Function

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Everything posted by Function

  1. First full version of my thesis complete! To be revised by my supervisors, and to be printed :wub::lol:

    1. studiot

      studiot

      That must be a weight off your mind.

      :)

  2. Chemical equilibrium

    Hello everyone I'm afraid I don't really get some things in 'chemical equilibrium': My book first states that if the equilibrium constant K is big, there's a big conversion from left side to right side (the equilibrium is right). It also states that if a concentration [A] is being increased, the equilibrium is being shifted towards the side of A. Now, it states at the equilibrium reaction [math]H_2+I_2\leftrightarrow 2 HI[/math] that a doubling of [H2] will shift the equilibrium to the right. However: [math]K=\frac{[HI]^2}{[H_2][i_2]}[/math], making K smaller when [H2] is being enlarged, shifting the equilibrium to the left (K is smaller, so the reaction is less to the right and now more to the left, thus making it being shift to the left). Can someone explain my misunderstanding? Thanks. Function EDIT: is it maybe because K doesn't have to do much with the shifting of the equilibrium?
  3. Body odour and race

    Hello everyone Just to make some things clear: Everything mentioned in here is mentioned from a scientific point of view and results from personal observations. This thread is not meant to be racist; if anyone feels in a more or less direct way offended by this post, please let me know what can be changed to work towards a solution that works for both parties. So I sat on the train today, after spending too much money on some sweets, a little reward to myself for successfully taking the exam on pneumology, haematology, and nephrology earlier today. Looking into my candy bag, and picking some sweets, I suddenly noticed a specific odour. An odour that was very well known to me, an odour that I had come to associate with black people over time. Without knowing who sat in my vicinity, I noticed some frizzy afro-american hairs protruding above the seat in front of me; and it was clear to me that the odour was indeed coming from that person. And I have totally no problem with that; I just noticed it and found it remarkable that I could determine the presence of a person of a certain race in my vicinity just by smelling. Above all, I have 2 black nephews and a black aunt and whenever I'm near them, I cannot help but notice the same familiar, typical odour. I'm trying to find what correlation can be made between race and body odour, but I only find some shifty fora with discussions that lead to nothing. I'm looking for scientifically validated data and articles that state that indeed different races do have specific body odours. Can someone help me in this search? Thank you kindly. Function
  4. is homosexuality unnatural and can be cured?

    Missed those allegedly self-conscious flippin' creatures. My bad.
  5. is homosexuality unnatural and can be cured?

    Please, give solid arguments why you think that. Above all, humans and higher primates are thought to be the only species to enjoy sex, and not only do it for reproductive purposes. So imho, this statement becomes false.
  6. Log transformation of negative angles

    Concerning type 1 errors: each patient had received a MR spectrum. Each spectrum had some characteristics (11, to be precise, of which 1 was categorical, the other ones continuous), which were all subjected to Shapiro-Wilk (in each subgroup per comparison), and variables with allegedly nonnormal value distributions were log-transformed, and the test was run again. And then, all variables were compared each time between 2 distinct groups (e.g., high-grade tumours v. low-grade tumours). I applied a Bonferroni correction in post hoc tests where more than 2 tumour categories were present (e.g., grade I v. grade II v. grade III v. grade IV), or when the categorical variable (which had 3 categories) turned out to be significantly different between any two (or more) groups. Post hoc chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were then run, with Bonferroni correction applied to the significance level. For the other analyses, there was no need for type 1 error correction, as one could interpret each comparison to be a separate "study". Additionally, no variables were ever combined into one predictive model. That would have led me too far. I'll look for some articles that are representative for in vivo MR studies.
  7. Hello everyone For my thesis, I'd like to log transform a variable that represents a certain angle between 2 peaks on a curve. The problem, of course, is that this angle can be negative. As no angle is smaller than -90°, would it be allowed to add 90° to all angles, and log transform the results into a new log-transformed variable? Thanks F
  8. Log transformation of negative angles

