# GnothiSeauton

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1. ## Outliers in small sample

I will now reconsider each step of both experiment and further analysis carefully. Thank you allso much for your help and time
2. ## Outliers in small sample

Thank you all so much for your replies In ideal situation concentrations of all 6 parallels at each time should be roughly the same (eg. after 2 minutes concentrations in all 6 flasks should be around 8 g/L; after 10 minutes concentrations should be around 16 g/L; after 30 minutes around 20 g/l). and my results scatter quite a bit so I can't deduce a lot of things from that. It is quite possible that I did some of these parallels sloppily or that some of my enzymes denatured. I think the best thing should then be to repeat the experiment with more parallels and more time rates.
3. ## Outliers in small sample

In my experiment I was observing much product was formed in enzymatic reaction at different time rates. Experiment was done in 6 parallels. Reaction lasted 2 minutes - my results are 14.1, 4.1, 8.1, 9.1, 8.2, 8.6 [g/L] Reaction lasted 10 minutes - my results are 8, 14.9, 14, 17, 14.4, 15 [g/L] Reaction lasted 30 minutes - my results are 22, 20, 33, 16, 21.8, 23 [g/L] I need to construct graph where on y axis is concentration, a on x axis is time.
4. ## Outliers in small sample

Hi all I have a question concerning detecting outliers in small samples. My results are: 14.1, 4.1, 8.1, 9.1, 8.2, 8.6 - i suspect outliers are 14.1 and 4.1 Which statistical test should i use to analyze this data? I thought about Extreme studentized deviate test but it turned out to be used for big sample sizes. Thank you so much in advance ^^
5. ## Transcription of DNA which goes in direction 5'-3'

Hi all I have a question concerning transcription Problem goes like this: If RNA pol transcribes DNA from right to left, write newly sinthetised mRNA along with orientations. This is DNA: 5'-ATATCCCTAATCCG-3' 3'-TATAGGGATTAGGC-5' I understand that RNA pol can't go from left to right in direction 3'-5', thus we are talking about transcribing DNA which goes in 5-3 direction. So this is what I got a mRNA, and final solution to this problem: 3'-UAU AGG GAU UAG GC 5' Is this correct?
6. ## what's a good programming language to learn?

Hi all I have a question concerning how to teach myself programming. First of all, I study biotechnology, and of course, I have some modules which have a bit of programming. However, I am not satisfied with the way they are presented to us. So my question is: which programming language should know a person who will work either in biological or chemical field? At uni, we work mostly in Excel and tiny bit of Wolfram Mathematica Students edition. Also, if you could be so kind and tell me how and where should I teach myself it (eg. should I buy book, enroll in Coursera or something like that). Thank you all and sorry in advance for grammatical mistakes.
7. ## High-energy bonds in protein synthesis

Thank you so much!
8. ## help on amylose nmr spectra

Each peak represents different bond (eg one is CH2, other CH etc) By solving integral under each peak you will get number of H atoms which are present on each carbon atom Count peaks in each signal and from sum detract 1- this will be number of neighbouring H atoms. Eg. If you have a triplet, number of neighbouring H atoms will be 3-1=2
9. ## High-energy bonds in protein synthesis

To make charged tRNA I need two bonds: 1st step AA +ATP->AA-AMP CPMLX + PPi (1 bond wrecked) 2nd step AA-AMP CMPLX +tRNA-> AA-tRNA +AMP (1 bond wrecked)
10. ## High-energy bonds in protein synthesis

Think I did it! In translation I use 4 energy bonds: one for initiation, one for aa binding, one for synthesis of peptide bond and one for translocation. Total number on bonds: n(nucleotides-from transcription)+2n(aa due to activation)+4n(aa due to translation)
11. ## High-energy bonds in protein synthesis

Ok I think I got it, this will be long: 1.transcription -during transcription in order to make mRNA I have to gather nucleoside three phosphates. -I need to gather only the exon part of DNA -every time nucleoside three phosphate clicks with DNA, bond breaks So, Wrecked bonds in transcription=number of exons that are in DNA=number of nucleotides in mRNA 2.activation a)AA+ATP->complex AMP-AA +PPi (1 bond is destroyed) b)complex AMP-AA + tRNA->AA-tRNA +AMP (1 bond is destroyed) total wrecked bonds in activation=2* number of amino acids 3.translation total wrecked bonds=number of GTP=number of amino acids Formula wrecked bonds total=number of exons+2*number of amino acids+number of amino acids wrecked bonds total=3*number of amino acids+number of exons So, I guess: 1230+3*410=2460
12. ## High-energy bonds in protein synthesis

I use Karlson. It's a little bit confusing book. I will try to find information about protein synthesis somewhere else and try to solve problem again. I think that number of amino acids I calculated correctly so I'll focus on high energy bonds
13. ## High-energy bonds in protein synthesis

Well, since each amino acid is bonded on tRNA when they come to mRNA, I guess it is 410 high energy bonds. No GTP is mentioned.
14. ## High-energy bonds in protein synthesis

OK: Well, bond between tRNA and amino acid which tRNA carries is highly-energized, thus unstable. When tRNA' anticodon clicks with mRNA's codon that unstable bond breaks and energy is released. That energy will be used to create a new peptide bond between two amino acids. So, if high energy bond breaks each time new amino acid comes, total number of high energy bonds should be equal to total number of amino acids.
15. ## High-energy bonds in protein synthesis

I need to calculate how many high energy bonds I need for assembling a protein. Since I have 410 amino acids I concluded that I need 410 high energy bonds.
16. ## How to calculate kcat from Lineweaver-Burk plot following RFU?

Kcat is also called turnover number and formula goes like this: turnover number=vmax/enzyme concentration Kcat represents maximum number of substrate molecules which enzyme can turn into product.
17. ## What are you reading?

Arabian Sands, Wilfred Thesiger - it is really good travel book
18. ## The Official "Introduce Yourself" Thread

Haha, epaino Unfortunately, I don't know modern Greek since I'm not from Greece, but I studied ancient Greek, Latin and tiny bit of Hebrew in high school and even though I had chosen to study biotech, I still have passion for languages
19. ## High-energy bonds in protein synthesis

Mr(amino acid) = 110 and Mr(nucleotide)=340 are given in a problem as an information, I did not calculate them. Also, after I studied problem more carefully I came to conclusion is number of high energy bonds is 410, i.e. it is equal to the number of amino acids in a protein. Is that correct?
20. ## High-energy bonds in protein synthesis

Hey there, newbie writing I have a question concerning biochemistry. I have to solve a problem: What is the molar mass of mRNA which carries information for protein synthesis which has molar mass of 45100 and how many high-energy bonds do you have to spend for this protein synthesis? How many bases has gene that codes for this protein if we know that there is 45% of exons in that gene. Mr(amino acid)=110 Mr(nucleotide)=340 I calculated like this: N(amino acid in this protein) = Mr(protein)/Mr(amino acid) = 45100/110 = 410 Conclusion: This protein consists of 410 amino acids GENE: N(nucleotide total (introns+exons)) = (410*3)/0,45 = 2733,33 => approx. 2734 Conclusion: This gene has totally 2734 nucleotides, so this gene has 2734 bases. N(mRNA) = N(exons) = 410*3 = 1230 M(mRNA) = 1230 * 340 = 418 200 N(high-energy bonds) = N(nucleotides) - 1 = 1229 ???? I am really not sure about whether this is 1229 or 1230 or something else. Is this all correct? I don't have solutions so please help
21. ## The Official "Introduce Yourself" Thread

Hi, I'm 20 year old girl from small country in Europe. I study biotechnology, but I'm also interested in other things
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