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  1. Trying to conquer outer space without using rockets, we faced two extremes. One of them is the numerous impossible and non-working engines created in practice on non-existent principles, and the other is very scientific principles that work according to the laws of physics, but, nevertheless, do not explain how to create such an engine. We will try to figure out how to implement a warp engine technically, that is, how to warp space in practice. The most recent theory of the warp drive was proposed in 2020 by Eric Lenz. Its advantage is that it does not require the attraction of exotic antimatter to create a huge mass and works on the well-known laws of physics. Lenz, instead of the Alcubierre bubble, proposes to use solitons - single waves traveling over long distances without changing their shape or smoothing out. Solitons arise in a variety of environments that are conducive to the formation of waves. Soliton was discovered by Scottish physicist John Scott Russell in 1834. Here's what he found: “I was following the movement of the barge, which was being quickly pulled along a narrow channel by a pair of horses, when the barge suddenly came to a stop. But the mass of water that the barge set in motion gathered near the bow of the ship in a state of frantic movement, then suddenly left it behind, rolling forward at great speed and taking the form of a large single rise - a rounded, smooth and well-defined mound of water. He continued on his way along the canal, without changing its shape or slowing down in any way. I followed him on horseback, and when I caught up with him, he was still rolling forward at about 8-9 miles per hour, retaining its original elevation profile, about thirty feet long and a foot to one and a half feet high. Its height gradually decreased, and after one or two miles of chase I lost it in the bends of the canal. " Solitons are waves that behave like particles (a particle-like wave): when interacting with each other or with some other perturbations, they do not collapse, but continue to move, keeping their shape and speed unchanged. Solitons can spread in different environments. In 2002, a satellite of the European Space Agency discovered a soliton about 6 km wide in the region of the magnetopause, moving towards the outer edge of the solar system at a speed of about 9 km / s. As a matter in which it is supposed to excite such a soliton, Lenz proposes to use a magnetoactive relativistic plasma. A relativistic plasma is essentially a plasma moving at a speed that makes up a significant part of the speed of light. Such a plasma can be created either by heating a gas to very high temperatures, or by impacting a high-energy particle beam. For example, it forms in supernovae. Therefore, although Lenz saved us from using very inaccessible dark matter, we still have the problem of unrealistically huge energy. Just right to forget about it, and look in the direction of something simpler. Whether it's EMdrive - we take a microwave, put it in a bucket and a miracle happens there. Outside, no one sees it, but inside it is there ... Or solitons? After all, it's real and perhaps we will be able to find an easier way to get them. To study this issue, we have a simple and affordable tool - this is water. In 1981, physicist William Unruh proposed to study black holes using analog, that is, those based on similarities, models of gravity, a method recently used by scientists. They observed the funnel as a result of the drainage of water in an attempt to simulate a black hole, and they did find similar features. In particular, this was the case with the waves that were absorbed by the funnel. And so we see that many processes occurring in the space of time and which are difficult to directly observe are reflected in the macrocosm of the matter we are accustomed to. Therefore, we can try to make an analog model based on water to understand how to warp space and time. Our task is to simulate a warp drive in water. But first, let's figure out what a soliton is. A soliton, visible in water as a surface wave, is structurally an annular or toroidal vortex. This is the optimal form of movement of matter in the environment. In a narrow sense next - a phenomenon in which a region of a rotating liquid or gas moves through the same medium. View: https://youtu.be/Sj9irzI-Pzw Typically, such a vortex appears as a result of a sharp jolt, and the most obvious example is a smoke ring. The reason for its existence is that trajectories of particles that move chaotically in a calm environment (Brownian motion) seem to be closed and this leads to their movement in a circle. These particles have their own energy, which manifests itself as their constant mutual attraction and repulsion. It allows them to be in motion all the time, and therefore they can transfer the energy contained in the vortex over long distances without loss. Such a vortex can be reflected and change direction, thereby repeating the properties of the particle. This guy perfectly demonstrates how a toroidal vortex / soliton / wave / particle behaves in different situations: View: https://youtu.be/6uP2JjZLNro In the case of the barge, which formed a soliton in the channel, what happened was that the mass of water entrained by it continued its movement after the ship stopped. The bow of the barge squeezed the water ahead of it, creating a forward-moving wave, while a zone of reduced pressure followed. The stopping of the barge led to the fact that while the central part of the wave was still moving forward by inertia, its edges began to be pulled into rarefaction from behind. And since their volume was not enough to fill this space, water poured into it from behind. This led to the appearance of a closed toroidal vortex. The simplest example of this phenomenon is probably known to everyone. When a car comes past you at speed, after a while you feel how the air following it pushes you. If this car suddenly stops abruptly, the air vortex will hit it from behind and scatter, reflected to the sides. And the narrow channel of the channel, in which the exchange was moving, allowed the vortex to re-reflect and go around the exchange to continue moving forward. And so, how will the spacecraft move in such a soliton using the example of water? Unfortunately, the infinite or very long motion of a ship in a soliton is possible only in two cases - if the ship itself turns into a toroidal structure, or if the soliton is so huge and powerful that the ship will be carried away by it like smoke particles in a smoke ring traveling in a vicious circle. The second option is, in principle, more acceptable, but nevertheless it is the same thing that a tornado will carry you away. So we have not yet solved the problem of a huge amount of energy, although we have shown by the example of liquid and gas that travel in a soliton is quite possible. But let's try to consider a different approach. In the case of the exchange, there was still a moment when the soliton created by it put pressure on it, forcing it to move on, until it overtook it and went ahead. The fact is that the formation of an annular vortex of the soliton was caused not so much by the wave pushed by the barge as by the free space behind it. Filling this space with water was like a collapse and allowed the formation of a soliton behind the ship. In order for the barge to create a soliton of the slightest degree, it is enough for it to simply move forward relative to its center of mass, as in the classic example with a barge and a car. If the car travels along the barge from bow to stern, then its hull will move forward and this will also create a soliton. If this displacement is sharp enough, then we can get the same force that resulted from the slow towing of the barge by horses for a long time. And although the action of the soliton on the ship will be short and almost imperceptible, we will be able to repeat this action, returning the car to its starting point very slowly, so that this does not cause a backward-directed soliton of the same strength. With each subsequent jerk, the initial speed of the barge will already be greater, and we will be able to accelerate little by little, with the help of small but multiple solitons and without the participation