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icarus2

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  1. Observations do not prove that the negative mass does not exist in the universe. You must have heard this problem in science philosophy many times~ And isn't my explanation in the text? This is not clear evidence, but there are likely observations, so further research is needed. And, in 2018, a researcher named Farnes published the following paper at Astronomy and Astrophysics (A&A). He seems to claim that observations of several galaxies are evidence. https://phys.org/news/2018-12-bizarre-dark-fluid-negative-mass.html *A Unifying Theory of Dark Energy and Dark Matter: Negative Masses and Matter Creation within a Modified ΛCDM Framework (2018, J.S. Farnes) https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.07962 (*In fact, In 2009 I wrote a paper describing both dark matter and dark energy using negative mass. The first post on the forum here also raised this claim.)
  2. I have said many times that I have never made such a claim. Please stop the matter. ===== No. Both electron and positron have positive mass. ===== 1) Pair creation of two positive mass particles : In the process of the pair creation of electron and positron, ~~~ 2) Pair creation when one has positive mass and the other has negative mass ===== I have never claimed that antimatter is a negative mass. =====
  3. Acceleration is determined by the size of the opponent's mass. If the absolute value of the negative mass is greater than the absolute value of the positive mass, there is a repulsive gravitational effect between the two. In this case, the acceleration of positive mass is greater. As time passes, the two masses become more and more distant. Thus, they can exist without pair annihilation. In case |-m_ -| > m_ + We need a mechanism to return something to its original vacuum state after something is born in the vacuum, and we need a mechanism to exist after something is born from the vacuum. The mechanism of different mass sizes during pair creation seems to play a very important role. [Big bang mechanism or creation mechanism(tentative name) ] This logic may be used as a theoretical basis(energy conservation law, mass difference(repulsive gravitational effect)) for the presence of two masses after pair creation without pair annihilation.
  4. Yes! I know too. I have never claimed that antimatter is a negative mass. I don't know why you keep saying that. What I'm explaining for example is this phrase above. One of the backgrounds that the public makes this assumption(conjecture) is the experience gained during pair creation of electron and positron. It(pair creation of electron and positron) is only intended to explain that experience differs from the situation at pair creation of negative and positive masses.
  5. In simple terms, 1) Pair creation of two positive mass particles : In the process of the pair creation of electron and positron, electron's mass(energy) = positron's mass(energy) = +10, potential energy = +1 or -1 +10 : +10 ////// +10 : +10 -1 : -1 ////// +1 : +1 -------------- ////// -------------------- +9 = +9 ////// +11 = +11 2) Pair creation when one has positive mass and the other has negative mass But, in the process of the pair creation of negative and positive mass, negative mass(energy) = -10, positive mass(energy) = +10, -10 : +10 ////////// -10 : +10 -1 : -1 ////////// +1 : +1 ---------------- ////// -------------------- |-11| ≠ | +9| ////// | -9| ≠ |+11| With the sign of negative mass and positive mass different, the difference occurs because the potential energy has a sign of either + or - .
  6. [ False claims about negative mass : Runaway motion problem, Vacuum instability problem, Wheel problem ] 1. The runaway motion problem is wrong. Runaway motion is an argument that the two masses continue to accelerate, in an ideal situation where the negative mass and the positive mass are exactly the same. Runaway motion is used as a rejection logic of negative mass. a) The difference in mass when creating the pair of negative mass and positive mass. As a general conjecture, when positive and negative mass are born, the mass will be exactly the same, but this conjecture is wrong. There is at least a gravitational potential energy (binding energy) between the two particles. Process of the pair creation of electron and positron, the effect of electromagnetic potential energy could be the same because the two particles had the same kind of energy(electron : +, positron : +). Therefore, the two particles could have the same mass. However, in the process of the pair creation of negative and positive mass, the effect of gravitational potential energy is different because the two particles have different types of energy(negative mass : - , positive mass : +). This gravitational potential energy has a positive value and exists in a system containing two objects or two objects. If you add or subtract potential energy in two cases(Pair creation of electron and positron, Pair creation of negative mass and positive mass), you can see that they are different. In case the negative mass and the positive mass are pair created in the vacuum, according to the Energy Conservation Law, there must be a mass difference between the negative mass and the positive mass. |-m_ -| > m_ + Acceleration is determined by the size of the opponent's mass. If the absolute value of the negative mass is greater than the absolute value of the positive mass, there is a repulsive gravitational effect between the two. In this case, the acceleration of positive mass is greater. As time passes, the two masses become more and more distant. In other words, the ideal situation of pairing is broken. Because the accelerations are not the same and the distance of the pairing increases, the interaction of the other particles becomes involved. Therefore, runaway motion is not maintained. b) There is a possibility that the gravitational potential energy will break the ideal situation. Although the absolute values of the masses of two objects are exactly the same, there is a gravitational potential energy between them. Thus, these experiments indicate that gravitational energy gravitates in