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  1. Yes, I did. You though may be ignorant of sociology. I do not discriminate, and I am not a racist. And neither did you offer suggestions, rather resorted to brazen insult to massage your ego. And that goes for the 2 likes that applauded your post. Do you have anything to offer which can shed light on anything related to my post? Or are you not so informed on evolution?
  2. People, We have 3 arbitrary "races" of H Sapiens, Negroid, Caucasian, Mongoloid (according to sociologists ). Around the world's regions though, we see more than 3 different types of body features which the races are based on. Far east we see Asians as mongoloid (China, Japan, Pacific islands, etc), but just next door in India, we see people with different colors and facial features. Which race are they? Same thing in Europe, mostly Caucasian but just in N Africa (Libya, Algeria, etc) we see what many would call Arab, not Caucasian, nor Negroid. The India/China border mystery is most puzzling to me. How could evolution of man explain that difference in facial anatomical features when evolution knows no borders? Another example is Russia/Mongolia. Why Russians are Caucasian but just cross the political border and in Mongolia you get Mongoloids? How can evolution explain that? Thanks, people.
  3. Regarding simple sulfuric acid either concentrated or even 25% v/v or stronger, I use glass wool. Packed in a plastic funnel, using gloves as the wool can cut into your skin and irritate. But the sintered glass funnel above is a neater/cleaner approach.
  4. noquacks

    How to pray?

    How to Pray? Well, I was taught how by the nuns at the Catholic school I attended. So, I guess I was following directions as best a child could. And i continued to pray that way for.......another 45 years or so. Thats how I pray, not sure how you pray. Maybe there are different methods. But my experience is that praying does not work. Mathew, 7.7, "ask and it shall be given to you". I asked, begged, knelt, bowed, dutifully, in subservience but never received what I requested. So, disappointed, I quit praying for favors. Does it work for you? It has been shown that praying does not work. There is no evidence that it does so. Despite this, I kept praying for 50 years or so til I read one book too many.
  5. The borate pool approach has been abandoned for years. Chlorine still is king. The major pool service/suppliers do not touch the borate idea. I deal with one of the biggest names in pool supply/service in the nation. They buy my analytical chem products. Thats all I can say about it. I thought about borates,for my own pool, but had to abandon the "idea".
  6. It has finally sunk in, exchemist. Thanks for taking the time to explain further, although, many members did the same. i now understand much better the whole process of combustion and "burning". Thanks to all here.
  7. Right- matter of fact, archaeiologists, etc, have made finds of ancient cultures, based on the charcoal deposits/residues/evidence for their fires for cooking, warmth, etc. Many examples of Native American finds, dated back some thousands of years ago in N America........
  8. But the carbon that remains did not convert to CO2 gas. It remained a black residue/by product. (right?) But so far, thanks , people, for so many helpful replies. I am still unclear though. What am I not understanding..........
  9. So, in a routine fire, burned matter , mostly charcoal is actually not fully "carbonized"? And charcoal compounds can react to give new building blocks for new life forms?
  10. People, I often wondered, about what happens to all the carbon compounds, primarily cellulose, from the "wood" of plants/trees after a fire destroys the plant. Isnt the product a combination of charcoal, or outright burnt wood/carbon? If so, isnt it true that such a state of carbon will not react in nature, since carbon is so difficult to react with any compound. Imagine- how can charcoal react to form new plant growth if it has been destroyed by natural fires/volcanic heat/etc over billions of years. The plants growth comes from CO2 in the air, then converted to cellulose, then burns up in a fire, and cannot react anymore(?). Doesnt that mean that eventually the carbon amount subjected to intense heat events will be "used up" on Earth? Thanks, people.
  11. Thanks, people. Good to know I am not the only one a bit mystified. The lipid idea seems to make much sense. It is their "antifreeze", I suppose.
  12. People, A bacteria cell has water in it, so once that freezes does not the cell lyse/explode? As in ice forming, expansion, and cell wall bursts? Sure, there is not just pure water inside the cell, salts/proteins/etc, but mainly water. There has to some kind of "anti freeze compound protecting them, correct? Thanks, people.
  13. Religion vs pseudoscience are different?? Academically, yes, perhaps, but what's the point? One is a cult, and the other is quackery. Both are threats to advancement of science, knowledge, and the general well being of human life/living standards. The fact they may be different does nothing to validate either belief. I agree with your take on judaism being perhaps less "heinous". Still, does not validate or justify that cult. Yes, the Holocaust is a Black Page/Chapter in human history, with unspeakable crimes against Jews (and let's not forget the crimes against Muslims too). But it is not mutually inclusive to say well, Jews suffered immensely at different periods in the last 3000 years, so that justifies at least one of our practices to continue to demean women by including in our prayers every morning to thank Yaweh that I (a man) was not born female. I have no stomach for any religious cult which demeans women, which must include Christainty, Islam, and Judaism. They are all about the subjugation of women. The world will never elevate itself in terms of living standards until we stop the exploitation/subjugation of women.
  14. Thanks, Chen! That seems easy for me to do (for the Mn Cl). I dont have any of those reducers around though for the Copper chloride. But at least I got one of those taken care of! Thanks again! Goofy website useage- I click quote and difficult to know where to type, then I end up with 2 quotes. I will learn eventually, I guess.
  15. Copper I chloride. I should have explained that. Also, while we are at it, wanting manganese chloride, but have just Mn sulfate..........Thanks.
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