of excessively huge energy. Thus, we have already obtained the simplest water model of a spacecraft propelled by solitons. This is what it looks like (forgive me those who have seen this many times): View: https://youtu.be/ECjTOa_mm5k Okay, this, of course, is great in the water - you pull forward and move. But in space, we still need a relativistic plasma and what to get it from. And this is not much better than a rocket. If it's better at all. How can we bend space without this? Maybe the Doppler effect? We paint the front of the ship in blue, and the tail in red, and now we get light waves, short in front and long in the back - the space around the ship is curved. A ship from the front approaches from the front and recedes from behind ... But seriously - can we get a warp bubble by compressing the space behind the ship and expanding it in front with the help of waves to get this: Let's try to do this for a start with at least water. We can take the same exchange as a basis for our model, imagining that its body is a kind of emitter that creates waves in water-space. We will also move it back and forth with the car and push the water in opposite directions with different strengths. We will send a strong wave forward, and a weak wave back, and so the water around the barge will stretch more on one side than on the other. In principle, we have already done this and we managed to get movement through waves of different lengths as in the picture above. These waves are: And as we already know, these waves must be solitons, that is, practically moving material objects, because in the case of elastic waves, no movement will occur except for circles on the water. In order to get them in space, we still need a plasma source. Or not? After all, we can make small solitons, but a lot, extracting them directly from the space of time, from which the stars were formed, and any other that is quite tangible and materially carried in space at great speeds. We just have to answer the question how? How to form a soliton from space-time? The answer is a wave particle. This is the minimal soliton that forms from space-time. Think of the guy with the smoke rings, which, although they are not solids, still behave like they - they hit, reflect, change direction, split in two, and at the same time do not lose their energy as if they were just balls. This is the analog wave-particle model that can be created in water or air. We can make photons, right? This means that in order for our barge to be able to leave the channel and go to conquer space, it must transform, transform ... Transform into a photon engine. This is an engine in which the energy source is a body that emits light. The photon has an impulse and, accordingly, when it flows out of the engine, the light creates a jet thrust. Theoretically, a photon engine can develop the maximum thrust possible for a jet engine in terms of the spent mass of the spacecraft, allowing it to reach speeds close to the speed of light. Uh .. what a twist. But this is not interesting, you might think, we have already heard this, this is a matter of the distant future, and so on, and so on. And the speed of light remained insurmountable. And in general, this is again a jet engine, but we wanted something else - warp, drive ... There is bad news (with a very gray beard) - no material body can set itself in motion without another material body of the same kind, which in some way is also a soliton - a photon. But at least we can get a working fluid from the environment, and this is already good news. So don't be discouraged, especially since we have one little consolation bonus that was not there before - this is the water model of this soliton-photon-emitting and radiant warp drive. And in fact, we only recently learned how it works in practice. Although it has existed for a very long time, it has been endowed with any qualities other than those that it actually possesses. Some, very educated people, believed that she moved without starting from anything and seemed to pull herself by the nose like Baron Münghausen. Other, even more educated people believed that she was moving backwards, because they did not know such laws of physics https://cordis.europa.eu/article/id/125342-flying-saucer-with-a-wave-engine (we talked about them when we studied the movement of the barge), that would allow her to move as it happens. And given this, we can assume that they also did not know something about photon and warp drives. What exactly? Well, maybe the fact that they will fly backwards, or a little faster and easier than it once seemed. Who knows? At least we already have some prerequisites to try to implement this technically and a chance to test it. Well ... all that remains is to come up with a little thing with which this body will radiate ... Maybe a small car that will go inside very quickly ... It can be simplified a little. Perhaps you are wondering what a photon engine that radiates in one direction and that wondrous radiant body have in common. We will return to analog models. The analogue of the photon engine will be an ordinary acoustic speaker. Some people's point out that the speaker can create the pressure of sound waves. But in fact, if we download a frequency generator to our phone and turn on a very nasty sound of about 1000 hertz, and then bring a source of smoke to it, we will not see any sound waves. We will see a jet stream. Air will be drawn in at the edges of the speaker and ejected from the center in the form of solitons. They will be obtained because as a result of the vibration of the membrane, rarefaction will appear every now and then, the collapse of which forms a soliton. It will exert pressure on the membrane and then, being reflected, fly back in the form of a jet stream. The same thing happens behind our water model - the waves that come back from it are reflected solitons. And by the way, just like an ordinary rocket, the exhaust gases are pushed into the nozzle, and then they fly out, unnecessary to anyone. Didn't you know? In general, we buy an ordinary Chinese flashlight, throw it into space and the warp drive is ready ... But still, if you were able to digest all this and took it for granted that jet propulsion with or without emissions on an equal footing with sailing is our destiny, then how can we make such a powerful flashlight that will fly away by itself? Share your ideas, they are sure to be stolen by someone. Perhaps it will be me. ----------------------------------- Faster than light. Finding technical solutions using analog modeling In the previous article, trying to get closer to solving the warp engine problem with an analog hydrodynamic model, we were able to reproduce the curvature of space-time. We took as a basis the idea of creating a warp bubble by Eric Lenz from a soliton and came to the conclusion that it would be more rational to create successively many small solitons. We also assumed that the wave particle is the minimum soliton. Then our warp engine turned into a photon or possibly another engine, the principle of which is based on the emission of electromagnetic waves, and therefore the question of overcoming the light barrier remained open. Now let's try to solve this problem with the help of water and reproduce the overcoming of the light barrier. As we know, the speed of light propagation is constant and we cannot transfer anything of interest to us faster without some special trick. Let's first see what we can do. For example, we can look at the moon. And if we turn our heads, it will seem to us that the moon has moved as if it was moving faster than the speed of light. True, no matter how you turn your head, it will not get closer. Well, okay, there is still the Alcubierre bubble, that is, a certain area of space that moves with us faster than light, but inside it we are motionless relative to the space around us. In 2021, Alexey Bobrik and Gianni Martyr theoretically proved that a warp bubble can be created without the use of exotic matter. They described by an equation the shell of a bubble based on a rotating body, in which sufficiently distant objects can move at an arbitrarily high speed, exceeding the speed of light. As in the example with the Moon. Let's try to find a practical solution to this problem. We have already considered a