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Quark (2/13)



  1. Here's the PP summary if you don't want to view the entire document; In 2010, I was doing electrical experiments with roots and noticed that roots were strongly attracted to water drops on the side of the test container (see slides 14-17). I felt that surface tension could be causing this attraction. The roots have a negative voltage (see slides 7-10)and the water drops have exposed hydrogen bonds (Slide 13). This electrostatic attraction would be increased if the earth’s electric field is polarizing and aligning the water molecules (Slides 18-21). In 2011, I constructed a test chamber (Slide 23) designed to better control the humidity necessary for roots to grow in open air. The test chamber was intended to not have any liquid water present. I eventually had to add a humidifier on a timer to the test chamber because the chamber couldn’t contain the additional vapor pressure (calculated to be up to 0.5 psi). The glass door seals leaked to much. The test chamber is surrounded by warm circulating air to prevent condensation (liquid water) on the inner chamber walls. Roots displaying Geotropism are shown on slide 24. Slides 25-29 show roots being attracted to the vapor cloud created when the humidity drops evaporate into separate water molecules. This is important, because if my electrostatic theory of negatively charged roots being attracted to a water drops exposed hydrogen bonds is correct, then the roots electrostatic attraction to the hydrogen bonds of individual water molecules is correct. However for the root to be drawn to the vapor cloud, the individual molecules in the vapor cloud need to be polarized and bonded together (see slides 18,19). If the individual molecules are not polarized and are not bonded together, the molecules will be effortlessly drawn to the root, but the root will not be pulled towards them. I also believe very small unknown reflective positively charged particles with mass are reflected by the vapor cloud and are flowing into and attracting the negatively charged root (Slide 21, 28, 29). The particles are then Total Internally Reflected throughout the plant and give plant branches the appearance of 3D solid electric Field Lines of Force (See “Lichtenburg Figure or Electric Tree”) . Another possibility for the roots attraction to both liquid and vapor water is that there is an internal mechanism within the root which senses water and then strongly overrides the mechanical system thought to cause geotropism in the root (statocyte cells) and mechanically tilts the root causing the root to “bump” into the water.
  2. Thank you for your comments, The below image mostly shows roots and geotropism, however the sharply curled root on the right tube is attracted to a water drop. Because of surface tension forming the drop there are many exposed hydrogen bonds. And because the root tip reads voltage with the negative lead , the negative polarity charge at the root tip is electrostatic-ally attracted to the drops exposed hydrogen bonds. Given that simple model, it is logical to assume an electrostatic attraction to water vapor.
  3. Those are interesting websites. Maybe in the future I'll be able to do nutrient research in plants, but for now I need to stick on topic, and that is to find evidence of the unknown particle I believe is responsible for both plant and snowflake growth and geometry. I've done some specific tests trying to find evidence of the particle, but I don't have conclusive enough evidence to claim a proof. This picture shows roots being attracted to humidity vapor coming from the lower corner, which makes sense until you realize that the water molecules can't electrostatic-ally pull the root unless they are connected enough by hydrogen bonds, which would require them to be polarized by an electric field. The other possibility is that the root senses the most concentrated part of the vapor cloud and heads for it. That also requires the root to strongly overcome geotropism with a different mechanism than the main stream geotropism theory.
  4. Tree branches can grow together but usually don't. When a branch is surrounded or "trapped" by the electric field of neighboring branches it will take the path of least resistance. If it's internal charge and corresponding electric field is stronger than the electric field it is growing into, it will grow towards another branch. If it's electric field isn't strong enough, it's charged particles stop flowing and it dies (abscission). This is where I think most of the twigs and branches come from under a tree. Some healthy branches are broken off in the wind and you can see the fresh break. The abscission branches don't have a fresh break but appear scarred at the end. It may take the wind to knock them down, but they have been dead for awhile. If you can envision a wheat field, each stalk grows vertically and has its own space. This implies a field effect. The stalks can get entangled by the wind, but normally the stalks don't touch each other. Normally leaves don't want to be touching each either. However, leaves and stems are more flexible than branches and also attracted to sunlight (phototropism). The particles exiting the leaves could therefore be "attractive" to sunlight and because of the leafs large surface area, the attractive force pulls the leaf towards sunlight and maybe each other. Because leaves are flexible they can droop into each other also. Long narrow leaves come to mind. So their weight is a stronger force than the particles repulsive force. Pine needles are similar to a wheat field in that they each make their own space. The difference from leaves is that they are stiffer and have less surface area and phototropism pull. They are repulsed by the larger charge in their branch and grow perpendicular away from it. I think the reason a leaf "opens" is because the particles flowing in the veins of the two halves are repulsive to each other. Good questions.
