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Posts posted by UC

  1. Have you considered carbon powder from the reduction of CO2? This is especially relevant with a flame of some kind because the Mg will be bathed in CO2 as it reaches the ignition temperature.


    Try adding some of the material to HCl. If the black does not dissolve, there's your answer.

  2. <Capn_Refsmmat> Our entire database would be enough material for quite interesting conversations [with megaHAL].

    <Capn_Refsmmat> It'd know physics, chemistry, and punctuating like YT

  3. Do you know how to draw Lewis structures? If so, you need to draw them. Then it's a matter of figuring out which atoms in the molecule are the most electronegative. (The electronegative ones will attract more electrons, making them negative. This makes the molecule polar.)


    I've left out a good bit of detail there but hopefully that'll be enough to jog your memory.


    Not quite. It's more about molecular geometry than anything. For example, carbon tetrachloride has 4 very electronegative chlorines surrounding a less electronegative carbon atom, but due to the molecular geometry (tetrahedral), it has 0 net dipole moment.

  4. how to seperate gold from circuit boards

    Merged post follows:

    Consecutive posts merged

    dear friends please inform me how to seperate gold from gold plated metals

    Merged post follows:

    Consecutive posts merged

    to seperte gold from gold plating circuits




    READ the vast number of tutorials and threads before posting any questions. We don't take kindly to laziness.

  5. Ain't that harmful... yet.


    About 2 years ago, I told a friend that one way to get the entire population chipped would be to spread a fabricated virus, then force the population to get a shot.


    I can't help myself than to think this is going to be their chance to get us chipped. I, for one, will not get vaccinated. I'm ready to fight and die for it.


    I'm glad I bought N95 masks about a month ago, just in case. It was a small investment.

    Here is a website with some good info:



    lollerskates. that is all.

  6. I think around 500 mesh is standard fare. If you want to see molten iron, you're going to need quite a bit of the stuff. Do it outside and at a distance of course, but I shouldn't need to tell you that. Steam explosion risk on wet ground...flying molten metal and alumina if it goes badly...etc.


    For people reading this, hermann is a chemistry professor and is well aware of the safety issues involved. There's no need to repeat them ad-nauseum for his sake.

  7. Capitalization, punctuation, and the use of complete (and correct) words would be appreciated. :eyebrow:


    How do you plan to measure surface area? How do you plan to measure the "effect?"


    HCl reacts pretty violently with magnesium, especially as turnings or powder. The hydrogen gas you generate will carry acidic mist with it.

  8. HHO gas is H+H+O in gas form, 2x Hydrogen and 1x Oxygen, which when combined forms water. You get HHO from water. This guy claims to get a super increase in gas milage from his device. http://waterfuelproj.blogspot.com All the way from South Africa




    It's utter and complete crap and will remain that way for all eternity, no matter how many conspiracy theorists and con artists claim otherwise.

  9. Heavy mineral oil, intended for laxative use is quite pure, but needs to be deoxygenated and dried completely. Adding a piece of sodium (or better, potassium) and letting it sit for a week or two will accomplish this. Of course, you could just deal with a tiny bit more tarnish on all the sodium and throw it all in.

  10. I think we should require everyone who posts here to take 15 seconds and at the very least, go skim the wiki article on whatever they're posting about. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mast_cell


    Second sentence: "Although best known for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, mast cells play an important protective role as well, being intimately involved in wound healing and defense against pathogens"

  11. I recently attempted to make H2sO4 here was my procedure:

    I heated Sodium Bisulfate (NaHSO4) in a test tube- this should have made gaseous SO3

    the test tube had a tube on the end that i used to bubble the SO3 through water in a collection beaker with a peice of Lithmus paper in it (so i could tell if it was working)....

    Then came my problem... I was heating it and it was letting off water vapor (another bi product of heating NaHSO4) then i smelt sulfur and suddently the water (or possibly sulfuric acid) shot back up the tube and blew up my test tube. I was cleaning up this mess (thinking it was a complete failure) when i noticed my Lithmus paper had turned red. I think this could have been sulfuric acid, but i couldnt do any tests with it because i was busy picking up broken glass, and wiping up mystery liquid. The verdict- It is hard (and dangerous) for a home chemist with basic supplies (chemicals, testubes, burners, ect.) to make sulfuric acid.


    Now that i have told my story, if any of you chemistry wizzes notice a flaw in my procedure please let me know because i would like to perfect an easy way to make sulfuric acid






    You've just experienced the magic of suckback, a common phenomenon. SO3 is extremely soluble in water, so there is no reason to submerge the exit tube. Just place it slightly above the surface of cold water. This tends to produce mists though, which is why SO3 is usually condensed neat or dissolved into concentrated sulfuric acid, then diluted with water.


    Were you using a rubber stopper? I sure hope not, because SO3 attacks everything and anything organic. By smell of sulfur, do you mean hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide? I would suspect that either is coming from the stopper being destroyed if you used one. You should be using all glass (preferably fused quartz/vycor) apparatus. Concentrated sulfuric acid is an acceptable joint grease for this operation.

  12. Metal behaves like a "sea of electrons" some of the valence electrons on every atom in a piece of metal are more or less free to move about the stationary ions, which are positive charges. The net effect of this without external stimulus is that the electrons don't go anywhere. When you have a closed loop of conductor and you induce a current, you push the electrons in a definite direction. This is sort of like making water swirl around in a loop. As electrons drift one direction, those next to them drift into their original spot. It's all simultaneous.