soliton as a toroidal vortex as a warp bubble, but it is impossible for it to overcome the speed of light. Using an ordinary smoke ring as an analog model for such a bubble, we can observe that no matter how powerful the impulse that formed it is, it will still move with a finite speed, and the energy contained in it will be expressed in size. By the way, this is another of the properties of liquids and gases, which allows you to draw an analogy between them and what happens in space and time. Gases and liquids also do not like it when their speed relative to something becomes higher than certain values. They begin to swirl and form layers of currents in the vortices, which, relative to each other, continue to move at their favorite speed and stretch at the same time. Maybe if you didn’t know, even supersonic aircraft, let alone warp ships, the air are not allowed to overcome the speed of sound relative to themselves, but only relative to the observer. Vortex in a lateral section At the front of the shock wave in front of an aircraft flying faster than sound, very sharp changes in the properties of the flow occur - its speed relative to the aircraft decreases and becomes subsonic, the temperature and density increase, as in the compression of a vortex. The plane becomes, as it were, a part of a huge vortex structure, in which the inner layers move faster than the outer ones so that their relative speeds do not increase. Let's see how this looks like in a vortex ring. Although it moves at its maximum speed, equal to the speed of its boundaries of relatively calm air, in its central part, which will give impetus to our ship, the movement of air is faster. Here is a visual solution to the relative speed of the warp bubble without violating the speed limits. View: https://youtu.be/TKEWFPlAiCk The only thing is that for our ship to cover the distance from point A to point B faster than light, the soliton must be much greater than this distance. For example the size of a galaxy. Or very dense, which turns it into a black hole, which is also not small, that is, into the very unreal mass that is needed to bend the space-time. Or a star. With an airplane, something like this happens - there is an effect of added mass in the form of vortex structures around the airplane. You will even be sucked there like a black hole if it flies close. That is, an analog model based on air or water suggests that you just need to fly fast and the warp will be done by itself. That's all. Someone will say: well, let's say so. And your this soliton is not clear what engine will accelerate us so? Who knows, will he overclock or not. Let's approach the question from the other side - from the wave. Is it possible to accelerate faster than light by emitting waves at the speed of light? As already mentioned in the last article, the particle waves created by it will give impulse to the ship, hitting it from behind. If he accelerates to speed C - will they catch up with him to communicate this impulse? Physicists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California and the University of Rochester at New York york, huh .., managed to exceed the speed of light by pulses inside a hot plasma. https://www.sciencealert.com/pulses-of-light-can-break-the-universal-speed-limit-and-it-s-been-seen-inside-plasma But the speed of light was not exceeded by the photons themselves, but by the rhythmic rises and falls of whole groups of light waves. This is called the group velocity, or the speed at which the maximum of the amplitude envelope, or wave train, travels. It can be configured to slow down or accelerate relative to the waves themselves, but this can only be called superluminal movement. Although in many cases the group velocity determines the rate of energy transfer and maybe this is how we can push off the particles that are left behind? At least we can check this with a hydrodynamic model, which hasn't failed yet. In the next video, although the speed of the model is not high, thanks to special debris in the water, you can see that it moves at intervals that do not coincide with the frequency of the waves. This suggests that the impulse is transmitted to it not by separate waves, but by their declines and rises, which can move faster than the waves themselves. Transferring this to space-time, we can assume that areas of compressed and stretched space will alternate behind the ship, in which waves will alternately catch up with it, imparting momentum, and lag behind. View: https://youtu.be/85Gc0ryw2iI Yes ... impressive ... and how long are we going to fly to Alpha Centauri on this? Unfortunately, this model does not have a frequency setting. But luckily there is one guy named Midi_Music KH who made and even patented a very efficient speaker-based acoustic motor for a boat. It is also analogous to our hydrodynamic warp drive model. Before we look at it, we will clarify this. In hydrodynamics, there is a phenomenon similar to the overcoming of the sound barrier by an airplane. This is a wave crisis that occurs when the speed of the vessel overcomes the speed of waves on the water. After that, as a rule, planing begins above the surface of the water, since it becomes difficult to advance in the water. View: https://youtu.be/A5TUneTiFWU In our model before last, we observed such a wave pattern that spoke of movement by compression and expansion of the water continuum, but the speed of the waves was not overcome. It looked like this: Now let's take a look at this: As we can see, the pattern of the waves has changed dramatically and we no longer see the waves in front of the ship. But we can still see two groups of waves as in the previous case, only now they are rearranged differently. The waves that in the first model propagated far ahead are now closed in a narrow sector, reminiscent of a shock wave from a supersonic aircraft. This wave causes them to move backward and compress the group of waves that is behind, which is why they now propagate in the form of closed rings. This is very reminiscent of overcoming the speed of sound and it looks like our water warp drive nevertheless, albeit on the smallest piece, has overcome the light barrier. Now we just have to make it real and check it out. Uh ... what if we get sucked into a black hole? Come on, people used to think different things too ...
  2. Although I have a certain interest in science, and have even done my own research, my job is an artist. I decided that art is a great way for me to convey an idea and give something to think about. This is my oil and acrylic paintings Antigravity girl Space conquerors Spaceship Earth Rocket people Rocket fish Elon Musk spaceman city Flying saucer principle Dark city Darkest night Robots bar UFO contact
  3. There is some new circumstantial evidence and logical justifications, but the main thing is a detailed description of the experiments with which you can establish the fact of this phenomenon. Among these are the simplest experiments that anyone can repeat. This article is being considered for publication in a scientific journal and received a positive review from a respected scientist. It is at the bottom of the page http://sci-article.ru/stat.php?i=1601957819 The reviewer's page contains links to information about him. Thus, the fact is substantiated indirectly if there is an above average knowledge of aerohydrodynamics, it is proved experimentally with minimal means, and is confirmed by the opinion of a specialist. The only thing that is missing is links to authoritative sources confirming this fact, since it has not been studied by anyone yet.
  4. Theoretical explanation: chaotic Brownian motion becomes directional in a vortex. Such an experiment is easy to repeat at home. It is necessary to lower the palm into the water and make a quick movement in one direction and slow in the other. During the reverse movement, the resistance of the water will be greater due to the energy released from the water. Using this video as an example http:// https://youtu.be/6uP2JjZLNro?list=PLrm6nkD3lMdHSAobaACNeqzMncPxXzddI (time 1.13) during the raising of the dish, a turbulent vortex is formed under it, and during the stopping of the dish, the vortex continues to exist and moves upward around the dish. Hence there is air flow while the dish is stationary.