  5. Thanks for your comments. I'm only doing root experiments for now. You can see the test chamber at the Roots to Water topic. Attached is my ppt showing roots being stunted or killed by 10 VDC. I re-compressed it to reduce the file size. I think a large tree's electric field "overshadows or dominates" a small trees electric field and limits growth, not lack of sunlight. Just like a +3 charge overpowers a +1 charge. Roots Affected by Electricity.ppt
  6. Your point is well taken. I wasn't trying to say the electric trees were a proof, rather their existence shows a 3D physical copy of electric field lines of force. The possibility remains open however that real plants and snowflakes owe their shape to electric lines of force. And the evidence in trees is all around for everyone to see. All plants and snowflakes are born into and grow immersed in the earth's electric field. Plant meristem cells have a high metabolic rate and probably produce more electricity than any of the other plant cells. So the soft growing tips have a charge and are either repulsed or attracted to the earth's electric field. But large tree trunks and large branches are showing a field effect to other trees and branches at several meters away. Because of the field effect distance I think there are charged particles flowing into the roots, and then are total internally reflected upwards through the water in the vascular tissue and out through the the branch tips, leaves and needles. Because the particles are all the same charge, all the branches are repulsive to each other, and they grow into areas where the electric field between branches cancels out to zero (except for the earths electric field which remains, but is altered slightly by the electric field from the concentrated charged particles flowing in the vascular tissue).
  7. I wanted to post this topic by itself. It was part of "Plant and Snowflake Growth" but received no comments. I also updated the original Roots Attraction to Water to include Water Vapor. I also had to compress files to fit under the memory cap. I am new to this and foolishly added too many files to Plant and Snowflake Growth. I have other topics to post in the coming months and charged particles are the common thread. Thanks for your interest!
  8. Here's a picture of an "electric tree". It's made by supercharging a plexiglass block and then touching a grounding point at the base. The result of the extremely fast discharge is an electric tree. So here is a 3D solid copy of electric field lines of force made completely different from real plants and snowflakes but ending up looking the same. I started a new topic called "Roots Attraction to Water", but first needed to delete the original "Roots to Water" PP from this topic to fit under the memory cap.
  9. Any comments about my theory of how roots are attracted to water in this PP would be greatly appreciated. Thanks Roots to Water.ppt
  10. The DLA pictures I googled appear "almost' plantlike. Limiting where the particles can attach partially mimics what I'm saying about repulsion between branches except there is no symmetry as displayed by both plants and snowflakes. The computer simulations also lack symmetry. The "Lichtenburg figures" (which are created with electrical forces) however do very closely model plant growth. Thank you for your responses. From Wikipedia; Statoliths: sensing gravity In the root cap (a tissue at the tip of the root) there is a special subset of cells, called statocytes. Inside the statocyte cells, some specialized amyloplasts are involved in the perception of gravity by the plant (gravitropism). These specialized amyloplasts—called statoliths—are denser than the cytoplasm and can sediment according to the gravity vector. The statoliths are enmeshed in a web of actin and it is thought that their sedimentation transmits the gravitropic signal by activating mechanosensitive channels. The gravitropic signal then leads to reorientation of auxin efflux carriers and subsequent redistribution of auxin streams in root cap and root as a whole. The changed relations in concentration of auxin leads to differential growth of the root tissues. Taken together, the root is then turning, following the gravity stimuli. They are also found in the endodermic layer of the inflorescence stem. The redistribution of auxin causes the shoot to turn in a direction opposite that of the gravity stimuli.[citation needed] The above explanation for geotropism seems really clumsy and complicated. It can't explain why branches on the lower parts of trees actually point down. It also can't explain the field effect between branches or even other trees. I used the Aspen tree example because they are in my yard. They do grow in the winter without leaves obviously. I think water transport is both active and passive (with leaves). Passive alone cannot move water to the top of the tallest trees. I shouldn't have said veins, but rather xylem and phloem. This plant growth theory applies to all plants, but only the woody plants have the ability to "harden with lignin" and hold the 3D solid copy of electric fields lines of force. I don't know what the particles are. Gravitons are a theoretical particle causing gravitation but which haven't been found yet. If gravitation is caused by particles, then I'm theorizing that each mass is forcefully giving off identically charged particles and that gravitation is electromagnetic. Newton's and Coulomb's formula's are both based on 1/r2 and very similar. If the earth is giving off charged particles, then they are flowing upwards and possibly causing the earth's electric field. See the above Snowflake and Gravitation ppt. These particles and electric field would polarize the water in the soil and in the clouds. In a storm cloud, the charged particles and resulting electric field would cause the water molecules in each vapor drop to polarize and line up with the electric field turning the cloud into a dielectric surface (the top of the cloud would be positively charged and the bottom of the cloud would be negatively charged). This would cause a large charge separation and result in lightning or a tornado. I think the same forces that cause a root to grow down, cause a storm cloud to "grow a root" and form a tornado until the electric energy is mostly transferred to the ground which causes the tornado to dissipate. I may need to re post the ppt's using a different topic in Speculations because I've used up my quota here if you can't access them.
