. Ie that basic definition of mass I posted in your other thread... mass is resistance to inertia change ie acceleration.
  20. How gravity works

    A video isn't a proof secondly the rubber sheet analogy is just that a laymans analogy. SR doesn't have the tools to fully understand time dilation. GR is far more informative but even then you must understand how every field contributes. In order to understand spacetime one must examine how all involved particle fields interact and interfere. How they all contribute to the curvature term via their individual coupling constants to the mass term. When you examine GR with other fields such as QED, QCD etc then time dilation isn't mysterious at all. Its a result of interparticle field interactions and how those interactions in essence generate propogation delays. (by a classical physics analogy). Unfortanetely for example describing the delays due to spacetime on photon signals requires understanding the null geodesic worldline itself. Thats incredibly difficult to describe without the reader understanding the principle of least action. lol you get right down to the nitty gritty a photon path is never truly straight at every infinitesimal. Not in our universe. This is true of all particle paths... The locality field interactions vary from coordinate to coordinate. (google Einstein locality) though ignore for now locality vs non locality with regards to entanglement lol. Lets just state the field interference has a range limit defined by c just as the particle influence is limitted by c. Side hint the constant c is also the limit of information exchange between any two particles...
  21. Virtual Particle Pair Production Methodology

    Then use the proper terminology lol don't make up words that don't exist in the dictionary. There is nothing diametrically opposed in a coordinate basis with regards to the term orthogonal. An orthogonal coordinate basis is simply 90 degrees to another coordinate basis. Example x axis is orthogonal to y axis. So why would you need a rotation when the term orthogonal suffices? ie orthogonal rotaion? you already have the 90 degree relation with a single term. Orthogonal. ie orthogonal polatizations between the E and B fields. Why do you need to rotate further? I have no issue with monopoles itself but you would save a considerable amount of time having to guess at a translation of your posts to understand what you are getting at. Try formulating the quality of your posts a little more complete (ideally with the mathematics) so we aren't trying to interpret your posts. The lack of proper terminology reads as a word salad. Yes there is serious work in searching for the elusive Dirac/magnetic monopoles but nothing conclusive though there is experimental support such as the link above. That paper is also on arxiv. However afiak there hasn't been anything Maxwell shattering about that paper. ie not conclusive enough. Example that reference is one of two publications mentioned in the following article "To date, the experimental studies of spatially localized monopoles in the context of spinor BECs have been limited to two publications [19,20]"
  22. How gravity works

    great then do so with the mathematics please. I can quarantee modern physics does an excellent job of describing time dilation using current theories. I've only posted a very rudimentary start point. The full EFE does a far better job but I have yet to see any sign your able to relate to that mathematical level. (don't worry very few people do understand fully the EFE. Its nothing against you personally, just an observation on how restrictive my posts must be to be understood.)
  23. Virtual Particle Pair Production Methodology

    No they don't exist on their own you cannot have an electric field without a magnetic field. Secondly using terminology such as orthorotation is foolish when that term does not exist in the dictionary. The terms orthogonal and orthonormal are mathematical terms with corresponding mathematical proofs involved in their definition. Can you provide such a proof for orthorotation using unit vectors i,j,k ? Your terminology is also unclear as to whether or not your using emf as per electromotive force or as electromagnetic force. This is an important distiction with regards to Faradays law of induction between the magnetic and electric fields. Lol if you want an older VP between the two google dyons. You rarely see any papers covering dyons but some still exist. edit will have to check but the dyon may be a quasi rather than a virtual particle. (distinction is sonewhat blurry). Dyons fell out of usage when quarks were confirmed.
  24. Virtual Particle Pair Production Methodology

    I'm sorry but this last post makes very little sense. Orthorotation isn't a proper terminology. Do you perhaps mean orthonormal rotation? Secondly the magnetic field has a 90 degree phase shift from the electric field. One depends on the other change either the magnetic or the electric you cause a change in the other. They are two properties of the same thing. (the electric/magnetic field) we can mathematically describe each seperately however they are in fact two properties of the same thing. Ask yourself this how is the magnetic moment of an electron via its spin involved? Here see right hand rule between angular and magnetic moment What you should gather from this link is that both the electric field and magnetic field depends on the particle number density and spin states of the electrons.An individual electron will generate both an electric and magnetic field without requiring a mediator VP as both fields are two properties that arise from the same particle (the electron itself). However two EM fields interacting will involve vector bosons. This isn't the same as the electric field interacting with the magnetic field. (these are both part of the same field ) EM...