    There are differences in other parameters within comparisons of other groups, but for this one group–group comparison, only this variable differs significantly. I already implemented everything that’s usually used as parameters in MR spectro in human brains, but thought of ‘designing’ new parameters. Edit: after all, I aimed not only to confirm what is already known, but to develop some more unusual variables, as we are in search for optimisation of noninvasive diagnostic methods in tumour assessment
  9. Log transformation of negative angles

    I am looking at the entire spectrum, but certain frequency peaks represent very distinct metabolites. Change in protractor direction, would that actually not be exactly the same as adding 90 degs to every measured angle post hoc? And that’s the stupid part: a nonparametrical comparison of the original angles does not differ significantly between 2 groups, whereas the Briggs log of the angles + 90 degs does. And as my thesis actially focusses on tumour group classifications, I wouldn’t just consider this as a methodology designed “just to find something significant at one point”, but as a methodology to find and describe class predictors. First step in such process is assessing differences in parameter distributions between both groups ...
  10. Log transformation of negative angles

    Log and square root transformations are common transformations in statistics for variables that are nonnormally distributed, hoping to achieve normality in their log- or root-transformed variants. Which I got. IBM argues that it is possible to "add a constant big enough" to all values, such that no value is negative or zero, and then apply log transformation. An advantage to this method would be that simply adding a constant to each value does not alter variance amongst variable values. The situations you present are highly unlikely. We're talking about proton NMR spectroscopy of some in vivo metabolites. Achieving the situations you suggest are nearly impossible, as the peaks themselves will just stay where they are, and only chance in amplitude, not in frequency/chemical shift, which is displayed on the horizontal axis.
  11. Log transformation of negative angles

    Because that's how I defined my angle. It's always defined as the angle the line (or, if you like, vector) from the first to the second peak makes with a horizontal line. I wouldn't have liked working with (360° - (negative angle value)) to substitute the negative angles, as then I would have to conclude that the second situation would have a larger angle, which, according to the definition I gave to that angle, is absolutely not the case. The sign of the angle is inherently correlated with the characteristic of both peaks relative to one another (first peak higher, or second peak higher). The constant arrangement of both peaks on the horizontal axis made me define the angle to be indisputably either greater than -90°, or smaller than 90°. "Log transform a variable" is performing a natural Briggsian logarithm on all its values, and saving the results as values of a new variable.
  12. Hello y'all In my thesis, I have this variable, which is expressed in a percentage (%). It's not an option to, e.g., display 20 % as 0.20, since that is absolutely not common for that variable. Now, this variable does not satisfy the conditions for parametric testing. However, its square-root variant does. But if I report both this variable, in %, then do I have to change the "unit" (which in itself is demensionless) to something else than %? Now I would report: Mean Var ± SD - % Mean VarROOT ± SD - % But I'm not sure if this is quite right. After all: e.g., in the case of 20 %, I took the root of 20, and not of 0.20. So ... sqrt(20 %) = sqrt(20) * sqrt(0.01) = 4.47 * 0.1 = 0.447 ~ 44.7 % And sqrt(0.20) = 0.447 ~ 44.7 % But erm ... Is there a symbol for 1/10? Because now I see that I would incorrectly report 4.47 % (since I only rooted 20 without the %) instead of 44.7 %. Thanks F
  13. So there's this gene, IDH1. It's responsible for the production of the protein IDH1.

    An c.395G>A mutation in IDH1 leads to p.R132H IDH1.

    So if a tumour is IDH1-mutated, can I say IDH1 is mutated? Or is "aberrant" more preferable?

    What do I call "p.R132H" if it is not a mutation?

    1. hypervalent_iodine

      hypervalent_iodine

      I guess it depends on whether or not the mutation in gene sequence leads to a change in the amino acid sequence. In your example, yes, though I believe convention with proteins is to only capitalise the first letter, making it an R132H Idh1 mutant. I may be wrong in that though. Edit: just realised that the capitalisation is species dependant. I work with fungi, where you don't capitalise every letter, but I believe you do with humans. Go figure.  

  14. Let's say there's this Java-driven program (ran via a batch file), which requires (1) a licence file, and (2) a protected USB key that goes along with the licence file.

