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Posts posted by jimmydasaint

  1. IMHO I consider that the apparent altruism is not inadvertant but, significantly, posits a theory of mind in cetaceans. This is not a new proposition - there may be a sense of self-awareness that also involves some emotion. Although controversial, I would further suggest that the presence of spindle neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn10661-whales-boast-the-brain-cells-that-make-us-human/) allow cetaceans to have a sense of empathy towards other animals in their community which then manifests as a protective behaviour from a perceived enemy. It is difficult not to anthropomorphise elements of the whales' behaviour but I don't see an alternative. I see the protective behaviour with the seals as deliberate and empathetic. Cetaceans have been on the Earth for longer than humans and may have developed these behaviours for longer than us "sentient" beings.

  2. I don't know what your problem is, but I bet it's hard to pronounce.


    I'd agree with you, but then we'd both be wrong.


    I've been trying to see things from your point of view, but I cannot get my head that far up my ass.


    You're clearly unmolested by enlightenment.


    I'd have better luck picking up a turd by the clean end than engaging in an intelligible conversation with you.

    Destroyer quotes and so funny! Like it iNow.

  3. Well, I don't work in the field of immunology, I'm only interested in it. So I have a lot more less knowledge compared to someone working with it? Is this forum mostly for people like me who are "only" interested with it, but lack any deeper knowledge? Don't mean to sound rude or anything.

    Wow. Well I have a PhD in Immunology and have forgotten more than you will ever know about Immunology (wink). I don't mean to be rude of course but did you not understand the clear explanation given? (wink again). In animal models, to be precise, mouse models, RhoC is over-expressed only in metastatic cells. That means that it seems to be essential in freeing up cells from the original parent tumour and allowing them to escape in the bloodstream to form secondary tumours. However, these are animal models of disease and there is no guarantee that there will be success in treating humans. Also, you were correct, the primary treatment will be surgical or chemotherapeutic but then, if caught early, the vaccine will be administered to "catch" cancer cells with over-expressed RhoC and for them to be destroyed by cytotoxic T cells. This is not a treatment for all cancers but, for a significant number of cancers, it represents real hope. Is it good news from an immunological point of view? Yes. Treatment with siRNA has already stopped significant metastasis apparently. If you want to invest money with these guys and your clients are rich, then go with the investment.

  4. Forget about income for now. It's by far not the most important thing for me. I'm more worried about how to get from where I'm at now (an average to mediocre community college student) to becoming PhD program material in the next couple of years. I'm also more worried about finding the right field for me. I know it's somewhere in biology/evolution, or in some computer science field relating to biology.

    You seem quite determined to do a PhD and I would never discourage you. Once you do well at your degree, I would apply to do a Masters in Science. In the UK, you get a small amount of funding for an MSc and you can taste what it is like to make an original contribution to Science. After that, if you are liked you can stay with your lab to do a PhD or move to another lab to start a new PhD. You have to keep your private life on hold and your supervisor starts off with a God-like status which soon deteriorates until you think he/she is a complete idiot by the time you finish your PhD. I don't know if that is a universal experience but it did seem quite common when I was a PhD student....

  5. Tedor, my friend, get a job and make some money then hire a tutor in your own country who will help you study Physics. You may have to go to college in the evenings and work hard every day but your ambitions will help you through every day. Always keep them in your mind.

    Good luck.

  6. How human were H naledi? They buried their young, apparently, but there is no description of tools or other features of e.g. H habilis. Is it possible that it was a tribe with serious mutations that existed alongside H sapiens and have then become a footnote in history?

    There is a family of people who walk on all fours but are definitely human and have serious cognitive difficulties. Imagine if they decided to bury these people in a cave and it was discovered 400,000 years later. Is it possible to call them a distinct tribe of hominins?




    In fact, lots of chemotherapeutic agents aim to damage DNA and block DNA repair mechanisms to force even malign cells into apoptosis.


    (Radiation therapy works in a comparable way)

    Once again, thank you for stepping in and clarifying matters Function. I actually had a post-doctoral position to examine relationship of viral DNA and some cancers, but never saw the chemotherapy or radiotherapy side of the research - another danger of over-specialisation in research - everyone is seeing an elephant from a different point of view.

  8. I read an article today, which is relatively recent, but which touched me as a human.


    Humpbacked whales apparently save seals by fending off killer whales and it seems as if the behaviour is deliberate.


    I have copied parts of the article below and I would expect the Darwinian reply, but is there an alternative?