  5. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF FLAPPING FLIGHT, NOT EXPLORED PHENOMENON IN AERODYNAMICS AND THE QUESTION OF FLYING SAUCER EFFICIENCY http://sci-article.ru/stat.php?i=1601957819 Kandyba Pavel Yurievich Annotation: As a result of experiments with the motion of asymmetrically oscillating bodies in a viscous medium, it was found that the generally accepted idea of such a principle of motion is not correct. A description of the experiments and the observed effect is given, as well as its interpretation. Abstract: As a result of experiments with the motion of asmmetscillating bodies in a viscous medium, it was found that the generally accepted idea of such a principle of motion is not correct. A description of the experiments and the observed effect is given, as well as its interpretation. Keywords: aerodynamics; hydrodynamics; turbulence; vortex; experiment; flapping flight, vibrating flight, flying saucer UDC 533.664 Introduction The purpose of this article is to draw attention to a little-studied phenomenon in the field of aerodynamics, a more detailed study of which, in the author's opinion, will give a significant impetus to the development of the aerospace field. Now 4 basic principles of engines are used: screw; reactive; using air currents as a driving force; using light gas. All of these principles have their advantages and disadvantages, and their combination often leads to a decrease in overall performance. New types of engines, the principles of which are based on theoretical research, have not been found, and their searches have created a lot of pseudoscientific ideas. And at the same time in nature there is the most perfect form of flight, which man has not mastered to the end. This is a flapping flight, which, as the reader will be convinced, is a synthesis of the above flight methods. Relevance To date, research is underway in different countries of the world with the aim of using the principle of flapping flight for practical purposes. There are some robotic models that have flapping wings, but they are inferior in efficiency to classical aircraft. Their resource is significantly limited by the complexity of the design, which does not allow them to realize high power. Nevertheless, for many years there has been a technical solution to this issue that has remained on paper - vibrating flight. Goals and objectives The author carried out experimental work, the purpose of which was to study the method of motion in a homogeneous medium by means of asymmetric oscillations. He created mock-ups of aircraft with vibrating wings, and carried out a series of tests in which their characteristics were investigated. The author found that the results of his experiments did not correspond to the generally accepted scientific theory of the motion of such devices. Classic description of the principle To begin with, consider the generally accepted theories of motion in a viscous medium of asymmetrically vibrating bodies. The most famous of them is the explanation of the principle of motion of an inertion propulsion drive in a liquid: The principle of operation of inertion propulsion drive lies in the fact that their purposeful movement is caused by the difference in the resistance force during the forward and reverse half-cycle of work. With dry friction, the resistance to slow movement exceeds the resistance to fast movement (in one half cycle, when a small force is applied, the static friction force is not overcome and the apparatus remains in place; in the reverse half cycle, the friction force is overcome, the apparatus moves). In liquids, on the contrary, resistance to fast movement prevails over resistance to slow movement. The explanation of the effect in liquids is fundamentally different (since there is no static friction force in liquids and gases) and is based on viscous friction forces. The description of the principle of movement in air, the same as the movement of an inertioid in a liquid medium, has a vibrating flight: To get an idea of the mechanism of the appearance of the thrust force, let us first consider the appearance of the thrust force when the plate moves in the same medium with different speeds of forward and reverse strokes. The thrust force in different modes of forward and reverse motion in the same medium of movement arises due to the following two effects. 1) Nonlinear dependence of the resistance of the medium to the displacement of the propeller on its speed and its derivatives - even for a symmetrically executed propeller (for example, a round plate moving along the normal). Due to the different modes of forward and reverse strokes, the average resistance force will not be zero and can reach a value sufficient for the movement. When the propeller moves in a working stroke at a speed 10 times higher than the idle speed, the efficiency of the propeller, i.e. the ratio of the energy used by the mover to the energy received by the mover can reach a value approaching 90%. 2) The asymmetry of the propulsion unit relative to the plane perpendicular to the direction of motion can lead to the fact that a tractive effort arises even when the speeds of the straight about and reverse moves. This effect - the dependence of the drag on the shape of the body and with its asymmetry on the direction of motion - is well known in aerodynamics. Experimental observation of the phenomenon If the effect caused by the difference in resistances during symmetric oscillations of an asymmetric body does not raise any doubts, then in relation to asymmetrically oscillating symmetric bodies, the experiment shows the exact opposite of the theory - the movement occurs in the direction of a fast jerk, and not a slow one. This is clearly demonstrated by the simplest experiment: we lower a straight palm into the water, make a quick movement in one direction, slow in the other, and in the opposite movement we feel much more resistance than we would expect. The following happens - when we push the water forward, a rarefied medium forms behind the palm, and its subsequent collapse creates pressure. This is explained by the work of the forces of repulsion and attraction of water molecules, Brownian motion, which becomes directional in a catching turbulent vortex. Thus, the classic example with a barge and a car has the following description: the ship is displaced relative to the center of mass, the resistance of the water pushes it back slightly, and then, after some time, the current caused by the displacement of the ship pushes it towards this displacement. Equally, with asymmetric vibrations of a symmetric body, and with symmetric vibrations of an asymmetric body, the movement of the medium occurs according to the same principle. Similar phenomena are well known in aerodynamics. With a sharp descent of the helicopter, a subsequent uncontrolled loss of altitude occurs as a result of the formation of an annular vortex caused by the downward movement of the air mass, which, while descending, was pushed by the helicopter. Another example is the "cobra" maneuver, in which the fighter suddenly lifts its nose, which causes an updraft below it, allowing it to sharply slow down and seem to hover in place. Experiments 1. Hydrodynamic testing of boat models with vibration motors. To study the phenomenon, a mechanism was made, with a principle similar to the inertion propulsion drive of V.N. Tolchin, with the difference that the acceleration and deceleration of the pendulums was carried out not by a spring, but by magnets. In some cases, for simplicity, only one pendulum was used, and the torque was compensated by the support. First, the engine was installed on a boat with a symmetrical hydrodynamic profile, and during the experiment it was seen that its movement in the water is in the direction of fast jerks. Then the engine was installed on a boat with an asymmetric profile, more streamlined in the front and less streamlined in the rear. In this case, the asymmetry of the oscillations was eliminated. During the experiment, no obvious movement was observed, probably due to the relatively small asymmetry of the profile. Further, the vibrations were made asymmetric so that the boat made quick jerks in the direction in which the streamlining is greater, and this allowed it to move in that direction. During the experiment, the formation of waves of different lengths, created by the vibrating hull of the boat, was observed - short weak waves propagated in the direction of movement, forward, and long stronger ones behind in the opposite direction In some cases, in particular when a boat with a symmetrical profile is moving, performing asymmetric oscillations at a high frequency, at