# Heis3nberg

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1. ## Quantum teleportation

You are right, but the quantum teleportation respects the no-cloning theory; In fact it's possible trasmitting the information from a state to another, if the information of the initial state is destroyed. The experiments have proved the teleportation using virtual photons.
2. ## Quantum teleportation

The quantum teleportation is based on the quantum Entanglement; Imagine two particles, like two photons. They interact in a point and their function states create a single function state. . The first particle is then analyzed in a lab, called lab A. And the second one in lab B; an experiment accomplished on the first particle will change its function state and its behaviour it's going to be appreciate also on the second particle. They receive the same perturbation, even if the distance between them. The measurement on the first, will define instantly the state of B. But, in this phenomena there isn't migration of information. However, Imagine a third particle, called particle C; It interacts with partcle A (Which is entangled to B), the result is then trasmitted (Via radio or optic fiber) to lab B. In lab B, a scientist could reply the state of C on another particle C' ( of the same type of C, a photon for example) which is not C. The final particle is not the initial one, but has its same quantum state. It's created a copy of the C particle; the information is teleported but not the matter! To be clear : If i want to being teleported somewhere else from my actual position, I need an ordered configuration of matter which is exactly the same as mine on the other side. My information will be trasmitted, but not the matter with which I am made.
3. ## Relativistic mass

In special relativity, when a body reachs speeds near the light ones some strange effects could be appreciate by an external observator: Lorentz contraction, time dilatation and increase of mass. But, Is that last one correct? In particle accelerators like LHC the mass of a proton "increases" when it reachs high speeds (99,9% of light speed!), due to the equation which describe its linear momentum ( this reason can be applied also to macroscopic bodies) That could be write P=y*m*v, where y is the gamma Lorentz factor But in reality, the mass of a particle can't change, it is always the same. In fact the relativistic mass is only the multiplication between the "mass at rest" of the particle and the gamma factor; The gamma factor is used for the speed of it, this error is due to an abbreviation of the linear momentum law for relativistic objects, error corrected by the experts.
4. ## Ways to detect neutrinos

Kaons decay in pions and then pions decay in neutrinos and muons. yes sorry, for bosons I mean also W bosons, which take part in the kaons decay
5. ## Ways to detect neutrinos

How scientist could detect "undetectable particles"? In the case of neutrinos this question is very common. In fact neutrinos reply to weak and gravitational interactions, so when they go across a beam of matter, they can't interact with its atoms ( On electromagnetic or strong interactions) .There are some indirect ways to find them, thank to Beta decay. -Electron neutrinos Electron neutrinos are the easiest to reveal; in neutrinos detectors there is a great amount of CCl4 (Carbonium tetrachloride); when neutrinos from the Sun or deep space impact with Clorium (Cl N=17), they convert it in Argon gas (Ag N=18) and there is also an emission of an electron. ν e + 37 C l → 37 A r + e − {\displaystyle \nu _{e}+^{37}Cl\to ^{37}Ar+e^{-}} There are also some Gallium detectors: They detect low energy neutrinos ν e + 71 G a → 71 G e + e − {\displaystyle \nu _{e}+^{71}Ga\to ^{71}Ge+e^{-} Then, scientists check the amount of gas Argon produced and the emission of electron to decree the number of neutrinos detected. N.B only electron ones can be found by this method. -Muon and Tau neutrinos In OPERA experiment scientists have proved the oscillation between muon and tau neutrinos. Muon neutrinos are generated in the high atmosphere thank to the decay of Pions and kaons: π + → μ + + ν μ , π − → μ − + ν ¯ μ . {\displaystyle \pi ^{+}\to \mu ^{+}+\nu _{\mu },~~~\pi ^{-}\to \mu ^{-}+{\bar {\nu }}_{\mu }.} kaons decay emitting pions and bosons, which decay in muons and neutrinos.. In OPERA a beam of protons are accelerated against a Carbon target (C, N=6), it creates pions and kaons which decay in muons and muon neutrinos; There are other targets created by piles of lead in a tunnel made of plastic scintillators. In this tunnel muon neutrinos travel and due to "neutrinos oscillation" ( phenomena described in solar neutrinos problem) they can change their "flavor charge " to become tau neutrinos. Tau neutrinos impact with lead atoms, it generates tauons which decay in muons and some neutrinos. This decay leaves a print in photographic plates of the detector, so we have the proof of tau neutrinos and his oscillation of the flavor charge. This principle was very similar to that one adopted in DONUT experiment, which proofs the existence of tau neutrinos. π + → μ + + ν μ , π − → μ − + ν ¯ μ . {\displaystyle \pi ^{+}\to \mu ^{+}+\nu _{\mu },~~~\pi ^{-}\to \mu ^{-}+{\bar {\nu }}_{\mu }
6. ## Solar neutrinos problem