    First, excerpts from the article (bold emphasis is mine):


    When did you realise the whales were doing more than just driving a predator away?

    Well, a couple of days later we saw some killer whales attacking a Weddell seal on an ice floe and there were a couple of humpbacks in the vicinity. We could tell they were agitated because we could hear them bellowing – it’s an impressive sound. The killer whales washed the seal off the ice and it started swimming into open water. Then, suddenly, one of the humpbacks comes to meet the seal and, just as it gets to the seal, rolls over on its back and the water washes the seal onto its chest. The whale lifts its chest up out of the water with the seal on it.


    That sounds like pretty unusual behaviour for a whale…

    Yeah – we were amazed to see it. But we immediately thought maybe the whale didn’t know the seal was there, maybe this was all just coincidence. Then we looked at the BBC footage, and we saw that at one point the seal had started to slip off the whale’s chest. The humpback used a 5-metre-long, 1-tonne flipper to gently nudge the seal back up onto its chest. Once we saw that, we knew it was no accident and something was going on.


    What did you think was happening between the humpbacks and the seal?

    It looked like altruism – as if the whales were acting out of concern for the smaller animal. But we are not talking about humans here, and when animals do something that appears to be altruism, I try to come up with rational explanations for it. But the reason wasn’t obvious because, as best we know, animals always act in their own self-interest. “This needs an explanation,” I thought.


    What about other cetaceans — does their behaviour offer clues as to what was going on?

    There are lots of anecdotes about dolphins helping other animals in distress, including humans. But that’s different from the humpbacks: they were going in to help an animal being attacked by an apex predator.



    The scientist involved, Robert Pitman ( a marine ecologist) offered a Darwinian approach to the apparently altruistic behaviour of the humpbacked whales.


    Pitman believes that the behaviour is designed to chase off the killer whales from attacking humpbacked calves, which may be related to them genetically, and therefore they are acting in their overall self interest with the seal-saving being an offshoot to the self preservation of the humpbacked whale community.


    Now, is there an alternative explanation for why humpbacked whales actively save the seals? I would volunteer a couple of alternative explanations. Cetaceans might have an emotional sense of community and are preserving the lives of other animals in their community which are not food, or a threat. Alternatively, they are actively preventing the killer whales from feeding in their communities, thereby removing the threat of the killer whales feeding on humpbacked calves. However, do the humpbacked whales have a form of deductive logic similar to other limited numbers of species?


    Do others have opinions on this touching behaviour?

  9. Why do you think some groups of people have progressed while others have remained in primative stages?

    Well, if progress involves working like a rat in a luxury trap and a primitive existence involves being more in tune with Nature, then it is definitely the primitive existence for me. I dream of simplicity - a caravan on a remote beach or a remote, simple existence where communities are smaller and actually care for each other.

  10. You give us a reference from 2001 (for those who are still aghast by hearing from another point of view: 16 years ago). In a domain such as oncology, that's way outdated. Oncological research is evolving so fast that you'd at least need a reference from the last 5 years. On the same subject.


    If not, forget about it. It's unthinkable that no other person with time, money, and the task to do so, has already thought about it and researched it.


    Old articles (yes, 2001 is old) may provide you some general concepts and insights in the fundamentals of oncology. But when it comes especially to genetics, and whole protein families, you can't rely on something that old for researching something new.

    Thank you Function. I support what you say. Oncology references need to be recent - I must confess that I did not see the reference properly. However, I did search it up and I have copied the abstract here:


    The Ku heterodimer (Ku70 and Ku80 subunits) contributes to genomic integrity through its ability to bind DNA double-strand breaks and facilitate repair by the non-homologous end-joining pathway. The crystal structure of the human Ku heterodimer was determined both alone and bound to a 55-nucleotide DNA element at 2.7 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. Ku70 and Ku80 share a common topology and form a dyad-symmetrical molecule with a preformed ring that encircles duplex DNA. The binding site can cradle two full turns of DNA while encircling only the central 3–4 base pairs (bp). Ku makes no contacts with DNA bases and few with the sugar-phosphate backbone, but it fits sterically to major and minor groove contours so as to position the DNA helix in a defined path through the protein ring. These features seem well designed to structurally support broken DNA ends and to bring the DNA helix into phase across the junction during end processing and ligation.



    The abstract refers to a protein, Ku made of two polypeptide chains bonded together that stabilises damaged DNA by encircling it, IIRC.

    The question must be asked from the writer of the OP, which cancers involve damage to both strands of DNA? How widespread are these? What is the possibility of using Ku as cancer treatment.

