Some questions about apoptosis

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Hello everyone


I have some questions regarding apoptosis. I'm a medical student who doesn't know much about biology and genetics so i was wondering if you could guide me through this. I'm only doing this out of my own interest though, so you don't have to bee too specific. :)


I have to mention that I only roughly have an idea of how apoptosis works.


Now to my questions,


1. Are there any cells that are "not" capable of apoptosis inside our body?

2. Is there a way to stop apoptosis of a cell once it's initiated?

3. Can you list some different ways a cell can undergo apoptosis? ( eg. end of cell's cycle, viruses etc)

4. How long the process takes on average?


Thank you

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1) It depends on how you define not capable, but cancer cells are the most notorious ones in which it does not activate.

2) generally not. However, there is some research that suggests that at least in vitro some recovery is possible. I am not certain whether it translates well into actual organisms, though.

3) Generally speaking there are two main pathways. Either TNF-receptors are activated or the outer membrane of mitochondria get permeabilized. The former, (extrinsic or receptor pathway) is initiated by signaling factors that tell the cells to undergo apoptosis. The mitochondrial pathway (intrinsic pathway) is triggered by cell damage and stress.

4) relatively fast, we are talking minutes here

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