    The positive and negative ends of batteries refer to which direction the electrons move relative to it, either in or out. With the crude analogy above, a battery is sort of like a pump. It can move the water around the loop in one direction. The fountain pump I use to chill my condenser, for example, has a listing of capabilities on it. The pumping rate gets lower the higher up the destination is from where the bottom of the pump sits. The same is true with voltage difference and current from a battery. Adding resistances in a circuit is like making the pump work uphill. It has a lowered rate of pumping (current).

  13. but people still smoke it and as mentioned ealyer that this is an illigle drug so why would u wan to grow it in large amounts if u could get cought


    You list your location as england, thus I assume that your first language is english. Please take the time out of your busy day to type in it. Thank you.

  14. i dont think ammonium nitrate is a crappy explosive. its was used in oklahoma city bombings.


    No, it was ANFO that was used in the Oklahoma city bombing. By itself, ammonium nitrate is a horrible explosive. Even with fuel oil added to improve the oxygen balance, it still needs a very large initiator charge. ANFO is not something you'd want to use on the battlefield, but it is good for blasting because it's cheap and effective. Good explosives by comparison are glyceryl trinitrate, trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, etc.


    The newspaper is generally not a reliable source, especially for anything science related.

  15. i've read in a book (unified approach to inorganic chemistry by w potterfield to be exact) that although ammonium nitrate is a powerful explosive (if i remember correctly united states gives granuals of it coated with wax like substance to farmers so that terrorists cant use it) but its very hard to detonate hence its unlikely that in the test tube it was kind of explosion. rather it should be rapid decomposition. nitrates are first choice as explosives as after reaction they form gases loke N2, O2, H2O which are very stable hence highly exothermic. so cant there be formation of N2O in small quantities along with N2 etc which went undetected? hence the small pop...


    Deeeelicious misonformation. Ammonium nitrate is a crappy explosive. It is extremely hard to detonate pure, and even mixtures like ANFO need a large initiating charge. Some fertilizers come with coatings on the prills, though this is usually to aid wetting (as in sulfur, which normally repels water) or keep the pellets intact during transport. Waxy coatings are nothing more than a fuel if you were to try to detonate the stuff and would probably make it work slightly better.


    Also, ammonium nitrate prills intended for ANFO blasting (still used for mining operations) are not as compact as fertilizer prills (as dense as possible for cheaper shipping). They are slightly porous, which allows them to collapse as the detonation front propagates through the mixture. Fertilizer prills are harder to detonate because they are solid.


    When heated to the point of decomposition (and especially above that, as would be reached in a bunsen flame), it is much more sensitive to detonation. Using careful temperature control, N2O production is still done industrially by the same process. The sideproducts NO and NO2 are then thoroughly scrubbed from the mixture. I suspect that these would be formed in much higher proportions the hotter the reaction was. Wikipedia lists phosphates as catalysts for the formation of purer N2O at lower temperatures.

  16. 1) get some eggs. a lot of eggs. eat them.

    2) get some hosing and vaseline. Hopefully you don't need instructions, on what to do with this, but lead your "exit gas stream" into cold water saturated with [ce] SO2 [/ce].


    Sulfur will precipitate due to the following water-catalyzed reaction:


    [ce] 2H2S + SO2 -> 3S + 2H2O [/ce]


    Here is a nice video not involving flatus:


    Okay, so I'm obviously joking. The H2S content of farts is negligible.


    However, check out this: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_do_you_make_sulfur_at_home_what_stuff_do_you_need


    By far, the easiest way to get sulfur is to buy some. If you can get high quality anywhere, I suggest you do so, because trying to purify fertilizer grade by repeated recrystallization is a pain in the arse and very smelly since you need hot xylene or toluene for solvent, as well as a very fine metal screen as a filter. I've done it and seriously don't recommend it.

  17. http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6706980.html


    According to this patent (and a few others out there), the problem is that gallium and indium oxide (even in very small amounts) massively lower the surface tension of the molten metal and allow it to adhere to other surfaces. The same is obviously not true of, or less true of mercury.


    I did notice this with gallium when melting it down. It came to me moderately oxidized and a bit grungy, but after cleaning, it stuck to platic a lot less when melted. I used a brand new pasteur pipette to break up the cleaned 20g of metal I had into some smaller pellets and it stuck, but not really badly to the glass.

  18. The thing about permanganate is that is cleaves double bonds and completely oxidizes any functional groups that it can. You have the wrong reaction product there.


    As was already said, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid is the correct name. You could call this a beta-hydroxy acid, the simplest possible one, in fact.

  19. I am familiar with schlenk lines, but with nitrogen instead of chlorine. Do you use a bubbler, and if so, what of? (mercury isn't chlorine-proof :rolleyes:)


    So, we have a dry, oxygen-free, nitrogen-free atmosphere of chlorine over 3-hydroxyglutaronitrile. What reaction (mechanism) takes place? (if you have a ref on hand, I'd be happy to read it over)


    As for safety, I more meant that the lab in question may never have a need for a lecture bottle of chlorine again, and if it ends up in storage for years, corrosion can be an issue. Granted, under ideal conditions, this would not be an issue, but who knows what to expect.


    As for hydrolysis of the cyano groups, were this occuring, the product would probably not be stable, especially in acidic, oxidizing conditions. See the orgsyn link in an earlier post, which claims total decomposition in a few hours in solution for acetone dicarboxylic acid. I suspect that 3-hydroxypentanedioic acid would not be much better off, especially if there is oxidant around.


    Personally, I would try the DMP as the next logical step. If that fails entirely, then maybe try something drastic.

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