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Everything posted by LawLord

  1. Thank you, I have got hold of a standard reduction potential table, but cannot find a valence table... but if it was just going to tell me how many valence electrons an atom has, I won't need it as I know how to use the periodic table to do this. With the standard reduction potential table, is it that the element that's E - naught value closest to zero will be the one that joins? H2Cl is a typo, I meant HCl, sorry.
  2. That is very helpful, thank you! I see where I went wrong, I forgot water is covalent! I learn't along time ago something along the lines of: The cation of an acid and the anion of a base combine to make (salt?). or The anion of an acid and the cation of a base combine to make salt (or something else). Does this look familier? I'm trying to work out what it is, but I only remember part of the rule...
  3. How do you determine which chemicals are dominant in chemical reactions? For example: HCl + Na = NaCl + H2 But why does it not go this way: HCl + Na = H2Cl + Na Is there a list that I can learn that tell me which chemical take priority? Another example would be: Na + Cl + HCO3 what would it make and how do we know? NaCl + HCO3 or NaHCO3 + Cl? One of them must have priority over the other.
  4. Metal + water = metal hydroxide + Hydrogen ie: Sodium + water = Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrogen Copper + water = Copper Hydroxide + Hydrogen. You see? Sodium and copper are metals and they react with water to form a their respective hydroxides. What I want to know, is what metals DON'T react this way. I'm pretty sure iron doesn't. I believe the reaction would be: 2Fe + 2H2O = 2FeO + 2H2 Sodium: 2Na + 2H2O = 2NaOH + H2
  5. ok, I understand what hydronium is now, it is just a hydrogen ion in aquerius solution. But still don't understand what an "electropositive radical" is, and therefore am still confused about what a salt is. Another question. I read in my chemistry textbook that a metal and water combine to make a metal hydroxide and Hydrogen. However, I know that adding iron to water makes iron oxide, how does this work? Does anyone know the exceptions to the above rule?
  6. I was wondering what metals won't react with an acid to form hydrogen gas and came across a web site mentioning "activity series". I looked this up and found several sites, but they all list the metals in a different order. Does anyone know where I will find an accurate list of activity series? I don't know which site to trust (wikipedia has another different list as well). I would really love a complete list (in order) of all the metals that don't react with acid to form Hydrogen gas. Also, now i'm interested, I would love an accurate activity series list if anyone know's if there is a universally recognised one... How can there be so many variations? Some say copper, platinum, silver, gold and paladium won't react to form hydrogen. Others mention mercury but not copper and all of them have them in different arrangements.... Any help would be appreciated.
  7. What is an electropositive radical? [quote name="In chemistry' date=' hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. It is the simplest type of an oxonium ion." (1) [/quote] I did see that, but why doesn't the O and H combine to make another OH? Giving us 2H+? What i am trying to figure out, is why do acidic salts produce hydronium instead of Hydrogen ions (acids are proton donators after all). Why is the definition of an acidic salt not "a salt that donates protons"? In second paragraph: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_%28chemistry%29
  8. The cation of an acid and the anion of a base combine to make salt. H+ + OH- ==> H2O. Does this mean water is classed as a salt? I have been trying to find a good definition of salt (clear), does anyone have one? Also can someone clarify what Hydronium is for me? Is it another name for H+ or H3O+? Wiki is confusing: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydronium
  9. Let us assume your family are horrible abusive low lifes who would only critise you, in this case, I think a Psychologist would be beneficial, there alot of people out there who do not have the type of support from friends and family that you clearly do. How about if your family happily tell others about sensitive issues regarding yourself? I know at least 5 people with mental illness who are fine while on medication, but when they stop taking it... they lose it. Psychology students and psychologists that I have met seem to genuinely care about others and are very passionate about their field. To sum up, I think psychology is of great value to our society. PS I would consider some parts of psychology science, and some parts of it art.
  10. Been reading that forum. Unbelievable! People are actually suggesting atmospheric sciences be kept under "Biology". This is obsurd. Why don't we all just post all the subjects under the heading "Mathematics". To begin with, "Medical Science" is part of Biology/chemistry. Why should Medical Science have its own forum, when Earth Science is considered insignificant enough to be spread out across subjects it isn't really a part of... Where do I go if if I have a question about hail storms? Can we really expect people to "know" that under these forums, hail storms are considered part of the life sciences but medicine is not? Where do people go if they have a question about igneous intrusive rocks? An earth science forums should be created with subforums: Geology Oceanography Astronomy Soil Science General Earth Science (Glaciers, rivers, deserts) I would view having a separate forum for Earth Science far more important than having one for medical science or amateur science...