  11. hmm - my life has been quite 'interesting' too... but I have thick hair and none of it is grey. I think it is genetic as on my fathers side all the males (that I can remember and that are close in relation - i.e. my father, Grand father, greatgrandfather and some uncles never went bald. My Grandad had thick hair and only really started going grey slightly in his late 70's and through his 80's. His hair was pretty grey when he died at 92, but at 74 he still had dark hair.



    (I have started getting grey bits in my beard and on other parts of my body though... nasal hair and some of my eye brows are starting to get the odd grey hair, but only the odd one.... which I usually remove).

    You lucky sod. I am going grey everywhere and now estimate that I (at almost 55 years old) am now 80% grey. The worst thing is grey eyebrow and nose hairs. What do you do? Pluck? Leave them? Help.

  12. If that is their idea of a "sales pitch" who the hell are they trying to recruit?

    Who responds positively to an offer to "Join the Masons and get a free luminous dick!"

    :) I think these were light and camera effects meant to show purity. It was a bit OTT.


    Nevertheless, I am a bit frightened of this stuff if I am honest:



    Master Masons promise not to cheat, defraud, or do violence to a Master Mason. They promise not to commit adultery with the wife of a Master Mason or seduce his sister, daughter, or other female relative. These promises only apply to fellow Master Masons. They do not protect non-Masons, Entered Apprentices, or Fellow Crafts and their families.


    Masons are required to tell lies and even perjure themselves to protect other Masons. They are also required to obey even orders which they know to be immoral:

    "You must conceal all the crimes of your brother Masons, except murder and treason, and these only at your own option, and should you be summoned as a witness against a brother Mason be always sure to shield him. Prevaricate [falsify], don't tell the whole truth in his case, keep his secrets, forget the most important points. It may be perjury to do this, it is true, but you're keeping your obligations, and remember if you live up to your obligation strictly, you'll be free from sin." (Edmond Ronayne, "Masonic Handbook," page 183)


    "Right or wrong his very existence as a Mason hangs upon obedience to the powers immediately set above him. The one unpardonable crime in a Mason is contumacy [insubordination] or disobedience." (Robert Morris, "Webb's Monitor of Freemasonry," page 169)

    According to masonic oaths, Masons are to be killed if they reveal masonic secrets. In 1826, Captain William Morgan, a high-degree Mason, made masonic secrets public in his book "Freemasonry Exposed." According to the "Masonic Handbook," he was murdered for it.

    "When a brother reveals any of our great secrets; whenever, for instance, he tells anything about Boaz, or Tubalcain, or Jachin, or that awful Mah-hah-bone, or even whenever a minister prays in the name of Christ in any of our assemblies, you must always hold yourself in readiness, if called upon, to cut his throat from ear to ear, pull out his tongue by the roots, and bury his body at the bottom of some lake or pond. Of course, all this must be done in secret, as it was in the case of that notorious man Morgan, for both law and civilization are opposed to such barbarous crimes, but then, you know you must live up to your obligation, and so long as you have sworn to do it, by being very strict and obedient in the matter, you'll be free from sin." (Edmond Ronayne, "Masonic Handbook," page 74)




    Freemasonry is a men's club which only allows people to join if they believe in a god or gods.





    None, I am a bit young to join I have been invited a few times though and I am an atheist.

    OK. thank you for that information. I should also explain that one of my friends is a lapsed Freemason and is not one of the evil guys I referred to in the OP. In fact, he is a decent bloke who I respect.

    Base to Temple... yes... We have another one, yes he has revealed the plan... hold... coordinates set, missil away! Send in the black helicopters to clean...


  14. I saw a programme today on British television which showed the inside of the Grand Temple of Freemasonry - the United Grand Lodge of England. This was pure propaganda for the Freemasons and showed, at one point, light emanating from the genitalia of one of the Grand Masters of this movement. Freemasons were trying to show it as a charitable organisation which is involved with the improvement of the self.


    I don't believe them!


    In my opinion, it looks, from a perfunctory reading, that Freemasonry is a religion with religious rituals and is set up to organise mutual backscratching to the point of illegality.


    Freemasons that I have come across in the past have been some of the most evil men I have ever met. They talk semi religious nonsense to attract members and then organise bloodthirsty oaths to keep these unfortunate men in the fold of "The Craft".


    The ravings of one of their most revered leaders, Albert Pike, can be read here:




    It looks as if Freemasonry is an alternative religion if you believe the writings of a former Freemason:




    The God of this particular religion, if you rise high enough in the ranks appears to be Lucifer.