  11. I believe branching occurs because of internal particle pressure, which would occur when the plant roots attract more and more charged particles as they grow. The extra particles force a new branch to start. The particles are contained in the roots and stems veins by Total Internal Reflection just like fiber optics. When branching occurs sometimes cankers grow, and I think this is evidence of the veins and particles flowing in a whirling pattern. The 3D solid copy of electric field lines of force are only for woody plants and snowflakes. Plants or branches which do not harden behind the growing point cannot form a solid copy. The model is simple, but plants are not. Chemical reactions and genetics also play a role. Likewise as a snowflake grows, more and more charged particles are reflected by the ice crystals into the dendrites. As more particles are forced into the dendrite, branching occurs. As the snowflake tumbles, dendrite growth occurs in different directions. The charged particles are reflected and concentrated in the dendrite direction by the snowflakes central ice crystal lattice and cause the water vapor to polarize and align as it freezes into position forming a stem or branch. Again the dendrites are repulsive to each other and don't cross. Observing snow falling on windless days I've noticed the flakes don't come down together. They may tumble towards each other occasionally, but they quickly separate and seem to evenly space themselves out. This suggests snowflake to snowflake repulsion just like plants. I believe these charged particles form the earth's electric field. So they are everywhere, but are concentrated in the plants and snowflakes. The particles also would be reflected in flowing water such as streams. Water flows downhill, but the particles would be flowing upstream and causing a counter flow resistance causing stream sinuosity in slow moving water. The upward flowing charged particles also give a plausible explanation for active water transport in plants. In Aspen trees, growth and branching occurs without leaves in the winter. I believe the aspen tree is in a high chemical and electric energy level when this growth occurs. As the trees energy levels drop, abscission follows. Many of the new shoots have grown into high electric pressure spaces occupied by bigger branches. The high electrical pressure causes decreased charged particle flow and death. And the yard is covered with twigs. Similar to my experiments. When I say EM fields I mean electric field not magnetic field. Sorry Auxin (IBP?) does definitely promote plant growth. It also is an acid or proton donor (+) which means it also has an electrostatic effect. Auxin is photosensitive is it also sensitive to gravity? I don't believe plants are growing towards sunlight but rather are growing away from gravity or geotropism (being repulsed). The trees in the northern latitudes are growing perpendicular to the earth even though sunlight is always hitting them at an angle. The roots in some of the experiments came into contact with either a positive or negative plate or wire but not both at the same time. It is possible however with the high humidity necessary for roots to grow in air that current could flow occurred in unexpected places. The soil was never intentionally charged. I built a new test chamber last summer (see picture). I wanted to control the humidity better and limit the presence of liquid water. I didn't run any tests with voltage but was trying to better demonstrate geotropism and find evidence of the charged particles. I did learn that the roots were attracted to humidity concentrations and that when the roots meristem cells were removed, geotropism and growth stopped. I believe the high rate of cell division in the meristem cells is producing a charge which electrostatically attracts water molecules. (see picture) The site isn't letting me add the pictures.
  12. I googled "hydrogen bonded networks in ice" and found 2002 research from Japan. They used computer simulation (Molecular Dynamics) to get an algorithm which successfully described the snowflake in the early stages. However, I don't know if their model can predict dendrite to dendrite repulsive field effect. Likewise, plant growth processes have chemical explanations, but fail to explain branch to branch or tree to tree repulsive field effect. It is possible I am way off base, the problem is the upward flowing charged particles are necessary to solve several of my theories listed previously.
  13. Yes, I understand. My theories are definitely not mainstream. I originally thought of posting directly to Speculation. However, as Albert Einstein once said, "Imagination is more important than knowledge". And from what I see on the Science channel, I don't think the science community has forgotten that. My goal was and still is to have some good discussions about plants, snowflakes, gravity, DM/DE, tornadoes, lightning, stream sinuosity and the plant experiments I am doing. Thanks
  14. The 3D solid copy of electric field lines of force are created in plants by confined charged particles (gravitons) flowing through the plant. The soft growing tips of the plant change direction finding the path of least resistance between the combination of the earths electric field and neighboring branches electric field. Lignin stiffens the branch to form the 3D solid copy of the plants electric field lines of force. All branches want to grow vertical and directly away from gravity (geotropism). If the branch is curving it is because of an electric field influence. If branches were just "reaching for sunlight" then at the northern latitudes the plants would lean south. Here's my theory on snowflake growth and electromagnetic gravitation. Snowflake and Gravity Theory.ppt
  15. I only have a 10 VDC supply. I got the impression the root tip had to be very close to the charged surface to have an effect. So yes more voltage might be good. Here's more evidence. The sprouted seeds are showing voltage. When the seed absorbs water, chemical activity begins which is also probably producing electricity.The meristem cells at the root tip and the shoot tip do a lot of cell division causing the plant to grow and are also a likely source of electricity. I don't think the plant produces enough electricity however to cause the field effect around plants which cause them to be repulsive to each other. I think there is an outside charged particle attracted to the roots, internally reflected through the plant and exiting the shoots and leaves or needles. If all the particles have the same charge, they are repulsive to one another and could cause plant to plant repulsion.
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