  11. What sort of research is being done on water?
  12. Just wondering, why is there no Earth Science forum here? I would have thought it was a big enough science to have its own forum... Perhaps a nano science one as well. Does anyone know of any online nano texts? I would like to study it. I live in a small town with no access to Nanoscience textbooks or resources. In the meantime, perhaps someone could answer a question that has been bothering me for a while: Can Nanoscience/technology be developed in the home? Or does it require large/expensive machines. How exactly are nano things made? I would love to be able to make my own nano things... is this realistic (assuming a learn a little more about it)?
  13. I suppose unusual is a rather subjective word. Water is also the closest thing we have to a universal solvent... and the closest thing we have to an 'elixer of life'. But that does not, in my view make it unusual. If we were to step out of our own reality and look at water, it would be very interesting and unusual. But as it stands, water is everywhere... far too common (and readily available) to qualify in my mind.
  14. Haha, I have never actually played around with mercury, too dangerous I reckon. Have seen it on yutube though, looks pretty cool. I suppose cornflower and water added together make for some interesting attributes, not sure if it is usefull for anything though. I'm starting a collection of what I consider to be chemicals with "unusual attributes". A unique alternative to collecting all the elements. So far i've got sodium acetate... so pretty disappointing so far.
  15. Do people know of any chemicals that have unusual and interesting attributes? eg: Sodium Acetate: Can make hot ice. That is really the only one I know that does something out of the ordinary. Please note, I am not a chemist. Looking forward to hearing the replies.
  16. In the event of a natural disaster, or some other event that left you stranded without access to food. Is there any one thing in the natural environment that you could live on for months on end? Preying Mantuses? Grasshoppers? Sap/Zap from a tree? Would it be logistically possible? ie: would you be able to find enough of the particular source of nutrition?
  17. LawLord


    The last couple of weeks I've been learning about Viruses. What I am wondering is, what does knowing a certain kind of virus has an envelope tell me (aside from the fact it "may" hide the virus from the host immune system)? Or that a Virus is RNA or DNA? I only have access to outdated introductory microbiology textbooks. Are there any general rules to learn about Viruses? Perhaps something like this: (I am making up all the facts below) 1. Viruses with a Polyhedral Capsid are highly contagious 2. Viruses with the enzyme Reverse Transcriptase have no cure and have high mortality rates. 3. + sense viruses can only be transmitted be saliva. 4. - sense viruses cannot last outside a host for more than 30 seconds. 5. The smaller the virion, the more deadly. (All the facts above are made up as an example). Is anyone able to help me out here? I have looked at the ICTV databases, they don't answer my question though. Finally, and a little off topic, does anyone know if there is an international group of scientists who have a sort of "Official" database for Biological Taxonomy. Something similar to the ICTV (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses) Website: http://www.ictvonline.org/virusTaxonomy.asp?version=2008
  18. I have had an interest in Quantum Physics for a couple of years now. Originally I was interested in the theory of Relativity. I was young (around 8 - 12) at the time. My brother insisted it meant it was possible to travel in time which, naturally, interested me very much. At that age I had great difficulty understanding the basic concepts. Over time I have come to understand the basic idea behind the theory through reading web pages and Stephen Hawkings book "A Briefer History of Time". I still do not have a clear understanding of the theory. Anyway, after reading Quantum Physics is not consistent with the theory of relativity I began reading up on this theory. I asked around. What I heard excited me. Things like "it is really weird", "counter intuitive", "defies common sense". So away I went, trying to learn this new theory (without maths). I've learned quite a bit but in the end, it still seemed like I was missing something. Finally I decided to try and learn the Maths behind the theory. So I have started learning maths: Linear Equations, Quadratic Equations, Probability, Algebra. I have two maths (no physics background) tutors. I have now learned some of the relevant maths (calculations for Electromagnetic Waves, Photoelectric Effect). I have also looked at the maths behind the Uncertainty principle (struggling here, any help on breaking down the equation would be appreciated) and have a limited understanding of the maths regarding "The Balmer Series". This has taken me a lot of time. The problem I have: I still don't get what is so weird about it. Or counter intuitive. What exactly is so weird about it? The fact that light has properties of both waves and particles? The unpredictability of particle? The hype I have come across in the past suggested to me there was something really unusual about the topic... I have not come across anything big yet. Is anyone able to