the normal way. - Gravitation and Spacetime – by Hans C. Ohanian and Remo Ruffini That is, even if the masses of negative mass and positive mass are exactly the same, the gravitational potential energy between them breaks this ideal situation. c) Since "runaway motion'' assumes a very ideal situation, an unusual movement occurs, but in the real world, this ideal situation may be broken by external factors (forces or fields by other objects …) d) ~~~ 2. The vacuum instability problem is wrong. In case of a positive mass, it could have negative energy level within negative potential. Nevertheless, even in this case, the total energy containing potential energy was still in the state of positive energy. However, for positive mass to enter the domain of (total energy is negative) negative energy level, energy should have negative value, and this means that it should have the characteristics of negative mass. When negative mass exists within potential with maximal and minimal points, different directions of force and acceleration should be considered for negative mass. F=-ma (m>0) a=-F/m The acceleration of negative mass is opposite to the direction of force. Therefore, the negative mass has harmonic oscillation at the maximum point and it is also stable at the maximum point. In the case of positive mass, it was stable at the minimum point at which energy is the low. However, in case of negative mass, stable equilibrium is a point of maximum value, not a point of minimum value. It is stable at a low energy state in the case of positive mass. However, it is stable at a high energy state in the case of negative mass. Due to this, “the problem of transition to minus infinite energy level'' does not occur, therefore negative mass(energy) and positive mass(energy) can exist stably in our universe. ~~~ 3. The wheel problem is wrong. What happens if one attaches a negative and positive mass pair to the rim of a wheel? This is incompatible with general relativity, for the device gets more massive. -Thomas Gold, in Negative mass in general relativity. a) In terms of force There is a problem of "How do you combine a negative mass with a rod?" But let's assume that it is connected in any way. The forces acting on both rods are equal in magnitude and opposite directions. F_{L} = - F_{R} Therefore, the wheel does not rotate. b) In terms of momentum In order for the wheel to move, momentum must be transmitted to the rod. But, P_{L} = - P_{R} The momentum transmitted to both rods is completely canceled. Therefore, the wheel does not rotate. He should have thought that the momentum had to be transmitted in order for the wheel to rotate. Fig.x. Different forms of explanation based on criteria(Force, Motion, Active Mass). Due to the negative inertial mass, the direction of force and motion changes [ Resurrection Request for Negative Mass. ] All new discoveries were called new discoveries because they were not found until then. Throughout the history of science, among the things that have not yet been discovered, new discoveries have had many examples. In other words, it does not guarantee that undiscovered findings of any physical object will be undiscovered in the future. The history of physics, and even the history of science. And even if we find something, our existing knowledge either rejects this discovery or tries to interpret it through existing ideas. ======= Negative Mass? Actually the first indication of the discovery! Days later… What does this mean? There cannot be negative mass, but would Einstein’s Cosmological Constant explain this acceleration? ======= In 1998 observations, the first result of the Friedmann equation was negative (gravitational) mass density. But the researchers, who had difficulty accepting negative masses, modified the equation. And they argue that the accelerated expansion of the universe is evidence of the existence of a cosmological constant. From the second Friedmann equation or acceleration equation, Since ρ is energy density in the acceleration equation, the pressure term P also has a dimension of energy density(c=1). Current acceleration equation inevitably require negative (gravitational) mass density. The mainstream produces acceleration expansion by setting the pressure of the cosmological constant or vacuum energy to P = -ρ However, the notion(dark energy term) created by the mainstream has an inertial mass density of +1(p), equivalent mass density of kinetic energy(or pressure term) of -3(p), with gravitational mass density of -2(p). Not only different signs, but different values. It violates? the principle of equivalence of inertial mass and gravitational mass, which is the basis of general relativity theory. Looking at the dark energy term, - 2ρ = ρ + 3( -ρ ) = - 2ρ ~~~~ In the process of discarding the negative mass that is the result of the field equation, it is assumed that the false claims listed above played a key role. Since the rejection logics for the negative mass are wrong, the negative mass model needs to be reviewed again. *Regardless of the problem of dark matter and dark energy, the above three arguments are the core problem of negative mass. ======== # Paper 1) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286935998 2) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324525352
  7. We do not know what the origin of dark matter and dark energy is. There are hundreds of models because it is not confirmed. Opinions differ among researchers. Therefore, we must distinguish among the knowledge we have, what is observed and what is the hypothesis or model for it. And we must think that any explanation of a problem can be an assertion only within their model. What we observe in the universe is the redshift. Since then, much of the content is hypothetical and model. Cosmological constant, vacuum energy, Quintessence, F(R) theory, MOND, WIMP, Axion, Sterile neutrino... It is a hypothesis and a model. What we have to explain is the redshift or the accelerating expansion, not the positive cosmological constant. So, what equation can explain the acceleration expansion of the universe? It is a second Friedmann equation and an acceleration equation. From the second Friedmann equation or acceleration equation, Since ρ is the energy density in the acceleration equation, the pressure term P also has a dimension of energy density(c=1). Acceleration equation inevitably require negative (gravitational) mass density. In the mainstream astronomy, without negative mass density, it is impossible to create acceleration expansion. However, depending on individual hypotheses and models, there are different ways to produce negative mass density. 