    Let's now say that there are 3 types of licence files: (a) a normal licence file that gives full access to the program, if the USB key is inserted in the computer; (b) a trial licence file that does not require the USB key in order to run the program correctly, but only gives access for 600 days; and (c) a licence file that was distributed in private for a course of the program, making it available only on the day of the course, without the need for the USB key (so with this licence file, the program will always run correctly and with full functionalities, if the system date is set to 13 May 2013, course day).

    Is there a possibility to adjust/create a licence file to eventually have one licence file that allows the program to be run with full functionalities, without need for USB key and system date settings?

    1. Show previous comments  1 more
    2. Function

      Function

      I've looked into runasdate, but it requires exe files, and doesn't work with batch files. (Found it impossible / too hard to convert the bat to exe, too).

    3. fiveworlds

      fiveworlds

      Okay then try this edit the .bat with notepad and add the following

      first line of bat or under @echo off

      date 13-05-2013

      last line of bat

      net stop W32Time

      net restart W32Time

      This will set the system time back to 13th May 2013 and run the program then reset your system time back to normal

    4. Function

      Function

      Ah yes, I've tried such deceptions, but there's one caveat: apparently the program rechecks everything every 5 minutes or so, so if the system date is reset while the program is already run, it will give a date error (licence outdated) and shut down.

  15. Hello everyone During the last sleepless night, some thoughts crossed my mind, and I wanted to share them with you and ask your opinion/points of view regarding them. The idea would be that the human brain maps, registers, and saves every single location a human being has ever been, and that, should we have the means to do so, a "route" could be mapped for every human being, from the moment they were born, until the moment they died. Useless, of course, but I wondered whether this could be the case. After all, our vestibular systems start working quite early; as do our memory circuits. Could it be possible that, from the moment your vestibular system was active, it would register any acceleration across and around any axis, the duration of the acceleration, and that your brain would register the duration of absence of acceleration, until further acceleration or deceleration occurs? For example: a child sits on a chair. It stands up (acceleration in both ventral and cranial directions), turns right (rotational acceleration) for 90°, starts walking (again an acceleration), turns 90° back to the left (rotational acceleration), and sits down on another chair (acceleration in dorsal and caudal directions). The idea here would be that the vestibular system detects any acceleration and deceleration (which are not mentioned here), the duration of an acceleration/deceleration, and that your brain could register the duration of absence of acceleration. Like so, it would theoretically become possible to reconstruct the path the child has done: ventrocranial acceleration and steady movement, stop, rotational acceleration and steady movement, stop, ventral acceleration and steady movement, stop, rotational acceleration (or deceleration when compared to the other rotation) and steady movement, stop, dorsocaudal acceleration (or ventrocranial deceleration) and steady movement, stop. I don't know if it's clear what I mean, but if this were indeed the case, to me this would sound like the positional path of every human could be retrieved and mapped, from the moment they were born, until the moment they died, since every position we've been in could be explained in function of all acceleration, decelerations, and steady movements we've done in our lives. This is nothing more than a thought experiment, of course, and yields not much practical consequences. But I was wondering whether you would think this would be plausible, or rather far-fetched and unlikely, due to limited storage capacities within our (spatial) memory ... I was also wondering whether this might contribute to so-called déjà vus. Indeed, one may experience a déjà vu based on what one sees or hears or whatever; but could a pure spatial déjà vu also be experienced purely by means of our vestibular system and memory? As if our brains would understand that, if we've been to B (from point A) before in our lives, and now we take a route to the same point B, but from another point (C), the combination of vestibular activity and duration of steady movements would lead us indeed to this point B? Regards F
  16. What is perpetual motion?

    Greetings! Do electrons and protons lose energy over time, as would a magnet lose its "magnetic strength/power" over (long) time? If not, then isn't their perpetual motion at variance with the laws regarding conservation of energy?
  17. I want to "upgrade" my waking-up experience. Ideally, I'd love to have an alarm clock which I can plug into my computer and transfer custom alarm sounds to (which don't give me a heart attack), and which has two speakers so I can put one at both lateral ends of my bed.

