Moreno

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  1. Will MHD generators replace ICE?

    MHD gen. doesn't need a lubrication system in comparison to free piston and hence no oil filter or oil changes, no friction looses. It may not need cooling system as well, if made of tungsten or ceramics. Hence no radiator, no cooling energy looses. No moving parts. No noise or vibration. I'm not sure what efficiency fuel cells can reach, if they use methanol, gasoline or other hydrocarbon fuel. Perhaps not higher than 20%? And definitely they are bulkier, more fragile and expensive.
  2. Will MHD generators replace ICE?

    1) Probably it wasn't a correct link. 2) Probably we would need to ionize exhaust components somehow. For example, use electric discharges, lasers, electron beam or rf waves of certain frequencies to get relatively "cold" plasma at 2000-2500 C. If we would succeed to ionize 1/1000 of exhaust atoms it would be regarded as a relatively well conducting plasma. The key is to make it well conducting at nearly any temperature and we would need some external impact for this.
  3. Will MHD generators replace ICE?

    Free piston engines aren't bad, but coming late. I guess there have to be plenty of problems too. What do you mean under: "converting fossil fuel to laser energy"? Where did you take it from? I'm not sure MHD generator has to be based on Bryton cycle and requires regenerators. Better it would be a one stage cycle with relatively "cool" exhaust.
  4. Will MHD generators replace ICE?

    In my understanding power to weight ratio of MHD generator is much better than ICE/fuel cells. What is about cost? Is it too high? This one work assumes MHD generators can reach 60-65% efficiencies ultimately. Carnot efficiency at 1.500 C suppose to be around 80% and 90% at 3000 C hot sink and 300 C exhaust temperature. http://veprints.unica.it/616/1/PhD_Roberto_Pintus.pdf
  5. What do you think about perspectives of MHD generators to replace ICE in series hybrids as a range extender? May it ultimately happen?
  6. Can long term bright light exposure cause irreversible or long term eyesight damage? A bright light from LED lights, for example? Let say UV component isn't significant and brightness is insufficient to cause bleeding or real burn. What exactly health issues can happen and what medication can help?
  7. There is also an interesting questions rase regarding our universe heat death. Some people claim that irreversible increase in entropy doesn't apply to our universe because it is infinite and therefore can't be regarded as a thermodynamically closed system. This statement however looks a bit speculative to me because it doesn't explain how entropy reversal is happening in our universe and order increases due to the fact (assumed) it is infinite. Even if it is infinite it doesn't mean we cannot apply such notion as an "average energy density per space" and deny that energy density is prone to equalization practically everywhere in observed universe (which is something like 13 billions of light years). So, the concept of infinite universe doesn't explain why we aren't in the state of the heat death already if we assume that the first or the second law of thermodynamics are never violated.
  8. Well, my question was kind of: "The thermal fluctuations which surround as (Brownian motion) are extremely small in comparison to our own size and therefore can be hardly useful. But what about extremely tiny conscious creatures from a parallel universe? Would they be able to get any useful energy from these fluctuation which are very small by our dimensions, but significant by their scale? Can extremely small amounts of useful energy (by our scale) be obtained from Brownian motion or not at all?". Another example: "Humans create a tunnel in a parallel universe in which atoms and molecules are huge by our size. Each molecule may be the size of human. The energy of thermal photons these giant molecules absorb and radiate is also huge. Would humans be able to harness any useful energy from Brownian motion in this parallel universe?".
  9. Sorry, can you develop your questions? Why would they?
  10. Let to do a curious thought experiment. Modern physics do not set a theoretical limit on how small elementary particles can be with exception of Planck length (1.6 x 10-35 m). What if there can be a small elementary particles (as small to protons as protons to tennis balls) and these extremely small elementary particles are capable to form matter indistinguishable in physical and chemical properties from the common matter known to us. And there exist a tiny conscious creatures made of these tiny elementary particles and each such creature is the size of a common molecule. If these tiny creatures would got in our World somehow, would they be able to gain use of thermal fluctuation in our world associated with Brownian motion an harness energy of fluctuations for some useful purposes (in one word to construct a perpetuum mobile of 2 kind)?
  11. Can we modulate radio wavelength?

    Here some authors describe "an infinite wavelength resonant antenna". http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.132.4668&rep=rep1&type=pdf If we have a radio wave with infinite wavelength, as they said, what would be the propagation properties of such radio wave? And how much data can it encode/carry?
  12. Equilibrum or non-equilibrum plasma?

    Usually, it is claimed that An Anisothermal plasma has very hot electrons and much "cooler" ions. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anisothermal_plasma https://www.comsol.com/blogs/thermodynamic-equilibrium-of-plasmas/ However, I'm not sure if 2000-3000 C dissociated water has many free electrons. We need to have much higher temperatures (more than 10.000 C) to ionize water. But dissociated water consists of H+ and OH- ions, mostly. Is there too large difference between H+ and OH- ion temperatures to talk about non-equilibrium plasma?
  13. Equilibrum or non-equilibrum plasma?

    Why exactly? I'm interested in MHD generators. How we define equilibrium or non-equilibrium plasma?
  14. Is plasma heated to 2000-3000 C and composed of H+ and OH- ions equilibrium or non equilibrium plasma?