point out to me where to find the part in Quantum Physics that amazes everyone I come across? Or is it just the uncertainty principle? Any particular equation I should direct my attention too? As I said above, if anyone can help out with the Uncertainty Principle, that would be great. I have not been able to find a web site that clearly explains the mathematics (that is my version of clear). My current understanding of the equation: Uncertainty in position multiplied by the uncertainty in momentum is larger or equal too: planks constant (6.626068 × 10-34) divided by (2 x pi) I have a sheet in front of me that gives me some questions and answers. The thing is, I don't know how I'm suppose to get to those answers. My current understanding of the the equation doesn't give the right answers. Thanks for any help
  19. silly me, yes 24/3 is 8 not 7. Yes, that right. If we apply this to "Roshambo/Paper, scissors, rock" we get [Variable (Scissor,paper, rock (1)]/[total number of possibilities (3)]. Which means there is a 1/3 chance of getting either rocks, paper, scissor. However, the web page indicated that there are math based strategies to help you win a game. I cannot even comprehend how mathematics can be used to help win a game of Roshanbo. So what i'm asking is: how does it help? If math can help with roshambo (I cannot comprehend how this would work due to ignorance) perhaps I can apply the same idea to my situation (I don't see how - due to ignorance of this area of maths). What i'm trying to say, I know my request seems like a long shot, but if math can be used in roshambo which at first glance doesn't seem possible, perhaps it can be used in my situation which as also doesn't seem to be possible at first glance. Am I making sense? My head hurts a little.
  20. Would it make a difference if there was a third choice? For example black, red, or face cards (King, Queen, Jack, Ace, Joker)? In this case, there would be 24 cards - 7 of each. I remember now, about the gamblers fallacy. It is the same as someone thinking 777777 is less likely to come up in a lottery than 187294. However, today I came across a web page: http://numb3rs.wolfram.com/508/ Scroll down and you will see a mention of Roshambo (known to me as "Paper, scissors, rock"). The web page (as well as the Numbers episode) suggest that mathematics can be used to give someone an edge in Roshambo. Unfortunately it doesn't seem to explain how. I am wondering, does anyone know how to use math/probability to gain an advantage in Roshambo and can this theory be applied to my current situation? @DJBruce: I have a look at card counting. It's interesting, but it doesn't seem to give someone much of an advantage. Also, I'm not sure how to apply it to my problem yet- I am working on that though.
  21. I'm a little confused. In particularly here: Second is this idea that because after 18 cards you ended up with 12 red and 6 black, the probability is somehow NOT 50-50; this is patently false. Perhaps what I said was not clear enough. how can 18 cards, 12 being red and 6 black, still give an equal opportunity of 50 - 50? To emphesis it a little more: if there where 400 hundred red and 6 black, would it still be 50 - 50? I think you might of answered this in the last paragraph. Just asking for clarification.
  22. I assume this is the right board. Difficult to tell what probability maths comes under. I have a game. I start out with 26 cards. 13 of these are red. 13 of them are black. The cards are spread out face down on the floor randomly. Now I must flip over as many black cards while trying to limit the amount of red ones I flip over. Originally, I figured there is a 50 - 50 chance of getting either colour, so what I did was: Randomly select the first card to be flipped. If it was a black one, I would chose another card (only in my head this time, I would assume this other card would be red if I turned it over (seems as the last one was black). I would then ignore this card and flip the next card I chose. Usually this would be a black. etc etc. I became aware that there is a problem with this way of doing things. The number of cards (26) changes everytime I flip one over. Also, depending on what colour cards i've flipped over, the number of the coloured cards on the ground changes also. For example I could end up with 18 cards - 12 being red and only 6 being black. This means there is more than a 50 percent chance of turning over a red card. I have been trying to make up an algorithm to tell me how often I should flip a card in my head and move to the next one (flipping this one over for real). Is anyone able to give me some pointers? What particular part of probability am I working with here? I've come up with about a 5 different ideas, but all are flawed. The nearest I have so far: 1/2 - 1/2 1/4 - 3/4 1/8 - 7/8 1/16 - 15/16 1/32 - 31/32 1/64 - 63/64 1/128 - 127/128 1/256 - 255/256 1/512 - 511/512 1/1024 - 1023/1024 1/2048 - 2047/2048 1/4096 - 4095/4096 1/8192 - 8190/8191 The idea was that I go down the line. First flip: 50 - 50 Second flip: 25 - 75 chance it's the same as the last one, do I want it to be the same as the last card? If I do, flip a card in my head and then flip the next one for real. The problem, as mentioned above: Success causes the number of black cards in the spread to decrease. This totally changes the odds. I don't know how to to deal with this part.