1. Negative mass model : Existence with negative inertial mass and negative gravitational mass In the negative mass model, negative mass density is essential and no manipulation is required. The right side becomes a positive value, so accelerating expansion. From the observance of the HSS team and SCP team in 1998, they gained the negative mass density, using field equations which do not have the cosmological constant. The first findings were as follows: HSS(The High-z Supernova Search) team : Λ=0, Ω_m= - 0.38(±0.22) : negative mass density https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9805201 P14 and Table 8 SCP(Supernova Cosmology Project) team : Λ=0, Ω_m=-0.4(±0.1) : negative mass density The negative mass meets that condition (negative gravitational mass density) from the beginning. 2.Mainstream model : cosmological constant or vacuum energy The cosmological constant or vacuum energy is defined as having a positive (inertial) energy density, positive inertial mass. This alone does not produce acceleration expansion. They introduce the negative pressure and put the negative energy density into the negative pressure term. The logic or trick they create is to introduce a presence with a positive inertia mass, acting on negative pressure. Their logic is this. Mainstream cannot accelerate expansion without negative (gravitational) mass density. What we need is -2. It can have -2 from the beginning. = negative mass model 1 + (-3) can also make -2. = mainstream By the way, if we think about it carefully, we can see that "- 2" is avoided, but "- 3" problem remains. ====== How do you get negative mass from something with a positive energy density such as the cosmological constant. ====== Therefore, this question is a question that should be asked to mainstream physics and astronomy. Look at the cosmological constant or vacuum energy 1) Fine tuning problem : 10^120 times 2) Cosmological Constant Coincident Problem 3) Energy conservation problem The opinions are divided. Some people think that it's a problem, and others think that it's not a problem. 4) Equivalent principle of inertial mass and gravitational mass is in violation Gravitation and Spacetime – by Hans C. Ohanian and Remo Ruffini ====== Expressed in another way, the inertial mass density for the cosmological term is positive, but the gravitational mass density is negative. ====== By plotting the claims of the mainstream, Inertial mass density = + 1ρ (=Λ/8πG), gravitational mass density = - 2ρ (=- Λ/4πG) : not only different in sign, but also different in size. It is contrary to the equivalent principle of inertial mass and gravity mass, which is the basis of general relativity theory. By introducing negative pressure, people think that acceleration expansion is explained and the problem is solved ~, not at all. Many people are not aware of the serious problems of objects with negative pressure with positive energy density. 5) Sign of the negative pressure In the acceleration equation, the source of the pressure term 3P is the kinetic energy, and 3P has the idea of an equivalent mass density corresponding to the kinetic energy of the particle. So, assuming that the pressure P term has a negative energy density is same assuming that it has negative kinetic energy. In order to have negative kinetic energy, it must have negative inertial mass. But, because the mainstream assumed a positive inertial mass, this is a big problem. It is a logical contradiction. 6) Size of the negative pressure In the ideal gas state equation, we obtain, Pressure P is related to kinetic energy. For a radiation with the greatest velocity, P = (1/3)ρ. In the case of mater, v<<c, w=0 In the case of radiation, v=c, w=1/3 By the way, how can we physically create three times w larger than light? How can 3(1/3)? How do we get the size 1 of |w|? If we assume an object with superluminal speed square root(3)*c , can we explain it? Well, we can avoid this problem by assuming that cosmological constant or vacuum energy does not apply to the results(ideal gas state eq.) obtained through mainstream physics. However, ideal gas state equation applies to “massless to infinite mass(There is no upper limit)” particles, and the velocity ranges from “0 to c” are all included. The coverage of this equation includes a range that is difficult to ignore. We think that the dark energy problem has been solved by introducing the existence of positive inertial mass density and negative pressure. However, if you seriously consider the physical presence of P = -ρ = -3(ρ/3), you will find that there is a serious problem. The problem has not been solved, but the problem has turned into another. The cockroach came out as food, and no one ate it. The chef put cockroaches in chocolate bars and most people do not feel any resistance it. The cockroach is still there~ “the inertial mass density for the cosmological term is positive, but the gravitational mass density is negative.” For someone, cosmological constants and vacuum energy will look beautiful. However, hide the information about the person who made it, think that you saw the claim. It can change its size by 10^120 times, and the energy conservation law chews and can adjust its own inertial mass and gravitational mass freely. It is supposed to be moving faster than light. What I want to say is that the game is not over yet. Dark energy is not determined to be cosmological constant or vacuum energy. Although the cosmological constant or vacuum energy is at the forefront, there are many serious problems. And it is not the situation that other runners have given up. Therefore, we must distinguish among the knowledge we have, what is observed and what is the hypothesis or model for it. And we must think that any explanation of a problem can be an assertion only within their model.
