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  1. Hi, I am confused on how the difference in pH and membrane potential of the inside of the cell and the outside of the cell is measured. Specifically, how does using a lipophilic cation help measure membrane potential? and how does measuring the concentration of weak acids and bases on each side of the membrane help measure the pH? Thanks!
  2. Hi, During the transpeptidation reaction in peptidoglycan biosynthesis when the peptides are cross-linked, is the terminal D-alanine lost [i.e. in E. coli when DAP forms a peptide bond with D-ala of the new disaccharide]? Or does the terminal D-alanine remain and is later cleaved by the carboxypeptidation reaction. Essentially, I'm confused by the difference between transpeptidation and carboxypeptidation. If someone could help me clear it up that'd be great! Thanks!
  3. My idea of resonance structures must be Wrong As is the central atom with two (-O-H), one =O and one -O(-) off it. That is the Lewis structure. Couldn't the (-) charge be on any oxygen, making a minimum of 4 resonance structures?
  4. in H2AsO4-. I figured it was four, but I am mistaken. Any pointers?
  5. All the terms are confusing me. How do histones, nucleosomes, solenoids and looped domains all fit into DNA packaging? :S:S
  6. Thanks! Does this look good? Least to Most Basic: I-,F-, HCO3- LiH
  7. Thanks! So hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid, therefore F- is a strong base! Hydroiodic is a strong acid, therefore I- is a weak base! Carbonic acid is a weak acid, therefore HCO3- is a strong base! I am not sure about LiH, but I don't know how to determine whether HF is weaker or stronger than HCO3-
  8. HCO3-, F-, I- and LiH. I do not know how to approach it. I could guess, but I have no method of finding this.
  9. i don't know how to answer this without going to the lab! 1. What is a benefit and one disadvantage of observing bacteria in Yogurt using a live whole mount compared to a Gram stain slide?
  10. cholesterol (adjusts fluidity) integral peripheral transmembrane protein proteins chains [glycoproteins]
  11. sorry didn't see the post. thank you. is campbell reece 9th edition the best start? i just got it

  12. makes absolutely zero sense to me how a misfolded protein without any instruction from nucleic acid can infect cells. can someone help?
  13. http://fya.dal.ca/Files/science.pdf At least at Dalhousie it appears as if I don't need to take any physics for a major in biology.
  14. i took hard courses, i just hated physics, for some reason i could never grasp it. anyways thank you for re-assuring me!
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