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OptimisticCynic

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  1. Threshold values. Perhaps your synapses are firing at lower levels of stimuli than is ordinary. This would lead to more frequent firing and spread further within the brain. Because the threshold levels are lower, the more frequent firing is maybe not doing the damage it would at higher levels. Another possibility is that your body's electrical flow is off center. If you constantly have more electrical charge in one area of your body, that polarization could be messing with the electrodes measurements. There are places with machines where you can get a picture taken of your aura. If the aura picture shows a marked distortion, you could follow up with a voltmeter across different sections of your body. These are just wags (wild a** guesses).
  2. There are different kinds of pimples. 1. Blackheads 2. Whiteheads 3. Pimples 4. Boils or cysts. 1. Blackheads are gunk that has accumulated in a pore or a hair follicle. Do Not Squeeze! Squeezing or pinching will damage the skin and leave a mark. Use a cleanser such as hot water, soap that doesn't leave a residue, or alcohol. A soft brush or cloth may help. Remember the motto, "First, do no harm." 2. Whiteheads are infections at the surface of your skin. Your white blood cells, 'macrophages', are doing their jobs of eating invading bacteria and walling off the infected area(s). You can drain these CAREFULLY. There is some risk of making a hole through the wall that the white cells have made, allowing the bacteria to spread deeper inside of you. Disinfect and allow the wound to dry. These will often break open and dry out on their own when the surface layer gets stretched thinner and/or something bumps the bubble. Failure to disinfect may result in more infections near the first. 3. Pimples are slightly deeper infections than whiteheads. You will probably notice them first as a red and possibly painful swelling. Your white cells are trying to push the infection out. It is best to leave them alone when the core is near the surface and the inflamed, swollen area is painful and red. This inflamed skin is easier to damage than healthy skin. Squeezing too early and too hard may make a bigger, longer lasting (days longer) swelling or wound. Left alone, your immune system will most often push the infection closer to the surface of your skin within a day. When it gets close enough, the outer layer of skin will stretch. The pressure will reduce. The pain, caused by the pressure, will lessen. You will be able to see where the core is just under the surface. At this point I will diverge from the doctor's advice and say drain carefully. A pimple left too long undrained may become fully enclosed by the macrophages' wall building and remain as a permanent lump. Again, swollen skin is fragile! Squeezing risks popping the pimple bubble on the inside and spreading the infection inside of you. To keep the scar tiny, let your immune system work alone for a while even when it hurts. 4. Boils are infections that are too deep and/or large for your immune system to push out through your skin. If your macrophages eventually defeat the invaders on their own, you will have a permanent lump. (Most likely) If they lose, you will die. (Less likely) Get that bubble safely drained. It will hurt to have it cut open. It will hurt for days or weeks longer if you don't drain it. Give your immune system a nutrition boost for faster healing. My best advice is to avoid this subject entirely by keeping clean on the outside and on the inside. Drink enough water, avoid eating too much at one time, and dump your s*** frequently. Get enough sleep. In short, live healthy.
  3. I am not presuming classical physics when dealing with QM. I am pointing out a factor common to the measurement of oscillating systems. I am using your example of the electron spin-flip and my pendulum example as extremes. To illustrate how, in both systems, there comes a point where something, which is described mathematically as an approach to a limit, becomes an actual change. This flip from "approaching" to "moving away from" is precisely the point where classical physics gives way to quantum mechanics. Where "many" particles reduces to "one" particle. from Wikipedia --Introduction to quantum mechanics"In this sense, the word quantum means the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction. Certain characteristics of matter can take only discrete values." The electronic oscillator measures the microwave wavelength. from Wikipedia --"The actual time-reference of an atomic clock consists of an electronic oscillator operating at microwave frequency. The oscillator is arranged so that its frequency-determining components include an element that can be controlled by a feedback signal. The feedback signal keeps the oscillator tuned in resonance with the frequency of the electronic transition of caesium or rubidium."
  4. So let's change ONE thing; teach everyone HOW TO deal with their own reality. Most people are detached from "reality" because they do not know how to deal with it. The technique that works has been learned from people who succeeded in figuring it out on their own. It is now being taught to more and more people around the world. It would be nice if it spread faster. Commercial website removed per rule 2.7
  5. Thanks for the forum use tip. Given the electron as a point particle, I see your valid point. (all puns intended) As a counter argument; from my point of view, something moves within the mechanism of that clock as a result of the spin-flip. Thus, distance is measured. To show that we are both right, I'll use a pendulum clock for an example. When the pendulum reaches the top of its arc, it has no motion. Then its vector flips and it is in motion again. There is nothing moving at the peak of a pendulum's arc or an electron's spin-flip. The same combination of motion and change without motion could be said to exist in most oscillating systems. Which is being measured can be spun either way -ask any politician-.