  8. I think the density of dark energy is a function of time, and I think it is highly likely that the current measurement results(Dark energy density or cosmological constant is constant.) are wrong. In the future, dark energy density will is proved to be not constant. There are currently three problems(Dark energy, Dark matter, Spatial expansion model = Imperfection of long distance measurement.) that can greatly shake the results of mainstream astronomy. Now, dark energy is showing an increase, so I will explain this result roughly. Even if dark energy increases, I do not think that dark energy density is a constant level. Even if the source of dark energy is a negative mass, the phenomenon that the dark energy increases as the universe expands can appear. In this model, the dark energy term is The U-+ term is a positive gravitational potential energy term, a repulsive force term, and an antigravity term. The dark energy term varies in size according to r-+. If the r-+ value changes, it can increase even as the universe expands. Fig.x. Red dot=positive mass, Black dot=negative mass, The U++, U--, and U-+ values vary depending on the arrangement of negative mass and positive mass. In above case, the U-+ value is b) > a). Look back at the above computer simulation results. Pair dist. is a kind of r-+ value. As the r-+ value decreases, the U-+ value increases. Pair dist. : 1.00 --> 0.19 --> 0.10 --> 0.01 U++(Matter) : 1,600 --> 1,607 --> 1,616 --> 1,607 U-+(Dark energy) : 4,200 --> 8,475 --> 13,232 --> 102,952 Negative masses are attracted to the galaxies, and as clustering increases, the U-+ value increases. Other mechanisms may also exist, see the paper. P25~ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263468413 Another possibility is that current mainstream astronomy has 3~4 major problems, which can lead to inaccurate results. 1) Negative energy, two kinds of the gravity source, antigravity 2) Dark energy 3) Dark matter 4) Problem of space expansion, Incomplete of long distant measurement. (1/R)=1+z Mainstream astronomy is built on the assumption that space expands. However, this spatial expansion model may be wrong. The Friedman equation strongly suggests the possibility that the space expansion model has some problem. In my opinion, spatial expansion model may be wrong. 1. Friedmann equation suggests that the spatial expansion model is wrong. Consider a ΛCDM model called standard universe model! We estimate that space(or vacuum) will have a constant energy density ρ. According to this, if “the expansion of the universe” is a phenomenon caused by “expansion of the space”, it is said that the space of the same size should have the same energy density even if the time changes. Thus, if the expansion of the universe is a phenomenon resulting from the expansion of space, the same size distance must always have the same recession velocity, even though time goes by. Perhaps this is what we usually deduce about space, regardless of the ΛCDM model. Now, let's consider the Friedmann equations! H^2=(a'/a)^2=(8πG/3)ρ + (other terms) The Friedmann equation suggests that the Hubble constant(or variable) is a function of the energy density ρ. It also suggests that the Hubble constant depends not only on the energy density of the space(or vacuum) but also on the energy density of the matter. Therefore, as the universe expands, the energy density ρ decreases and the Hubble constant also changes (the Hubble constant decrease). That is, even though the distance is the same, it suggests that the recession velocity will change when the time changes. The Friedmann equation suggests an ideally different result from the spatial expansion model. Friedmann equation suggests that the spatial expansion model is wrong. At present, the long distance is estimated by the relational expression of the redshift and the scale factor from the spatial expansion model or assumption. 1/R = 1+z If the spatial expansion model is not correct, the measurement values of long distance are all corrected. The expansion of space is not an observation. What we observe is redshift, and spatial expansion is a hypothesis for redshift. The spatial expansion model is dangerous because it is not verified in the laboratory. 2. The Spatial Expansion Model does not acquire its present status by comparing the precision with the Doppler Shift Model. The model acquired the present status by the wrong stereotypes. (Hubble's observation isn't valid in place where is not the center of expansion and there is no repulsion on the cosmic scale.) 