  23. From my very brief look into the world of Science (referring to Chemistry, Astronomy, Physics, Biology etc etc) I have noticed a lot of the major discoveries made in recent times have come from western scientists. This could simply be because I haven't been studying the sciences long enough. I am curious, if I were to go to china (for example) and look in one of their introductory Physics (or some other science book) books, would the contents of that book be similar to a western Science book? The two great discoveries that I am aware of in modern times (and forgive my ignorance) are general relativity and quantum mechanics. One is by a German scientist, the other was thought up by an ancient greek philosopher (if I remember correctly). There is also evolution. Are there national/continental specialities in the world of science? As a New Zealander, when I learn about science (at the moment I'm doing Geology and struggling with Chemistry), am I learning only what the western world knows? Or is most science not constrained by national boundaries? Any help on this is greatly appreciated.
  24. A year ago my friend (American) told me about how he was convinced the US economy was going to crash. He thought this because the US dollar was dropping rappidly. This is expected, economies go in cycles and a minor recession is perfectly normal and survivable (no big deal). However, over time, with things not looking to get better anytime soon and with oil going up (I know how badly oil price increases effect the economy), I started paying attention to The Reserve Bank of New Zealands Monetary policy. Then I checked out the Federal Reserves one... then Zimbabwais (they release it), had a look at Chinas (they also release it) etc etc. I generally keep up to date with them. What did I learn? China is gonna demand like crazy. I was also able to get in touch with some independant scientists who have been looking into peak oil for 8 or so years. Came across independant researchers (not exactly geologists, they were Medical Doctors who had been researching it). The Prime Minister of New Zealand has said openly "we're not too far short of peak oil if not already there..." Various predictions (that have been fairly accurate so far (i'm sure you're aware of them, I forget the names) put peak oil around 2010-2011. Physics/Maths professor has figured out due to exponential growth even with the figures provided on oil reserves, we have a serious energy crisis upon us. Finally, I'm fairly certain that a recession is coming right at us... the media has just reported it and started offering advice to those who haven't lived through one before. This can cause what is known in economics as "self fulfilling prophecies". People expect recession so they act in a way that brings about one (unintentionally). Most finance companies are going bankrupt. Central Bank of Britian had to bail out a bank recently, Federal Reserve has had to bail out some massive finance company. Both countries have adopted the same monatary policy as Zimbabwe... Alot of countries told the Zimbabwe government when they first put the policy in place that it was a bad policy... Housing Bubble bursting in New Zealand now (gonna hit hard around August) Credit Crisis Oil expected to keep going up (real bad around August) International food crisis New Zealand Energy Crisis Airlines around the world have begun to callapse. 1/3 of New Zealand businesses said they were going to have to raise prices within the next three months (this was before oil went up about 20 cents a litre, so the actual amount of firms raising prices will be much higher I expect) The Reserve bank has discussed cutting interest rates. Ministry of Agruculture in Fiji has started a campaign to plant five fruit trees a day to protect them from massive price rises. News (I don't really trust them, but oh well) has reported mass unemployment and massive inflation in the coming months. Shell oil (if I remember correctly) has been sued for Lying about its oil reserves. Government just bailed out farmers (they were gonna slaughter their cattle because they couldn't afford to feed them). I read through Geology textbooks every now and then. I know Geology students. I am aware there are alternative explanations for the coming crisis. I was until recently part of ALL the student political groups. These groups go along to meet the polititions and see lectures about possible government policies. They are government support groups (not protest groups). America probably has groups like "Young Democrates" and "Young Republicans". I only joined them to keep up to date and hear both sides of the story.
  25. Lol, I don't want to be a professional chemist. I want to be a Chemist in my own time. Chemistry can be a hobby as well. I also enjoy electronics so i'm buying all the stuff I need before it gets to expensive (or the stores close down). Rest assured, I still intend to be a Lawyer (and someday, a Judge).
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