    My phone (iPhone 8) won't do it for two reasons: (1) I can't plug my speakers into this phone and make the alarm sound come from the speakers, (2) even if I got to accomplish this, every iPhone since the iPhone 7 has been infamous for not having a 3.5 mm headphone jack, which means that if I would use the lightning port to connect speakers to my phone, I couldn't charge it, unless I also buy an overexpensive wireless Qi charging thing.

    Does someone know if this even exists?

    1. koti

      koti

      You could buy an external bluetooth speaker and use your iphone as the custom sound alarm clock. Or you could use bluetooth to connect your phone to your PC. Both scenarios will let you charge your phone.

    2. Strange

      Strange

      There is a smartphone app that (it claims) doesn't wake you up until you are in the right phase of sleep. The idea being that being woken at that point is less disturbing. https://www.sleepcycle.com

      Have no idea if it works or is completely bogus!

  18. Passed my exams with quite disappointing results. Ah well. Used to it. I'll do an extra effort for the last exam period in January before my 1.5 years of internships.

    1. Show previous comments  6 more
    2. studiot

      studiot

      Aah!

      The advantages of being retired.

    3. StringJunky

      StringJunky

      The only time I take an interest is this tournament.

    4. koti

      koti

      I watched the Belgium-Brazil game tonight, I decided I need to watch some games so if somebody asks me I don’t come across as weird. 

  19. So there's fear of commitment, and there's separation anxiety disorder. Here's a bit of a story on how I am regarding relationships ... As a background, you may want to know that I suffer(ed) from major depressive disorder, and am being treated with bupropion and venlafaxine (the latter is being decreased).

    I've had 2 relationships, both of which lasted about 2.5 months. Rather quickly during these 'relationships', I found that it demanded way more of me than it was worth to me: it was not "profitable" for me, as I felt energetically drained without being resupplied. After a while, I couldn't help but think (in both cases) "Ugh, just stop texting me and leave me alone for 5 minutes, can I please have my own time?", which to me is a signal that makes me start wondering if the partner is indeed the right partner for me. I felt more as their idol, than their intimate partner. Which might indicate some sort of fear of commitment.

    But that one is not so problematic to me. I know it will go away at some time. What's a much greater issue to me, and what may destroy me mentally, is something I experience very quickly with people, probably a separation anxiety disorder. I've been on Tinder for a while, and I've dated some persons. We usually chat very much, and we get to know each other a lot. Now here's this one person I met once, and still know, and still probably will be dating for some while (hopefully). Someone I really started appreciating. I was looking forward to our first date. Because he seemed a very nice guy to me, he was handsome, smart, and funny in his own way. But I couldn't help but think of him as an arrogant douchebag when he greeted me, almost apathically, with an equally apathical "Hello", when he regularly checked his phone, when he didn't seem to care about anything I said. Until I found out that he's rather ... special, to communicate with. Extraordinary. He seemed much at ease and loom, as if he might have used drugs - which he didn't. It's just his personality. The moment where I came to appreciate him, was when he began telling me his history. Some things we had in common. We've both been raised by autistic parents, in a rather toxic environment, and he also suffer(ed/s) from MDD, and took the exact same medication. We had bound; an awkward bond, but a bond nonetheless. He didn't say as much as I did, and yet I started liking him. We could share our love for dogs, for Scandinavia, our medication, our family, our academic interests, and much more. We left the fastfood restaurant, buyed an ice cream, and sat on a stone little wall, at about hip height. And we talked a bit more, we laughed a lot more, we pretended to leave, ironically/cynically saying "Bye" in a most apathical way. For about 500 times, pretending to walk away, yet turning around again. And then, it was time for him to leave. He would go grab his bike. "Bye", I chuckled. And he smirked. ... ... "Would you ... like, perhaps ... Want to join me to my bike?"; and of course, I did. Then he could've taken the chance to leave on his bike, as wanting to leave was the impression he  intended to give insincerely, but he didn't. We walked the same path up until the point where we had to take another route. After talking for a long time at that point, and saying goodbye for about a thousand times, no hugs, kisses or whatever, we left. No hugs or kisses, but I was at peace; I was satisfied and at ease. And most definitely, I wanted to have another date. First sort of big mistake: kind of insisting to let me know whether he enjoyed it or not, even though I could've told myself that he did like it. Altogether he didn't appreciate being asked whether he liked it or not, and told me that it didn't matter. So I accepted it. A few weeks later, after the exams had ended, we agreed to go out again. Let the stereotypes roll in: a night at the movies. Well, evening. Going to the movies (Love, Simon; for the interested), where we both appeared to be about equally emotionally affectable when we sat there, subtly snorting. Going to have dinner together, aka snack bar time. Where we had another great time. After having finished our meals, we went outside. Saying an equally "Bye" as the previous time we met, and turning our backs to one another. However, upon leaving, we stumbled upon someone. Someone I'd recognised. Someone who had recognised me as well. Someone "my date" appeared to know. Someone I had recognised from having matched on Tinder. After kiddingly saying "bye", I turned around, and "my date" didn't. He walked away with the guy we commonly recognised, in the opposite direction as I. Before crossing the street, he quickly looked back, and I made him clear that I was confused, not knowing what had happened, but he didn't return, yet continued walking away. Fury. Fear. Torment. Pain. Confusion. Sadness. Nausea. I didn't know what to feel most, or first. I didn't know what had happened, and impulsively grabbed my phone and texted him right away. "Are you kidding me? You really did plan on meeting 2 Tinder matches at about the same time? This is some next-level shit; thanks for mating my antidepressants useless for the night being."