1)In the early 20th century it was a time when it was hard to think of repulsion or anti-gravity on a cosmic scale. Since it was difficult to think of repulsion on a universal scale, we needed a virtual idea like the expansion of space. Although there is Einstein's case, he officially gave up the declaration. Also, it seems that there was an advantage that model analysis was easy. The same advantages as assuming cosmological principles. But now we are living in a time when we have to consider repulsion in the cosmic scale. 2)Wrong stereotype that Hubble's observation isn't valid in place where is not center of expansion It is assumed that interpretation issues of observation results above applied most in physicists and astronomers introducing expansion of space. When observed from Earth, it is observed that all galaxies recede from Earth and the recession velocity also follow all relations of V = HR. To explain this, if position of the Earth is the center of expansion, namely if position of the Earth is the center of universe, this issue can be simply solved but it can be clearly known that Earth isn't the center of the universe from the observation of the universe until now. It is because Earth isn't the center of the solar system, but is clear to be just a planet and that the solar system isn't the center of the galactic system either. Therefore, physicists and astronomers had to find a way to explain this and as this couldn't be explained by dynamics, a new concept that “space expands” was introduced. To explain more specifically, it is assumed that the stereotype that Hubble's observation isn't valid in place where is not center of expansion had influence. By the way, if we actually analyze it, we can get the Hubble law even if it is not the center of the universe. Let's just look at the logical structure. In the beginning of the universe, two galaxies were very close. Assuming that the difference in acceleration is zero, a) Assuming that all galaxies have the same acceleration, or b) Assuming that the acceleration term is small, or c) Assuming that the effects of deceleration and acceleration expansion cancel each other out, and consequently this term is close to zero. ). The result of mainstream astronomy is known to be close to 3). If acceleration term is small, we get a Hubble’s law. http://vixra.org/abs/1203.0044 Figure x. So that all of the red lines are the same size, the ones where the tangent is the line of expansion too. It's important also that the lengths are proportional, so for example OB/OB' is equal to OC/OC' and OA/OA' since velocity from the center needs to be proportional to distance. A->A', B->B', C->C', We get the Hubble law. The second figure is drawn by user Iggy. Hubble's law isn't a matter only explained by special condition such as “center of the universe” or a new concept that we haven't experienced such as “expansion of space". Hubble’s law can be a result of dynamics valid in almost all areas when acceleration term is small in the universe. In addition, there was a problem that the accuracy of the Hubble constant was low in the 20th century. 3) Wrong champion match The space expansion model wins by competing with the Tired Light Model, then occupies the standard model position. In my think, it was the wrong championship game. Its competitor had to be a Doppler Shift Model. We know that both models give similar values for z ≤2. Since the difference between the two models is smaller than the variability of the Hubble constant, before the 2000s, there was no ability to distinguish between the two models. In the condition z ≤2, Both models show a difference of less than 5%. This is smaller than the fluctuation(50~100) of the Hubble constant. For Z=2, the comoving radial distance, which goes into Hubble's law, is 5273.0 Mpc or 17.198 Gly. Until the early 2000s, we did not have the technology to accurately measure the Hubble constant.(50~100 --> 74,72,68, again 74? km/s/Mpc) That is, until the early 2000s, we did not have the ability to compare the accuracy of the spatial expansion model and the Doppler shift model. The Spatial Expansion Model does not acquire its present status by comparing the precision with the Doppler Shift Model. They can’t explain why space expands and why it has a specific velocity. We did not observe the “expansion of space" directly, but observed redshift only. If the assumption “space expands" is wrong, the relation equation of the redshift and scale factor become wrong. This is a very important issue and needs verification. There are currently three problems(Dark energy, Dark matter, Spatial expansion model = Imperfection of long distance measurement.) that can greatly shake the results of mainstream astronomy.