which the wavelength is much less than the length of the boat, it was observed that the movement occurs at intervals of large oscillation frequencies. This is probably due to the accumulation of wave energy. In the immediate vicinity of the boat to the walls of the container with water, the achieved effect decreased. The hull of the boat adhered to the walls, similar to the convergence of nearby ships, which was overcome by direct repulsion of the hull from the walls. This allows us to describe this principle of movement as a wave. The formation of these waves by the example of a single jerk is as follows: with a fast jerk, a certain mass of water receives an impulse and begins to move in the direction of the impact according to the principle of an annular vortex, which is observed as a surface wave. In this case, a low pressure zone forms behind the boat, which, when filled, takes the energy of this wave in the process of flowing around, which creates turbulence. Water molecules under the action of their own forces of repulsion and attraction with acceleration rush into the zone of reduced pressure, and something like the collapse of a cavitation bubble or the explosion of a vacuum bomb occurs. The collapse energy pushes the boat from behind, and, reflected from it, forms a backward wave. Accordingly, with a slow jerk of the boat backward, as a result of these interactions, a weak forward wave is formed. In some cases, in particular when a boat with a symmetrical profile is moving, performing asymmetric oscillations at a high frequency, at which the wavelength is much less than the length of the boat, it was observed that the movement occurs at intervals of large oscillation frequencies. This is probably due to the accumulation of wave energy. In the immediate vicinity of the boat to the walls of the container with water, the achieved effect decreased. The hull of the boat adhered to the walls, similar to the convergence of nearby ships, which was overcome by direct repulsion of the hull from the walls. Figure: 1. Boat with an asymmetric vibration motor in motion. 2. Tests of models of vibrating flights in free fall. To establish that the resulting motion was caused not by the differences in the heights of the surface waves, but by the difference in pressure, experiments were carried out in air. A lightweight asymmetric vibration motor was manufactured, which It was a motor with an eccentric that makes half a turn with acceleration and a half turn with a deceleration, which was carried out by a magnet rigidly attached to the body, acting on the eccentric. The engine was mounted on a disk-shaped wing with a symmetrical airfoil (Fig. 2). Difficulties in detecting the presence of engine thrust were that fixing the result with the help of weights would lead to the fact that the scales would become a fulcrum during repulsion, and, not having time to respond to changes in weight, could show its decrease as an average result even when jumping them an engine without a wing. One of the features of inercioids is that, pushing off straight and nonlinearly, they use everything that prevents their oscillations as a fulcrum. This is probably the reason for the emergence of pseudoscientific prejudices regarding this type of engine. It was decided to test the model in free fall. But even in this case, the measurement of the falling speed turned out to be impossible for the reason that when the maximum falling speed was reached, this structure turned over or shifted relative to the vertical from the excess pressure and then fell faster. Therefore, the following test method was applied. The maximum height from which the model fell without overturning and displacement was determined (about 1.5 m), and then the model was thrown from the same height with the engine running. When the operating model fell, there was a noticeable displacement from the vertical and subsequent overturning already at a height of about 0.5 m. The torque generated by the engine has been taken into account. To compensate for this, a similar engine with the opposite torque was not used due to the complexity of synchronization and the increase in weight. A feature of the design of the engine was its self-winding in the direction of rotation as a result of the influence of the accelerating and decelerating magnet on the eccentric. At the same time, the eccentric, approaching the magnet, accelerated, and created a fast impulse with pressure on the axis in the opposite direction, forcing the engine to spin slightly in the opposite direction of rotation, and passing by the magnet, slowed down, creating a slow reverse impulse and attracting the magnet after it, forcing the engine more noticeably scroll in the direction of rotation. This self-winding was not strong, and was largely compensated by the aerodynamic plane. In most cases, the flip direction of the model did not correspond to this torque, and depended primarily on other factors, such as accidental tilt at the beginning of the fall, curvature of the plane, uneven weight distribution and application of force. Fig. 2. Vibrating flight model with a symmetrical aerodynamic wing profile. Later, an improved engine with a vertical axis of rotation was made, which eliminated the overturning reactive moment, and created a gyroscopic effect to maintain the horizontal position of the model in flight. The design of the engine consisted in the fact that a rotor with magnets rotated over magnets mounted on a movable aerodynamic plane, mounted on springs. The alignment of the magnets forced them, attracting, to raise the plane. As the magnets approached, the rotor would accelerate, and slow down as the magnets moved away. Therefore, the plane moved faster up and slower down. It was not possible to completely eliminate overturning, but when the engine was turned on, the tendency to it decreased, and the tendency to horizontal displacement increased under the same experimental conditions. To take into account the ground effect, the height of the fall was increased, and in this case, the rollover occurred approximately after passing the same distance of 1 m. Due to the lack of accurate measuring instruments, it was difficult to judge the presence of the ground effect. But, apparently, he had to exert influence, creating additional support for repulsion at a certain distance to the ground. Also, when throwing from a height of 1 m, in which the model did not have time to roll over, it was noticed that at the minimum distance from the ground, the fall sharply accelerates, probably due to a violation of air circulation. 3. Visualization of the air flow. In order to establish that the air circulates exactly as described earlier, the following experiments were carried out. A tape was attached to the edge of the plate indicating the direction of the air flow. The plate was lifted up perpendicular to the plane, and during the ascent the tape was pulled under the plate into the turbulence zone, and after stopping the plate at the upper lifting point it took a horizontal position on the outside of the plate, parallel to its plane. This suggests that after the plate stops, an ascending air flow continues to exist under it, striking its lower part, and being reflected, distributed to the sides. Next, a simple installation was assembled with an electromagnetic linear motor and an asymmetric aerodynamic plane in the form of a cone with a low top, making a vertical vibrations perpendicular to its plane. The installation was connected to a frequency generator. A smoke source was located under the plane, closer to its edge. The smoke naturally rose up, partially flowed around the edge of the plane, and rose further. When the installation was switched on to the mode of symmetric oscillations, the following happened: when the plane was raised, the smoke was completely drawn under it, forming a turbulent vortex, and when lowering, it was thrown out to the side horizontally, also in the form of a vortex. It should be noted that this happened only at the optimum vibration frequency, at which the amplitude was maximum. For this setup, the maximum amplitude was about 2 mm at a frequency of 18 Hertz. The diameter of the plane was about 5 cm. With a significant increase in frequency, the movement of smoke became the same as without turning on the engine, but at the same time, the presence of acoustic waves of the same length was visually observed in it both from above and below. Apparently, in order to achieve the maximum effect, it is necessary to take into account the optimal vibration mode. Next, a single lift of the plate was studied, that is, a symmetrical airfoil completely surrounded by smoke. During