    I don't know how I was supposed to feel, so I walked a bit. Sat down somewhere on a bench. My eyes went quite watery and I sobbed a bit. Trying to hold it in, not wanting to attract too much attention from all passers-by, I felt myself being ripped apart from all the stuff I was thinking about him. What was he doing? Did he indeed meet with 2 guys on the same evening? What would they be doing now? I couldn't imagine it, and if I could, I couldn't hold it in much longer. Yes, I'd call myself devastated back then. For about 1.5 hours, complete silence. And then he texted me back, well, on Messenger. Didn't read my text messages yet. "Acted" that nothing was wrong. Again, I was confused. I asked him what that was all about. "What?" Well, you know, walking away with someone I clearly recognised from Tinder ... Who, after a long discussion, appeared to be one of his best friends ... Who he had not foreseen coming there at that time. It was not his intention to leave at first, until I walked away a bit too far to make it a "kidding goodbye". So he walked away, too. A long discussion, after which I asked him if we could give it another chance after some time. And he agreed. He said that he didn't have much time; which was true, given that he's leaving for a congress tomorrow ... And that the plan was indeed to go to the movies and to catch a meal. And now we're doing normal again. To the extent possible. This was yesterday.

    Today he asked me what all the dramaqueen stuff was all about yesterday. And indeed, I made assumptions, and I didn't give him any chance to "defend" himself, or to explain what really happened. He said I acted quite "claiming", especially given that we'd seen each other only for the second time. And I agree. I was indeed very claiming; and am, perhaps, rather than was. But now, we're good, and I'm going to try to feel okay with anything similar to happen. I made assumptions that were not necessarily true, and it is indeed possible that they knew each other for a long time, Tinder excluded.

    But today, all of a sudden, I was thinking back at how I felt, at what I was thinking that they could have been doing together if indeed they planned on meeting each other (through Tinder, that is) that very evening. And I sobbed again. For the umpteenth time in my life, I got attached to someone way too quickly, and it destroys me even thinking about the idea of losing him.

    For anyone who actually succeeded in reading this whole damn text, the hell can I do? I'm not planning on letting him go, and I have to loosen up a bit. Definitely. But how, without having to feel wrecked? Does this sound like a classic separation anxiety disorder?

    1. Show previous comments  1 more
    2. Silvestru

      Silvestru

      Well let me start by hoping he doesn't share your interest in science too and is a member of this forum reading this right now haha. Jokes aside, being possessive is a huge no-no and while I'm sure you can't control that in your mind, try to refrain from expressing it to others. Trust me, if a person plans to leave you and you are making drama or acting possessive, it wont change their mind.  Ofc I am in team "Function" so I hope it goes well. Just keep the "crazy" locked for a while until you have a stronger connection and the person will understand why you are acting like this. (maybe some previous baggage). Anyway, go team Function!