  6. What is "clean" air? There is dust everywhere. There are volatile organic compounds in the air anywhere there are plants. "Clean" water? Rain drops frequently form around dust particles. Even the carbon dioxide from the air dissolves into the rain to make it acidic. If you only want to count free from bacteria, you can't put it in your mouth. Life is a leaky bag of dirty water that smells. Purity in life exists only in fantasy. The closest you will come to the clean air, clean water, and comfortable temperatures and sunshine year round that you seek is inside of a modern residential building. If the sunshine seems lacking, it is probably because you are afraid the neighbors might see you enjoying it so you keep the curtains closed all of the time.
  7. So what brings similar non-standard genotype / phenotype individuals close enough together for them to reproduce in your model?
  8. A radiator 'radiates' infra red, which heats things on the side facing the radiator. It also heats the air touching it, which then circulates around the room. The wall, floor, and ceiling are also heated by the infra red and reradiate that heat back into the room, and you. This is a big reason why you do not usually feel excessively hot on your side facing the radiator and cold on the side away from it.
  9. My second hypothesis was too vague and wrong in too many different situations. Hypothesis: More diversification of populations occurs in places and times when competitive pressure for resources is lower. The archaeological record supports this. More new species developed soon after major disasters than during the competitive times before the disasters. To extend the hypothesis: the same sort of effect can be seen with reductions in other types of survival pressures upon a species. I still contend that most evolution occurs in places and times of plenty. However, my new basis for that contention is more of a spin on the definition of evolution. Places and times of plenty are defined as, situations in which a population is able to increase for two or more generations without immediately overburdening its habitat. Evolution: Biology. change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation by such processes as mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. --from Dictionary.com The absolute number of genetically variant individuals within a population increases when a population increases and the rates of mutation and genetic drift remain steady. Therefore more changes occur in the gene pool of an increasing population than in a steady population. This matters when variant individuals breed to produce more individuals with like variation. There are multiple mechanisms that can raise the odds of like individuals coming together to produce more variant offspring. Migration for preference. Others get killed off faster. Increased density of the population. Variants get expelled by normals. Genetically dominant traits. Inbreeding. Has anybody seen evidence of migration for preference leading to the growth of a new subset of a species? Congratulations to CharonY! -- You killed it for me. SwansonT -- wounded it heavily. Puppypower -- The selection of traits by an outside intelligence is indeed an accelerator of evolution. I am trying to figure out how evolution can happen quickly and even combine several traits that individually reduce the suitability for the original habitat. As overtone mentioned, "Living beings reproduce exponentially." Because of this, the "overbearing selective force" as CharonY described (where weaker individuals get killed off faster) and the other mechanisms that concentrate individuals with like traits become more important. The odds are against a mating pair of individuals with the same mutation being born in the same place and time. Anything that increases the odds of them getting together to reproduce is significant. When they do get together, it can be like the start of a landslide. Boom! a new subspecies takes over. I noticed that in the case of non-mobile species, the alternation of good times and bad times, I.E. weather variations, is what powers the evolution cycle. Expansion of a population into other territories, followed by concentration / isolation of individuals with certain traits.
  10. Human versus equine: proportion of available pushing force to mass is greater for the human. fH/mH > fE/mE Runner versus bicyclist: on the common style bicycle it is very difficult for the rider to apply more force to the pedal than his mass being pulled down by gravity (his weight) whereas the runner is able to push himself forward with a force well in excess of his weight. On a recumbent style cycle, with the proper gearing, the rider may be able to apply more force to moving forward than the runner who also has to continue to lift himself while accelerating forward. But most likely the wheels would slip and the runner would pull ahead.