the ascent of the plate perpendicular to the plane, a turbulence zone is formed under it in the form of an annular vortex with an upward flow in the center, which repeats the shape of a nuclear fungus (Fig. 3). When the plate stops at the top point, the annular vortex catches up with it and flows around it, continuing to move upward by inertia. In this case, the vortex turns into a thin ring, increasing in diameter, and eventually collapsing in the space above the plate (Fig. 4). The upward flow in the center of the vortex hits the bottom of the plate, and, being reflected to the sides, makes the vortex expand as it flows around the plate (Fig. 4). Since the plate takes energy from the moving air mass, the vortex collapses around the plate. That is, a single upward jerk of the plate perpendicular to the plane creates an air flow pushing the plate after it stops. If the reverse motion of the plate has a lower speed, and the energy of the flow created by it is less, the resulting force will be lifting. Figure: 3 and fig. 4. Annular vortex during plate movement (left) and vortex flow around the plate after stopping (right). Further, a single rise in the smoke of an asymmetric aerodynamic profile in the form of a hemisphere with a large streamlining in the direction of travel was studied. During the rise of the hemisphere, a process is observed, the same as the rise of the plate - an annular vortex with an upward flow resembling a mushroom. And when the hemisphere stops at the top point, the flow hitting it from below is reflected not to the sides, as in the case of the plate, but downward, which is facilitated by the shape of the hemisphere. In many ways, this resembles a jet stream flowing from a rocket nozzle. You can see these processes using the simplest experiments - dangling a mug in a bucket of water or a spoon in soup. In addition, the movement of air during the operation of the acoustic speaker membrane was studied using smoke. Air access was only to the front side of the membrane, and to the back was limited. For the experiment, an ordinary smartphone with a sound generator and a cigarette as a source of smoke were used. When the speaker was operating in a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies, the ambient air was drawn to the speaker on the sides and fired with a jet stream from its center. 3. Testing of models of vibrating flights in flight after initial acceleration. To explore this effect in free flight after the initial acceleration, several models were created in the form of "flying saucers" with different aerodynamic profiles and types of vibration motors (Fig. 5 and 6). In these experiments, it was not possible to obtain an accurate visual result in view of the multiple extraneous factors affecting the flight and the instability of the apparatus. Eliminating these factors would be possible under laboratory conditions. Figure: 5 and 6. Flying saucer with a vibration motor in flight. Left: The reflection of light creates an optical effect similar to lights at the edge, probably due to vibration. Right: The blurring of the photo due to vibration creates the illusion of a distorted form. In the course of these experiments, it was found that a "flying saucer" with a convex profile at the top, or resembling two rear halves of an aircraft wing laminar profile joined together (Fig. 7), can receive a very significant increase in lift from the wind, provided there is a force that holds in a horizontal position. Thrown like a frisbee, but with little force and a strong twist for stability, during the gusts of wind, it abruptly changed its trajectory, gaining altitude until the rotation stopped maintaining its stability. Thus, it was impossible to judge the efficiency of the engine. Figure: 7. Flying saucer with a laminar wing profile. To simplify the experiment and obtain a more visual result, a simple asymmetric vibration motor was installed on the flying wing glider at the center of gravity. During his work, he created fast jerks up and slow down, but the lack of the necessary conditions for the experiment did not allow obtaining an accurate result. Apparently, the operation of the engine led to pitching - the glider periodically gained altitude and slowed down. For greater clarity of the experiment, a glider was made in the form of a wing in the shape of a crescent (Fig. 8), the center of gravity of which, and accordingly the engine, were at the very nose. Thus, the characteristics of the airframe with a small initial acceleration were similar to those of a projectile with plumage. This made it possible to aim it at a small distance with minor differences in launch conditions, since at this distance, about 5 m, it flew almost along a ballistic trajectory. As a result of these modifications, it became possible to visually observe significant changes in the flight path. The flight trajectory with the engine on was significantly different from the trajectory of the control flight with the engine off, which far exceeded the possible launch errors. The glider covered the first 2-3 meters along the initially specified ballistic trajectory, but, as the air resistance grew, the engine began to perceive it as a support. This allowed him to push off, as if bouncing on a hard surface. As a result, the amplitude of the leading edge oscillations increased, and the engine vibration frequency decreased. A similar dependence of amplitude and frequency on resistance is also valid for the previously described hydrodynamic models and "flying saucers". (The motion of the hydrodynamic model led to a decrease in the clock rate up to the complete sticking of the pendulums opposite the magnet.) Asymmetric oscillations of the leading edge of the wing of the crescent-shaped model led to a sharp lifting of the nose, up to reaching critical angles of attack and hovering in place, followed by falling down like a stone. If the height of the fall was sufficient, the newly increased resistance allowed the engine to start working, and the model suddenly went out of the dive. This was significantly different from the control flight along the ballistic trajectory, even with an error of several meters. Figure: 8. A model aircraft with a vibration motor reaches a critical angle of attack. Experimental results The direction of motion of asymmetrically oscillating bodies in a viscous medium established in the experiment is directly opposite to the direction described in the sources known to the author. The efficiency of this principle of movement directly depends on the resistance of the medium, and increases in proportion to its growth, and if the optimal modes are observed, energy accumulation is possible. The limiting factor that makes the "perpetuum mobile" impossible in this case is the engine power, since when the critical resistance is reached, the ability to overcome it disappears. Model of the possible cause of the formation of an annular vortex and the motion of asymmetrically vibrating bodies towards a fast jerk Let us consider the proposed model of the occurrence of this phenomenon based on geometric patterns. Imagine a conditional homogeneous viscous medium, liquid or gas, in a state of absolute rest in the form of equidistant particles, which are in this position due to the equilibrium of the forces of attraction and repulsion between them. In a plane section, connecting these particles with conventional lines, we get a lattice consisting of equilateral triangles. This is the only structure in which the points can be equidistant (Fig. 9). Figure: 9. Vortex model. Suppose this lattice has a certain elasticity, which allows it to generate a force similar to the surface tension of water. This is the force of resistance of the given environment. Let's place an object in this environment. Let it be particle number one. Imagine that this object is displaced relative to its center of mass, making a single jerk along the path of least resistance between two particles numbered 2, but the force of its jerk does not exceed the force of the particle that binds together. Then it will create some tension in the lattice, which will propagate in the form of a wave, supported by the energy of the forces of repulsion and attraction of particles with a limited speed inherent in this environment. Having transmitted the impulse imparted by object 1 further, the particles will return to their original position under the action of their own forces, and, accordingly, will push the object back to its original position. Let us assume this is the resistance force that pushes back the barge with the car mentioned at the beginning. And now suppose that the force of the jerk when the object 1 is displaced