    3. Function

      Function

      I'm not sure we can speak of teams here, rather than "coalitions", but thanks for the support! I'm planning on refraining from expressing possessiveness and separation anxiety.

      And well, I actually offended one of the judicial principles I firmly endorse: "ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat"

    4. koti

      koti

      Heres my 2 cents...as far as „these things” are concerned just go with the flow and don’t worry too much if you antagonize someone with your feelings/actions. You are who you are and although compromises are a very important aspect of sustaining a relationship, they are not such a good idea at the beginning when you are looking. I think its important to show who your are in full in the beginning, this way you will increase your chances of meeting someone compatible with you and deceease chances of getting into a toxic relationship. Since you’re also young, you can just disregard what I just said, try to have fun and don’t look back :) 

  20. If anyone, or anyone's kid(s), is planning on watching the second season of 13 Reasons Why, please note this warning for the last episode. There is a specific scene that concerns an important social problem in community, but is so graphical that lots of viewers were left shocked and aghast. Truth be told, I'm confident that we (members of this forum) ought to be intelligent and educated enough so that we need not be confronted with this scene for making us attent of this social problem in society. However, it was a really good series after all, and I enjoyed watching it. Except for that scene. It left me shocked, staring at a paused screen for about 15 minutes and I personally did not have any added value from that scene (38:24 until 39:49).

    1. StringJunky

      StringJunky

      I read a review on it but this is my own thought on such topics. If it makes viewers feel like that, then that negative experience was communicated effectively. What is the point of restricting the effect such that one feels no real empathy. if, for example, people saw gun victims in the schools as they really were, or realistically portrayed in films/dramas, the NRA wouldn't stand a chance. In order to instigate change you've got to tell it how it is.... showing it at the appropriate time and place of course.

    2. Scott of the Antares

      Scott of the Antares

      I watched this and whilst I enjoyed it, I thought that the main character was a little harsh calling out some people who didn’t deserve to be lumped in with the main antagonists.

    3. Prometheus

      Prometheus

      I agree with String. Came across some rap music also depicting a brutal rape in some detail. Utterly harrowing, as it should be. Far better rap than the safe and mainstream stuff which glorifies violence and misogyny with bitches and bling.

  21. Pretty sure the German term "lebensunwertes Leben" was invented for mosquitoes.

    1. DrP

      DrP

      Try telling that top a pregnant mozzie as she stalks her sleeping pray just before she goes into to suck the blood out of them. She risks her life for the blood that will give her the nutrients she needs to nourish her offspring before birth so they can leave her body and become her legacy to the world for another generation.

    2. Function

      Function

      Survival of the fittest.

    3. CharonY

      CharonY

      Sadly, it was not.

  22. Penultimate examination period is upon us. I'm going to be so relieved once our internships begin in January. Welp, there we go!

  23. Origin of your UserName?

    Welp, I can't really remember why the hell I baptised myself "Function". Guess I liked maths at the time. Yup. Liked. I would still like it, if I hadn't forgotten even how to sole the easiest integrals. But hey, medicine and maths may start both with an "m", but that's about the only thing they have in common. After all, I didn't (and still don't) have the time to adequately maintain my knowledge and skills in maths. I regret, however, that I forgot most of the physics we were taught; I'm actually planning on re-learning physics when I get the time. But I'm quite fond of brain tumours. Hence the avatar.
  24. what is 0^0?

    Well have you ever. I'd expected the first answer to this post to be "Undefined", but I'm rather surprised, too.
  25. 4 months and [CENSORED] kgs later, I'm going to start running again this evening ... Wish me luck!

    1. NimrodTheGoat

      NimrodTheGoat

      break a leg! 

    2. Function

      Function

      I'd rather break my record, but I'll keep that in mind! Thanks!

    3. koti

      koti

      Look out for your joints if you gained significant weight. I found that stairs are better when I'm in the fat mode.