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Ludwik

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About Ludwik

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  • Favorite Area of Science
    physics
  1. Theists and Atheists I still do not know what can be done to eliminate endless conflicts between theists and atheists. But comments collected at several websites prompted me to compose a short on-line paper at: http://pages.csam.mo...i/theo_sci.html It can probably be used to initiate an interesting discussion here. Please share this link with those who might be interested. Ludwik Kowalski Professor Emeritus Montclair State University, USA . .
  2. How harmful is nuclear radiation? It depends on the dose/density received. Tsunami-related Fukushina accident will probably renew debates about nuclear electricity. Such debates should be based on what is known about negative effects of nuclear radiation. Numerical data below should be useful in that context. The effect of penetrating radiation on a person depends on the dose density received. The common unit of dose density is Sievert (Sv). Smaller doses are expressed in milliseverts (mSv) or microseveret. The old unit of dose density, rem, is also used widely (1Sv=100 rem) A
  3. How harmful is nuclear radiation? It depends on the dose received. Tsunami-related Fukushina accident will probably renew debates about nuclear electricity. Such debates should be based on what is known about negative effects of nuclear radiation. Numerical data below should be useful in that context. The effect of penetrating radiation on a person depends on the dose received. The common unit of dose is Sievert (Sv). Smaller doses are expressed in milliseverts (mSv) or microseveret. The old unit of dose, rem, is also used widely (1Sv=100 rem) A dose of 10 Sv will most likely resu
  4. Below is a message just received from a nuclear physicist friend in Japan: Ludwik ============================================= Serious rescue efforts for isolated people in destroyed towns by tsunamis and quake are under way. Another serious concern is of the stopped nuclear power plants, Fukushima-I $II with 8 reactors total. The Fukushima-I#1, 40 years old, has got the first trouble after its automatic shut-down by the quake, which was caused by no electricity (an emergent Diesel generator did not work either) for driving circulation pumps o
  5. M. Soltysik, one of the leaders of SPUSA (Socialist Party of the USA), was recently interviewed by M. Bonanno, as reported in an OpEdNews article: (link removed) After briefly commenting on that interview, I wrote my own PoEdNews article: (link removed) What follows is a summary of my article. 1) M.S. wants us to discuss socialism without linking it with the USSR, the first socialist country in the world. I objected to this. I think Stalinism must be studied in order to avoid Soviet mistakes and Soviet crimes. 2) Referring to capitalists, M.S. said "fat cats have had
  6. I would very much like to know what people on this website think about peaceful coexistence between those who study our material world (scientists) and those who study our spiritual world (theologians). My attempt to write an essay on that subject failed, as you can see at: http://csam.montclai.../theology3.html The webpage was prepared to generate a discussion. Those who post comments should refer to specific "contributions," as numbered (or to specific persons, as numbered at the beginning). This will simplify the discussion. And let us keep in mind that the main topic is peace
  7. Introduction This essay is written as a homework assignment at the Memoir Writing Workshop for Senior Citizens (Tenafly, New Jersey). The workshop is conducted by Lucile Lichtblau. I am the author of a FREE on-line book, entitled: "Diary of a Former Communist: Thoughts, Feelings, Reality," at http://csam.montclai...life/intro.html It is an autobiography illustrating my evolution from one extreme to another--from a devoted Stalinist to an active anti-communist. This testimony is based on a diary I kept between 1946 and 2004 (in the USSR, Poland, France and the USA).The homework
  8. I remember seeing a distinction between "hard sciences," such as physics and chemistry, and "soft sciences, such as sociology. Archeology can be said to be a soft science. I remember seeing a distinction between "hard sciences," such as physics and chemistry, and "soft sciences, such as sociology. Archeology can be said to be a soft science.
  9. Last two versions of MSWORD (with document extension docx), are very different from earlier versions (with document extension doc). One of the changes is the new interface. I would vote against the new interface, if we had a referendum about it. I would argue that the 2003 version was already a very good tool; we became very familiar with it. Learning the new interface, as in the 2010 version, is a burden not worth accepting. What is gained by a typical user is negligible in comparison with what was lost. How would you vote, and why? .
  10. The methods of validation of claims (reliance on replicable experiments versus reliance on holy books) are different in these two area of knowledge. But some scientists are also deists and some deists are also scientists. Newton, for example, was active in both fields. Ludwik Kowalski (see Wikopedia)
  11. I am not convinced that your equation (4) is correct.
  12. I am Ludwik Kowalski, a retired nuclear physicist. Wikipedia will show you the link to my publications, etc.
  13. Yes, indeed. Thank you for showing the graphs. Ludwik Kowalski (see Wikipedia)
  14. I agree with this. Learning new languages only because they were added was a great pain in the neck for me. Fortran was my first language. At some time someone convinced me that I must learn Pascal, because "that is what your students are required to learn now," they said. By the time I mastered Pascal students were required to learn C. Ludwik Kowalski (see Wikipedia)
  15. Oxygen must also be available in sufficient amount. Otherwise a body will not ignite suddenly. I am sorry for reminding you the obvious. Ludwik Kowalski (see Wikipedia)
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