  11. Delta1212, Nice coverage of how selection pressure works. Now, thanks to the help of all of you, I can see this evolution pressure thing from a different angle. This view is really cool and deals with your questions too. Many variations in genotype occur regularly and repeatedly but only succeed in surviving to reproduce when a selection pressure that previously eliminated them disappears or is greatly reduced. The same or similar variants are widely dispersed in the original population. Variants may self concentrate and then interbreed. This can result in further exaggerating the variation that brought them together. When the pressure returns, the exaggerated variants may now be able to withstand that selection pressure. The less exaggerated variants are eliminated. What we see later, in times of higher pressure, is the originating population and the exaggerated variants in their separate situations. The necessary degree of variation may only arise when the selection pressure(s) that culled the minor variants drops low enough that the minor variants can survive long enough to concentrate and produce the more exaggerated variants. O+O produce offspring O,O,O,A at habitat or food source Q A migrates to a habitat or food source better suited for it or with less competition from the original population. ---ONE--- Pressure P kills A The pattern repeats until... A survives because some external event removed pressure P ---TWO--- O'+O' produce offspring O,A',O,O A' migrates to its preferred habitat or food source, H A meets A' at their favorite place. ---THREE--- A+A' produce offspring A,A',O,A" O migrates to its preferred habitat or food source, Q A,A',A" stay at their preferred habitat or food source, H A,A',A" produce more offspring. A"+A" produce offspring A^ ---FOUR--- P returns A, A',A" and O located at H are eliminated by P A^ survives and reproduces ---FIVE--- One -- migration to preferred situation Two -- reduced or eliminated culling pressure Three -- concentration of variant genotypes Four -- exaggeration (or combination) of characteristics Five -- exaggerated characteristics enable survival of returned (or new) culling pressure
  12. To recap: Most evolution occurs in times of plenty. During times of plenty, more of the in-between mutations survive to reproduce. Plentiful resources allows the more complex combinations of mutations more time and space to develop viable forms. During times of plenty, genetically varied individuals of a species are able to travel further and have better odds of finding a habitat that their variations suit better. This wandering around looking for a situation that is a better fit tends to bring individuals with the same or similar characteristics together in places where they are more likely to successfully proliferate. It also tends to separate groups with disparate characteristics. Hypothesis: The scrub jays of Santa Cruz island produce offspring with variations in bill length. Those with longer bills will move to the pine forests. Those with shorter bills will move to the oak forests. The birds select their habitats while they are still juveniles. Then they stay in their selected habitats as adults and breed there. http://www.wired.com/2015/03/jay-evolving-weird-way/
  13. swansont, When you challenge me to do a better job of supporting or defining my contentions, I feel peevish. I thank you for your hard work and request that you keep it up! A "low pressure" situation is a situation wherein difficulties that threaten the lives of somewhat less optimally suited individuals are reduced. It's all relative. I do not see an objective way to define "low" or "high" selective pressures. The closest objective measure I imagine would be above or below the average mortality rate, as measured over a many generations long period, of immature individuals. The low, or reduced, stress situation would have to continue over multiple generations to enable variations to combine as I've suggested. Puppypower mentioned migrations to different environments as a possible mechanism for reduction in selective pressures. The apple maggot fly adaptation might be called a migration. I really do not see species like the maggot flies as likely to provide good examples of this low pressure evolution because of the boom and bust nature of their life cycles. A better example might be found in a population of sheep which is outgrowing its territory and has a lot of unclaimed territory to expand into because of more rain than there used to be. Those sheep with more wool would tend to migrate toward cooler territories while those with less migrated to warmer territories. More migrations to new territory will succeed when the conditions between optimal territories are better able to support the migrating animals (during good years). In such a case, it is the genetic variation which pressures the population to separate. This is opposite to the idea of external factors pressuring the animals to change genetically. Going back to the apple maggot flies, there would have been, in the original population, some flies which found both hawthorns and apples to be acceptable places to lay eggs. Others would find only hawthorns acceptable. Those which found hawthorns unacceptable did not lay eggs. Then a new option appeared and some flies which would not lay eggs on hawthorns had an acceptable place to lay their eggs. The selection pressure against these specific flies disappeared and they became numerous enough to "suddenly" appear.
  14. Okay Sensei, Clocks are designed for consistency. Any oscillating motion includes changing accelerations and/or velocities. The same consistency can be achieved by measuring the distance traveled by an object moving at a constant velocity. Yet consistency is not a requirement for our perception of time. Consistency is only necessary for repeatable measurements that more or less correspond with our perception of time. We perceive changes. Without perceived changes, our feeling of time passing goes away. I would take this so far as to say that without changes, we go away. I think that daedalus' theory is pretty cool, and wrong. This is mostly because it leaves some things unexplained. Thus, my previous questions. If this explanation is as weak for you as it appears to me, I will try again when I am more awake.
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