  9. When negative mass and positive mass co-exist, gravitational potential energy-2 1. In the presence of negative mass and positive mass, there are several characteristics 1)2 X 2 U_T = (U_1 + U_2 + U_3 + U_4) + (U_5) + (U_6) U_T = 4(U-+) + 1(U++) + 1(U- -) 2)3 X 3 U_T = 9(U-+) + 3(U++) + 3(U- -) Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) shows important characteristics when negative mass and positive mass both co-exist. While n^2 positive (repulsive) gravitational potential terms are produced, n^2 - n negative (attractive) gravitational potential terms are also produced. The difference in the number of repulsive and attractive terms suggests that there is a difference in the magnitude of the repulsive and the attractive effect. Fig.x. Red dot=positive mass, Black dot=negative mass, The U++, U--, and U-+ values vary depending on the arrangement of negative mass and positive mass. You can get a sense by placing 2X2 particles and doing the direct calculation. 2. Numerical calculations To look into the characteristic of gravitational potential energy, I used the simulation program named “Gravitation3D” made by Roice Nelson and “G3D File Creator and Reader” made by our team. A program that can easily simulate the motion characteristics of negative mass : http://www.gravitation3d.com/ 1) Simulation setting a)Definition of parameter : A few parameters were needed to be defined for simulation. Distance between pair creation negative energy and positive energy(distance of 1 pair) : d_0, Minimum distance between particle pairs for density modification during pair creation : d_m, Radius of pair creation range : R_0 =500, Particle number of pair creation : N_0 =2,000ea (1,000 pairs) b)Finding mean value, 1,000 particle pairs (total 2,000ea particles) were produced by random and one mean value (gravitational potential energy) of each distance value was found 5 times each. c)Verification on program : To check if the calculated results of the program were correct, I calculated the GPE when 1, 2, and 3 pairs (consist of 15ea potentials) of particles existed by hand and confirmed that this value corresponded to the calculated results of the program. 2) Simulation results a) Distance of 1 pair (d_0) = 0.01, 0.10 (*Please look at the table above and think about the meaning of it.) It was found out that U-+ value having positive value could be much higher than |U++| + |U- -|. Thus, even though the size of positive mass and negative mass was equal, it could be known that repulsive GPE could be much higher than attractive GPE. b) Distance of 1 pair (d_0) = 0.19, 1.00 Dark matter and matter correspond to negative gravitational potential and dark energy correspond to positive gravitational potential because it produces repulsive effect. Therefore, observation ratio of current universe is 72.1/27.9 = 2.584 (WMAP reference). This shows similar value to 2.63 which was found above. If conditions change, ratio of negative gravitational potential and positive gravitational potential can have various values close to 2.58. The fundamental ideas or inferences of current mainstream physics and astronomy "If there are some gravitational effects, there are some gravitational source corresponding to each one of those gravitational effects." And "if the magnitudes of any gravitational effects are a> b> c, then the magnitudes of the energy density (which the source of this gravitational effect,) are ρ_a> ρ_b> ρ_c. " However, this inference cannot always be established. U++ = -1607.09 U -- = -1607.10 U-+ = + 8475.69 U-+ is about 5.3 times of |U++|, and it is an anti-gravity term because it is a positive value. In computer simulation, this universe actually expands. See the GPE U++, U- -, U-+ values in the table above. U-+ has a value about 5.3 times greater than U++ (matter) and is a repulsive GPE term. Let us imagine that we observe this phenomenon under conditions where we do not know the source of gravity. We will assume that there is a repulsive energy density (ρ-+) that is 5.3 times greater than the energy density (ρ++), the origin of U++. We can see through the above computer simulation that U-+ values with repulsive gravitational effects are much larger than |U--| + |U++|. In other words, even though the magnitudes of the positive and negative masses are the same, the repulsive gravity effect produced by them is much larger than the attractive gravity effect. It is a characteristic that cannot be derived from the model that analyzes the motion with only the total mass in the shell. By the way, what are the sources of these gravitational potential energy terms U++, U- -, U-+ ? It is the mass energy of positive and negative masses Σ+mc^2 and Σ-mc^2. Under normal circumstances, the mass energy is much larger than the gravitational potential energy. In short, three gravitational effects can come from two gravitational sources. This discovery suggests that mainstream inference (If there are some gravitational effects, there are some gravitational source corresponding to each one of those gravitational effects. And, if the magnitudes of any gravitational effect are a> b> c, then the magnitudes of the energy density (which the sources of this gravitational effects,) are ρ_a> ρ_b> ρ_c. ) do not always hold. In the field of astronomy, the results of key reasoning and core reasoning may collapse. And I think it is connected to the dark matter, the dark energy problem. c) WMAP's result As a matter of fact, through numerical calculation using a computer, the distribution having a similar value to the predicted rate of WMAP was revealed. In the Negative Mass Universe Model (Pair Creation Universe Model), negative masses are clustered outside positive mass galaxy or cluster of positive mass galaxies. Therefore, I have calculated the gravitational potential energy in such a batch. Fig.-x. m_+ = +100 X 6 = + 600. (±1200,0,0), (0,±1200,0), (0,0,±1200), each 100. -m_- = (- 0.2 X 500) X 6 = - 600. Negative mass distribution : center1,2(±1200,0,0), center3,4(0,±1200,0), center5,6(0,0,±1200), negative mass is generated randomly within R=3 ~120, min. distance = 8. Through the distribution of a negative mass and a positive mass, we could obtain a similar result to WMAP observation or predicted Ratio. This suggests that the currently predicted energy ratio comes from the distribution that negative masses are surrounding the galaxy or the galaxy clusters. Matter = U++ = - 83.2 ( ratio: 1) Dark Matter = U- - = - 459.6 ( ratio: 5.523) Dark Energy = U-+ = + 1286.9 (ratio : +15.463) : repulsive gravitational effect It is similar the ratio of matter(4.6% : 1) : dark matter(23.3% : 5.06) : dark energy(72.1% : +15.67 : repulsive gravitational effect). Through the distribution of a negative mass and a positive mass, we could obtain a similar result to WMAP observation or predicted ratio.