Neutrinos are undetectable, they interact only with weak force, scientists exploit the Beta decay reactions to detect them: I'm going to post something about the way to reveal neutrinos, but you need to know that in Beta decay reaction only electron neutrinos participate, not the muon and tau ones.
7. ## Solar neutrinos problem

a point of discussion, there are a lot of things about the neutrinos physics on which we can discuss
8. ## Solar neutrinos problem

The solar neutrinos problem has represented one of the most important issues in the history of physics. It concearned a discrapancy between the number of neutrinos which reach the Earth from the Sun predicted by the physics models and the effective number of neutrinos observed in experiments. -Flow expected Solar neutrinos with photons are created in Sun's core thank to the nuclear reaction between Hydrogen cores, which form Helium; In this type of reaction is created an amount of neutrinos. The flow of neutrinos could be calculated by the brightness of the Sun, which is propotional to the amount of energy released from it. n ν = 2 L Q − 〈 q ν 〉 {\displaystyle n_{\nu }=2{\frac {L}{Q-\langle q_{\nu }\rangle }}} where L is the brigthness, Q is the energy created with the reactions and qv is the medium energy of a neutrino.〈 L = 3 , 864 ⋅ 10 33 e r g s {\displaystyle L=3,864\cdot 10^{33}\ {\frac {erg}{s}}} , Q = 26 , 7 M e V {\displaystyle Q=26,7\ MeV} e 〈 q ν 〉 = 0 , 6 M e V {\displaystyle \langle q_{\nu }\rangle =0,6\ MeV} , we found that: n ν = 1 , 851 ⋅ 10 38 n e u t r i n i s {\displaystyle n_{\nu }=1,851\cdot 10^{38}\ {\frac {neutrini}{s}}} The number of neutrinos which reach the Earth, considering an uniform emission in all the directions is: Φ ν = n ν 4 π R 2 {\displaystyle \Phi _{\nu }={\frac {n_{\nu }}{4\pi R^{2}}}} where R is the distance Sun-Earth Φ ν = 6 , 588 ⋅ 10 10 n e u t r i n i s × c m 2 {\displaystyle \Phi _{\nu }=6,588\cdot 10^{10}\ {\frac {neutrini}{s\;\times \;cm^{2}}}} In the experiments the amount of neutrinos revealed is only 1/3 of the all we have expected. Approximately the 2/3 of neutrinos miss.. -The solution The solution of the problem came from a modification of the Standard model of particles: Neutrinos could change their "flavor" in a process called neutrinos oscillation. The flavor charge is a set of quantum number which characterize quarks and leptons; for which, for example a muon neutrino is different from an electron neutrino... So, on the road from the Sun to the Earth, neutrinos change their flavor, from electronic they could become tauonic or muonic ones. In Experiments only the electron ones can be detected, it explains the discrepancy between theory and observation. The oscillation happens only for a brief period of time. The leptons (electrons, tauons, muons and respective neutrinos) have a Lepton quantum number L (L=1) of flavor. They also have a weak isospin which is Tz=-1/2 for (e, t and m) and Tz=1/2 for neutrinos and a weak hypercharge, Yw=-1 for charged leptons and Yw=1 for neutrinos. Esperimenti
9. ## Does the time exist?