relative to the center of mass exceeds the binding force of the particles 2. Then the particles, thanks to the momentum they received, sequentially begin to move along a given trajectory, and simultaneously along the path of least resistance. If they were billiard balls, the momentum would be divided by 2 each time, and, in the end, dissipated. But if we take into account that the particles have their own energy, which makes it possible to transfer the energy of the pulse through waves, we get a chain reaction, thanks to which the pulse can travel a considerable distance without significant losses. If we lay down a logical path of impulse transmission, and enumerate each stage, we get that already at the count of 6 this impulse will return to the starting point in two ways, along trajectories resembling an eight, and will be communicated to the object that created it 1 from behind. Thus, object 1, having moved forward relative to the center of mass, will receive a force pushing it from behind. It is worth noting that particles from behind will immediately rush into the zone of reduced pressure formed due to the displacement of object 1, since the repulsive forces of other particles will act on them. From them, the leg of the previously described mushroom is formed. Therefore, the collapse of this cavity when all the particles meet will have a certain excess energy, the manifestation of which can be observed during the explosion of a vacuum bomb. The resulting trajectory in the form of a figure eight is consistent with the observed phenomenon - the dynamics of an annular vortex in the section. The particles alternately transfer momentum to each other and fall into a closed circle, which explains the long existence of the vortex. It is precisely the harmonious organization of chaotic Brownian motion that is the energy that feeds the vortex. If we trace the propagation of the pulse further, we will see a pattern due to which the particles form smooth fronts. These are waves caused by a single displacement of object 1. Object 1 itself will move pushed by the particles that form a figure eight or the top of the mushroom, slowing down as their energy dissipates. This is viscous friction, thermal energy, which moves the object that has brought it out of equilibrium in the direction of this impulse. This makes us think about the meaning of the expression "everything comes back" from the standpoint of logic and common sense. Model compliance with known phenomena Let's consider this model using the example of the lift force of an airplane wing. It is generally accepted that the movement of a wing through the air is continuous. But we also know that this movement is always associated with vibration, which ultimately leads to flutter and the destruction of the wing. And we also know that turbulence has a rhythm of vortex formation and destruction. By the example of an aircraft overcoming the sound barrier (Fig. 10), or the outflow of a jet stream from a nozzle, one can see that the movement of gases has a rhythmic, wave character. This is due to the cyclic rarefaction and collapse of the medium. The resonance of the structure with these cycles is the cause of the vibrations that occur during the movement of the wing. Figure: 10. Shock waves when breaking the sound barrier and cavitation as a result of filling the space behind them with air. Having singled out one such cycle from the general rhythm, we can say that the wing with its front part imparts an impulse to the air in the forward upward direction, pushing it above itself. As a result, a region of reduced pressure is formed above the wing, the collapse of which occurs in the direction of the pulse. Due to the fact that the wing is on the path of the air rushing into the rarefaction above it, it receives an impulse directed forward upward. The laminar profile is faster because the inclination of its rear lower plane allows the impulse to collapse the cavity to push the wing in the direction of flight. Since the rhythm of these cycles is not taken into account when the wing moves, in other words, the wing does not stop to wait for the energy that overtakes it, a significant part of it remains behind the aircraft, and can affect other aircraft. It has long been known that wedge-flying birds use this energy. A vortex, similar to an annular vortex in the section, is also present when air flows around the wing (Fig. 11). One part of it is well known in aerodynamics. This is a vortex following at some distance from the trailing edge of the wing. The other counter-rotating part is located directly at the trailing edge of the wing, in a small turbulent zone. This part has a very small diameter, since it is compressed, and at the same time significant energy is concentrated in it, due to which the destruction of the wing at high speed begins from the trailing edge. When a compressed vortex at the trailing edge breaks off the wingtip, it expands in size and forms a turbulence zone behind the aircraft. Between these two vortices, air moves under the wing from the space above it, as evidenced by the circulation of the boundary layer around the wing. Boundary layer air above the top surface bends around the trailing edge and enters under the wing. Therefore, the mushroom, like an annular vortex, has an asymmetric, curved arc, in which the leg is bent upward. The air injected under the wing moves against the flight in the boundary layer, and is the cause of the counterflow at the leading edge of the wing. Because of this, the stream of smoke in the aerodynamic tube seeks to bypass the wing from above to the last, even when it is displaced to the very bottom. At critical angles of attack, when the flow stalls, the compressed vortex from the trailing edge moves into the space above the wing and increases in size. Then the flow that builds up pressure under the wing moves behind it and begins to put pressure on the upper part of the wing. In this case, the wing no longer creates lift and only provides frontal resistance to the fall. Figure: 11. A vortex generating wing lift and stall (bottom). The proposed model can also be considered on the example of a bird's flight. The generally accepted opinion is that a bird, with a flap of its wings, spreads its feathers and feels less air resistance, and when lowering its wings, it connects the feathers and, thus, feeling more resistance, is repelled. This statement was the basis for the famous flying umbrella aircraft built in the early 20th century. The umbrella had flaps that let air in when moving up, and closed when moving down. In accordance with the proposed model, this led to the emergence of a force pressing to the ground, which was somewhat reduced by opening the valves when the umbrella was lifted. The principle of bird flight in accordance with this model is as follows: bird feathers on the wings have an S-shaped profile and work as vortex generators. By flapping its wings and spreading feathers, the bird not only reduces resistance, but also generates an annular vortex with an upward flow, relying on which it repels, lowering its wings. The flight of insects can be described in a similar way. The vortex has a quasi-crystalline structure and has the properties of a solid. Thus, it is like a solid object formed from the environment that can be thrown away as a reactive mass before it collapses. An example of a jet propulsion that is best suited for a flying saucer is the jellyfish. It is generally accepted that a jellyfish, shrinking, throws out a jet stream, and this sets it in motion. This is true, but it requires a certain addition. After the jellyfish has ejected the jet stream, it needs to refill the dome, which requires a certain amount of energy. The jellyfish takes this energy from the environment. When a jet stream is thrown out and the jellyfish begins to move forward, with its frontal resistance it creates a wave, followed by a catching ring vortex behind the jellyfish. When the energy of the jet pulse is exhausted and the jellyfish slows down, the flow in the ring vortex that has caught up with it fills it, straightening the dome. Medusa simply allows the vortex to push and flow around itself, completely repeating its shape (Fig. 12) and without making any special efforts. When the energy of the vortex is depleted, the jellyfish contracts again, starting a new cycle. We will see the same if we put an asymmetric linear motor on a very flexible plate. A special resemblance of the jellyfish to the tested models of "flying saucers" is that it very often flips over from excessive pressure. Replacing the complex movements of the jellyfish with simple oscillations of the aerodynamic profile, we will lose its energy efficiency, but we will get the absolute simplicity and universality of the principle of movement using the environment as a jet fuel. Figure: 12. Medusa repeats the shape of an annular vortex. Output In theory, the method of motion by asymmetric vibrations is suitable for any medium in which vortices and pressure waves can be created. According to the author, based on modern technologies, it is quite possible to build: 1) An ultralight air sailboat that will be driven by a low-power engine and held in the air like soaring birds. 