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Seeds in nature...


Externet
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Often find reports that seeds from any plants, trees... do not produce the same exact varietal as their 'parents', with good chance that seeds yield different characteristics for the next seedling growth.

Does it refer to their fruits only or to the characteristics of the plants as shape, height, color, growth speed, hardiness, yield...?   Many seed merchants push to not use 'natural' seeds.  How has nature been reproducing a plain apple for centuries ?  If changes happen in a generation, a century old apple tree would be yielding way different descendants. Is that what is called 'heirloom' ?

My artichokes which I set aside one plant for its seeds every year and plant them the next; are they yielding another varietal ?  How does it work ?  Or is the reverse?  The 'natural' seeds do yield the same as parent and supermarket hybrids yield a different varietal ?

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21 minutes ago, Externet said:

Many seed merchants push to not use 'natural' seeds. ... My artichokes which I set aside one plant for its seeds every year and plant them the next; are they yielding another varietal ?  How does it work ?  Or is the reverse?  The 'natural' seeds do yield the same as parent and supermarket hybrids yield a different varietal ?

The use of seeds is very controlled. Unfortunately for agricultural producer in Europe, the reuse of seeds is prohibited. You must to repurchase the seeds. Seed laws that criminalise farmers: resistance and fightback
 

23 minutes ago, Externet said:

How has nature been reproducing a plain apple for centuries ?

Genetic?

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Many commercially sold fruit trees, and other plants, can be asexually reproduced i.e. vegetative reproduction:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetative_reproduction

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit_tree_propagation

 

https://www.google.com/search?q=vegetative+reproduction+apple

"Apples are mostly propagated by shield budding, which gives a high percentage of success. In shield budding a single bud along with a shield piece of stem is cut along with the scion and inserted beneath the rind of the rootstock through a 'T' shaped incision during active growth period."

 

https://apples.extension.org/apple-tree-propagation/

"Asexual Propagation

Because the seeds (sexual propagation) produced by apple fruits are the result of cross-pollination, the resulting seedlings are not genetically identical to each other or to the “mother” tree.

To create multiple copies of the same cultivar, asexual (i.e., not sexual) — also called vegetative — propagation techniques are required, and apples are easily budded and grafted."

 

You don't buy "apple tree seeds" but ready "apple tree seedlings".

"Apple seedlings are small, propagated tree stems grafted onto a hardy root stock. Seedlings are ready to plant and grow in the home landscape once they have grown in a propagation environment for about one year. The seedlings grow into a producing apple tree six to 10 years after planting. Proper planting and care of apple trees at both the seedling stage and as the tree matures makes growing the trees a rewarding process."

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grafting

"The technique is most commonly used in asexual propagation of commercially grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural trades. "

 

Currently existing commercially cultivated fruit and plant species are result of centuries of careful breeding and mixing. Wild apples are (typically) small, sour and green. Farmers spend centuries to create big, sweet and red apples.

Edited by Sensei
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