I'm sorry for the misunderstading; I wanted to say that we can decree the presence of these phisical parametres; I can "see" the speed of an object, I can't see his linear momentum or kinetic energy but I could decree their presence if the object impacted with others. But isn't the same for the time... Spacetime ( so the time in all) is created by grains, they couldn't be affected by the time, because they create it
10. ## Does the time exist?

According to Loop qunatum gravity (Unproved theory) the spacetime is made of quantum gravitational grains, some "Knots" contain the volume of the space ( in discrete values), they are bined by the "links". A group of Knots or rather a set of lines which touch each other form a graph. Without entering into specifics; the theory enunciates that space-time is made of these grains, they create the gravitational quantum field. So, If time is relatred to space and space-time is created by grains, on microscopic grains scale time doesn't exist. Because space and time are created by the "dance" of these elemenatry components. But leaving out the loop quantum theory, Can we see the time? If we try to shoot a bullet, we can calculate his speed, linear momentum, the Force with which he exits from the gun and exc..; we could also "see" these phisical parametres and decree their presence. But, what about the time? It is undetectable, maybe because it is only an illusion... Take your watch, you can see the second hand which is ticking; A second passes, but we haven't seen the time yet, we can only decree that second hand has made a circular movements of four degrees. The physics laws of the nature would be the same if we considered that a circulare movement of 4 degrres of the second hand of very watch is equal to one second... The Wheleer-De witt equation of loop quantum theory doens't have the time parameter, because on microscopic scale it doesn't exist... Like i said, the theory is still unproved; But I belived it was fun trying to examinate this fascinating painting of reality
11. ## What is Space made of?

Loop Quantum Gravity: The space is the place in which phenomena happen, the quantum fields ( electromagnetic, weak, strong and Higgs) propagate on space-time. But what does create space-time? the loop quantum gravity theory could explain it; trying to find a quantum theory of space-time, an unification of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity . The Wheleer- De Witt equation is a good point of start, it should determin the probability of observing certain curved space. The solutions of this equation admit some strange closed rings called "loops". These ones represent the field lines of the gravitational quantum field. These rings form the structure of space-time. The loops interwine with each other in points called "Knots"; the lines between two knots are called "Links". A group of knots binded by links or rather a set of lines which touch each other create a "graph". In the knots of the graph reside the volume of the space, so the lines binded single space volumes. Every knot "n" has a volume "Vn"; it represent the elementary grain of space time. And like photons (discrete energy) , the grains can have only discrete values of volume. The only possibles values of the knots' volume or graph's surface can be calculated with Dirac's spectrum. Every graph is composed by a number of knots ( every knot has a discrete volume v1, v2, v3...)and by some lines ( for a line is associated a semi-whiole number which represent the spin; 1/2, 3/2, 5/2...): They create a "spin network" On microscopic scale the space isn't continue, but made of finished elements connected by each other. These elements don't exist on space-time, they are the space-time!
12. ## Why we are alone...

The reason of the inconclusive research of extraterrestrial lifeforms is the "Time", let me explain this concept with Drake's equation: This probabilistic equation describes the possible number of alien intelligent lifeforms in our galaxy, their biological or technological signatures coulde be detected with our instruments. N=R* x fp x Ne x Fe x Fi x Fc x L N is the number of alien lifeforms in our galaxy, R* the rate of formation stars in our galaxy, fp the fraction of planets for those stars, Ne the number of planets with suitable condition for life, Fe the fraction of planets with life ( also primitive), Fi Fraction of planets which hosts intelligent lifeforms, Fc the amount of civilizations which emitt technological signature ( radio, microwave...) and L is the leght of time such civilizations release detectable signals into space. This factor L is very important in our reserch; Imagine you want to listen on the radio your favourtite song: it lasts 5 minutes and it appears on radio once a day. The probability of listen it in a day if you switch on the radio in a random moment is: 5/1440= 0,34% where 5 is the lenght in minutes of the song and 1440 is the lenght of a normal terrestrial day. This value is quite low In the end, we are noting that the time is an important factor in the research of alien primitive or intelligent life; Maybe we are born too late or too early to live with others...
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