  10. I do not understand your question. 1.Do you want me to explain the above question? 2. Do other people use your ID(Mordred)?
  11. In short, the current mainstream model is a model based on one kind of gravitational source(positive mass or energy; mainstream physics describes matter, radiation, dark matter as objects with a positive energy density). By the way, if there are two kinds of gravitational sources, we have to establish new equations. In addition, some of the existing core reasoning may not be established. I think and insist on the following. 1) The source of dark matter and dark energy is the negative mass. 2) In the galaxy scale, the dark matter effect (an additional centripetal force effect) is the centripetal force effect produced by the negative mass existing outside the galaxy. 3) The accelerating expansion of the universe is an antigravity effect by negative mass. 4) In the cosmology, dark matter and dark energy correspond to U-- and U-+ terms, respectively. The negative and positive masses have different kinetic characteristics, so the U- - and U-+ values change differently. 5) The expansion of the universe must reflect the change in total gravitational potential energy. 1. Implications from the Friedmann equations Friedman equation can be induced from 00 component of field equation. But we can also induce this from conservation of energy in classical mechanics, which helps capture the situation definitely. The dark energy term can be explained by adding a form of potential energy term to the mechanical energy conservation equation. These are the contents of this book.( Bradley W. Carroll, Dale A. Ostlie. Introduction to Modern Astrophysics.) We do not know what the sources of dark matter and dark energy are. However, we know that "assuming or introducing something can explain their terms." The above derivation suggests that, in addition to the potential energy of a material, one attraction term and one repulsion term can explain dark matter and dark energy. Therefore, we should study the properties of gravitational potential energy in the presence of negative mass and positive mass. 2. When negative mass and positive mass co-exist, gravitational potential energy There are other problems here than in the case of positive mass. For example, analysis by total mass, which was established in existing positive mass models, is not appropriate or requires extreme caution. When M and -M are uniformly distributed in an arbitrary radius R, the gravity acting on the outside of the system by a total mass in this radius is described as zero. It is possible to arrange the particles so as to have the same size as the center of gravity in terms of the total mass without overlapping the positions of the particles. So there is no change in this analysis. However, when negative mass and positive mass exist together, the situation is changed because of the existence of U-+ term of gravitational potential energy. There is a kind of internal energy, positive gravitational potential energy. Expansion occur even if the total energy is zero. Also, the movements of the positive mass and negative mass, the negative and negative mass, and the negative mass and positive mass are different. There are also other heterogeneous situations that are different from when only positive mass exists. I think that to get accurate results in cosmology, we should consider the total gravitational potential energy rather than a single potential energy such as GMm / r. Since the distribution of negative mass and positive mass varies and the location of all galaxies changes, the expansion of the universe should reflect the change in total gravitational potential energy. Gravitational potential energy in the presence of negative mass and positive mass Now consider U- - term. In cosmology, let us suppose that we do not know what the source of this term is. And we are thinking of objects with a positive mass as a component of the universe. How do we interpret this term when we observe a negative gravitational potential energy term such as the term U- - , without knowing the source of the gravitational potential energy term? Removing the symbol removes this form –Gmm/r. Is this interpreted as -8πGρ/3 ? Or interpret it like +8πGρ/3? In other words, in cosmology based on existing positive mass, the negative gravitational potential energy term U- - seems likely to appear in the Friedmann equation in the form of -8πGρ/3 shape. There are more complicated things, but anyway, back to the logic of this model, I assert that The present cosmological constant can be obtained by adding potential U_Λ = - (1/6)Λ m(cr)^2 to mechanical energy conservation equation. If we insert "new potential energy term" into mechanical energy conservation equation, we will get a dark matter term and dark energy term. At this time, let's insert the above new gravitational potential energy(When there is a negative mass and a positive mass, the gravitational potential energy term U_T=U++ + U-- + U-+) term into it. If U++, U- -, U-+ has a ratio(4.9% : 26.8% : 68.3%) between each other, maybe, we will estimate that ratio of energy density such as 4.9% : 26.8% : 68.3% exist. This model can prove the energy composition(Matter : Dark matter : Dark energy) ratio of the universe and CCC (Cosmological Constant Coincident) Problem. Average of WMAP and Planck - Matter : Dark Matter : Dark Energy = 4.75% : 25.05% : 70.20% Average of Negative Mass Model - Matter : Dark Matter : Dark Energy = 4.75% : 25.00% : 70.25% *This ratio is based on the assumption that the ΛCDM model(only positive mass(energy) model) is correct. If the model based on only positive mass is wrong, there is a possibility that this ratio will change. At present, others are interested in this value, so I have proved this value with a Negative Mass Universe Model (or Pair Creation Universe Model). For further proof, please refer to the following article. Is the State of Low Energy Stable? Negative Energy, Dark Energy and Dark Matter https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263468413 P17~25