    Masonry is anti-Christian in its teachings. For example, J.M. Ward in FREEMASONRY - ITS AIMS AND IDEALS wrote (Pg.187), "I boldly avere that freemasonry is a religion, yet it no way conflicts with any other religion, unless that religion holds that no one outside its portals can be saved." Ward, in his statement, reveals the fact that masonry has no conflict with any apostate religion on the face of the earth, but he also reveals that masonry is in conflict with Christianity. The Bible says, "Neither is there salvation in any other, for there is none other name under heaven given among men whereby we MUST be saved" (Acts 4:12). Jesus said, "No man cometh unto the Father but by Me." (Jn. 14:6). The Bible is plainly teaching that there is only one way to heaven and that is Christ.


    A prominent college president said of masonry, "It is a Luciferian religion. We are fully aware of its diabolical origin and purpose. I believe that any born-again Christian, when the facts from the lips of Masonic writers themselves are presented showing that masonry is a religion and is the worship of Satan, will immediately withdraw." To this I must add my hearty agreement! The God and Father of the Lord Jesus Christ, the only True and Living God, has clearly commanded Christians, "Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers, and swear not at all, and have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them."



    This is only my opinion and I am not trying to hurt members of the Forum who are Freemasons. However, I do feel that they have scored a significant victory in appearing on peak time TV with a sanitised version to attract new members.


    What do others know about these secretive people in "The Craft?"

  15. Teodor, I am a Biology teacher otherwise I would help you. You need a Physics specialist who can help you overcome problems in interpretation and understanding. II wish you the best of luck and hope that someone here can help to point you in the correct direction.

  16. I like the quote by the Italian diplomat of the 19th century called Benso di Cavour who wrote something along the lines of:

    "Life is the shadow of a passing dream; the story is short and finite; the only immortal truth is love."


    I cannot conceive of a world where love does not exist and where all life is based upon scientific rationalism, which is IMO, what the OP is saying.


    But, is love outside the aegis of scientific investigation?

  17. i would like to understand the universe so that i can help the human kind for the future.

    Wow! A superb ambition. I would start off finding free online courses which would improve your overall knowledge. This means college level Maths, Physics and maybe another Science. you do not have to be bright, just dedicated. Then, once you are in college, look up Khan Academy and other online sites to increase your knowledge.


    Once you have passed college, then apply to further online colleges - the Open University in the UK will cost you but you can work and study at the same time and your job is unimportant as long as it brings in money. http://www.open.ac.uk/courses/choose/ppcbrand?kwcampaign=bau%20england%20-%20brand%20phrase&keywordid=ggluk_open%20uni&mkwid=mc-ppc&gclid=CMiD6YTxqNMCFVcz0wodGVkIDA


    Before you do anything else, try this level at first: this is called P1 in the UK, the first Physics module taught in Yr 10. Follow up with P2 and P3. Then you have completed basic Physics in the UK to the level of a 16 year-old. This is to test your current knowledge. Good luck on your journey and never, ever, give up.




    PS: Ask this Forum if anybody is willing to teach you online for a small fee. you can work and then pay a small proportion of your money to this kind Science Forum person. Both would benefit.



    It would mean that all the mass (finite or infinite) of the universe was in zero volume and there was no "before".


    For these, and the reasons given above, no one seriously believes a singularity represents physical reality.


    There are various (currently untestable) ideas for the early universe. For example, a "big bounce" (the universe formed from the collapse of an earlier universe), "eternal inflation" (new universes are constantly being created) and some recent attempts to combine quantum theory with GR suggest that the universe is infinitely old.


    We will probably need a proper theory of quantum gravity before we can answer such questions.

    These hypotheses are interesting. So do scientists believe in an infinite Universe over a finite existence?

    Doesn't this matter then reduce down to subjective and personal belief then?

    This quantum gravity thingummy, isn't that Prof. Penrose's theory?

  19. I thank you, but I feel emotional aversions while socializing and am afraid of talking to people with my voice, due to being a textbook psychopath. I would rather talk in skype if you like.

    qq - this is for you. we could chat by text or PM on this Forum or text on cellphone, if you like. I just want to say that there is ALWAYS hope and ALWAYS a way to get out of this mood. Tony Robbins is the real deal and this is not only my opinion. I have a link for him here:



    It's 2 am in the UK dude, I m going to sleep. Take care, you are of great worth and, once you are out of this state, you can help others.

    All the best to you brother/sister/whatever.

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