  12. Negative mass cannot make a ball because it does not interact with electromagnetic interaction. It is also difficult to make macroscopic objects because of the repulsive gravity interaction. The collision of macroscopic objects is due to electromagnetic interaction in microscopically. This is well known to many people. If any particles do not interact with the electromagnetic force, the particles will easily penetrate the rod. Neutrino and neutron do so. And it is assumed that WIMP, one of the candidates of dark matter, also assumes such an action. Since negative masses are assumed not to have electromagnetic interactions, the behavior of negative masses is similar to that of WIMP and neutrino. Therefore, ball collision is impossible, and direct collision at the particle level is possible. (a) Positive mass It is uncertain whether the negative mass will interact strong interaction. However negative masses are more likely to avoid strong interaction, since the mediator of strong interaction has positive energy. Assuming that negative masses are only gravitational interactions, Both masses can disappear in collision. The process will take place in the form of energy conservation law, momentum conservation law and other conservation laws. In short, if the absolute value of the negative mass is greater than the positive mass, the negative mass will remain, and if the absolute value of the negative mass is smaller than the positive mass, the positive mass will remain. And the remaining mass has a total momentum. However, due to various conservation laws, pair annihilation may not occur. In this case, negative mass will be transmitted through positive mass or scattered. For example, consider the charge conservation law. When a positive mass with charge collides with negative mass, they may undergo pair annihilation, from the perspective of energy. However, if a positive energy (for example proton) disappears, where should charge go? In that case, the conservation law of electrical charge may be invalid. If the conservation law of electrical charge should be held, such a pair-annihilation may be prohibited. In other words, the pair-annihilation is unlikely to occur even when negative mass meets positive mass. (b) Negative mass Although it is uncertain whether a rod of negative mass can be made, The above problem is the problem of the direct collision of negative mass and negative mass. In this case, the pair-annihilation process does not exist, and there is a repulsive effect between negative masses. I do not speak English well. So, my understanding of your writing may be lacking, and my opinion may not be adequately expressed. I'm sorry. But if you have the intention of asking pure questions, do not threaten ~
  13. This is only your idea, and the situation I see is different. The situation I see is that I explained it without any problems, By the way, you say "utter nonsense" without any explanation, after that, you say, "You give me a chance"… This time, "Why do not you want to show ~" You are doing the show alone, so I was hesitant about what to say. My answer is that if my explanation is wrong, you can explain it specifically ~ There is no problem with the movement, and there is no logical contradiction. Only you have a problem with it, but the laws of physics, such as the laws of conservation of energy or conservation of momentum, do not have problems. The dislike you feel is because you have been accustomed to the world of positive mass for a long time. What do you think is a false or forbidden phenomenon in the universe? The actual situation is complicated, but if simply argue, I think that~ A false or forbidden phenomenon is not a phenomenon contrary to common sense, but a phenomenon contrary to various laws of physics. If a phenomenon is a phenomenon that holds various conservation laws, including the laws of conservation of energy and the laws of conservation of momentum, such phenomena are not unreasonable. Take a look at the thoughts of researchers at the University of Washington. ===== http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/04/19/physicists-create-mind-bending-negative-mass-accelerates-backwards/ “Washington State University physicists explained that this mass, unlike every physical object in the world we know, accelerates backwards when pushed.” ~~~~~ Our everyday world sees only the positive effect of the law: if you push an object, it moves away from you. “That’s what most things that we’re used to do,” said Michael Forbes, a WSU assistant professor of physics and astronomy and an affiliate assistant professor at the University of Washington. “With negative mass, if you push something, it accelerates toward you.” ~~~~~ “Once you push, it accelerates backwards,” said Mr Forbes, who acted as a theorist analysing the system. “It looks like the rubidium hits an invisible wall.” ~~~~ The heightened control gives researchers a new tool to engineer experiments to study similar behaviours in astrophysics, such as neutron stars, and cosmological phenomena like black holes and dark energy, where experiments are impossible. ===== What they claim is not a negative gravitational mass, but a negative inertial mass. You can defend your existing knowledge system through the notion of effective mass. Except for the idea of effective mass, see the fact that they explain the phenomenon through the negative inertial mass. Have they considered that objects with negative inertia mass cannot exist and said their experiments were wrong? Not at all ~ I do not know if they have any idea about the existence of negative mass (total energy is negative), but see that they are embracing the concept or phenomenon of negative inertial mass unlike you - Not all scientists think like you. You can think of it as a strange phenomenon about the negative mass. However, the tool to determine whether it is a strange phenomenon to be prohibited should be the law of physics, not your stereotype. This is because you are not a god of physics.
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