2) An improved solar sail craft. In view of the fact that an asymmetric vibration motor (inertioid) has the ability to push off straight and nonlinearly, having a minimum resistance to the support, the solar wind pressure will be enough to achieve the effect. 3) A descent spacecraft with increased controllability, which will be able to use the resistance of the environment during descent for maneuvers and soft landing. The idea of this method as a wave method indicates the probable possibility of using it in space as a vacuum jet engine. It is still too early to talk about a real flying saucer as they are presented. The difficulty lies in the fact that the strength and power characteristics required to create a full-fledged apparatus that surpasses modern jet aircraft in all respects are prohibitive. For example, the body and the moving part of such an aircraft must be 3D printed monolithic from heat-resistant and hard metal. Now such technologies are only at the initial stage of development, but you can start thinking about it today. Figure: 13. Different models of aircraft with vibration motors. Experiment video: https://youtu.be/IyzIT2atqw0 https://youtu.be/aCAFfisXYa4 Bibliography: 1. Wikipedia: Inercioids [Electronic resource] - access mode: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%98%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%86%D0%BE% D0% B8% D0% B4% D1% 8B (date accessed: 09/07/2020) 2. Lozovsky L.A., Lozovsky A.L., Khokhlushkina F.A. The method of movement of the vehicle and the universal device "vibrating flight" for its implementation // RF Patent No. 2147786, 1998.10.08 3. Damn E. Physics for a flying saucer or quantum theory of gravitation, Physical and mathematical model of the fourth method [Electronic resource]. - access mode: http://www.ukraviaforum.com/index.php/topic,13470.0.html (date accessed: 09/06/2020) 4. Sebin AL Transformation of atmospheric heat. Physical basis of technology and indirect confirmation of its performance [Electronic resource]. - access mode: https://lenr.su/forum/index.php?threads/sozdanie-tmp-kljuchevaja-informacija.152/ (date of access: 09/06/2020) 5. Tolchin VN Video demonstration of the work of the inertia by the author of the invention [Electronic resource]. - access mode: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pcEdpb-rIX4 (date accessed: 09/08/2020) 6. Shipov GI Personal site: experiments [Electronic resource]. - access mode: http://www.shipov.com/science.html (date accessed: 09/07/2020) 7. Sorokodum E. D. Personal site: Vortex-Oscillatory Technologies Ltd. [Electronic resource]. - access mode: http://www.vortexosc.com/index.php (date accessed: 09/08/2020) 8. Author's site: antigravity, engine, experiments with a flying saucer [Electronic resource]. - access mode: http://new-original-style.com.ua/pages/article2/antigravity/engine.htm (date accessed: 09/07/2020) A source: http://sci-article.ru/stat.php?i=1601957819 CORDIS_news_131342_en.pdf
  6. The theory of motion of a flying saucer. https://www.scienceforums.net/topic/117177-flying-saucer-picture-project-of-a-spacecraft/ This theory explains the appearance of an impulse driving a flying saucer. We first consider a model in which air is object A and a saucer object B. https://www.scienceforums.net/topic/117177-flying-saucer-picture-project-of-a-spacecraft/?do=findComment&comment=1085276 When object B transmits an impulse to object B, mutual repulsion A and B occurs, with the result that they start moving relative to each other. This principle is based on jet propulsion. Thus, the saucer comes into motion without breaking the law of conservation of momentum. A process that occurs in a liquid or gaseous medium can be described as follows. The picture shows atoms or molecules of a liquid or gas that are in a state of perfect rest. Between them are balanced by the forces of attraction and repulsion. The only possible position in which they can be equidistant is triangles, which are combined into hexagons. This corresponds to the crystal structure of water. Atom 1 gets a boost. Suppose that atoms move along the path of least resistance, as the arrows indicate. If these are billiard balls, then each time the impulse 1 will be divided by 3 and will lose power. But if these are atoms or molecules that oscillate, then each time during a collision, the pulse energy will increase, because the vibrating object itself creates a repulsion impulse. There will be a chain reaction, which will lead first to the formation of multiple vortices, the prerequisites for which there is in the figure, turning into large vortices. The saucer converts the force of the vortex into motion. Thus the driving force of the saucer is air resistance. Consequently, the energy that sets the saucer in motion is taken from the air. The flying saucer can accelerate infinitely, with zero resistance getting energy from the air.
  7. The impulse gave almost no rebounding because the air is soft. Try to hit the air with an umbrella. I do not think that you can push off. This is only possible while you are pushing.
  8. OK. The impulse is evenly distributed between the atoms of the system. They came in a chaotic motion and got warm. Movement B was the result of a certain sequence of impulse transmission.
  9. You can tell how it violates the law of conservation of energy. And which statements do you consider questionable?
  10. The fact that A and B are pushing in opposite directions has left a small part of the energy. This movement can be neglected. The air and saucer remained practically where they were. The bulk of the energy turned into waves, which continued to move in their respective directions. Waves transfer energy but do not transfer mass. This means that the energy is still preserved in A and B. And as before A and B can transfer it to each other. But B are in the low pressure area that follows the wave. The PB wave will quickly dissipate inside B and no transmitted by A at this time. Because in near B there is almost no A. PA will dissipate for a long time. After some time, the PA will return to B as the wind. PB at this time will be warm
  11. I disagree. P turned completely into heat. But the PB impulse made it much earlier than the PA. This difference became the movement of B.
  12. The process that occurs when the saucer pushes the air can have a different description. It depends on the speed of the impulse. But its essence remains the same. Let the movement be quick. So it will be easier to describe it using other sources. A saucer B transmits a pulse A to air A and receives air resistance P. A part of the energy P causes the saucer to be pushed back. But the main part of the PA leads to air compression. Knowing the properties of air, we can assume that the impulse of the PA will lead to the formation of a wave ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave ) that will propagate in the direction of the impulse P, upwards. The wave will move by inertia, carrying with it the energy of the pulse P. At the same time, the mass of air A and the mass of saucer B will remain practically in place, with the exception of a small repulsion. Since the wave is an area of high and low pressure, the air will tend to equalize the pressure. If we consider a wave that spreads evenly in a circle, then the wind will begin to restore balance only when the wave loses its strength. But since the wave propagates only in one direction, the restoration of equilibrium will begin immediately after the formation of a wave. If the wave was strong enough, then the wind will follow it not weak. ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shock_wave ) Air resistance will gradually take energy P from the wave, turning it into wind, seeking to fill the area of low pressure behind the wave. The initial wave P is greater than the wind P. Therefore, the wind will follow the wave, trying to catch up with the area of low pressure. This will occur as long as the P wave has completely transformed into the P wind, and it will equalize the pressure difference. It is worth noting that the momentum of the PB has not gone away. He created a corresponding oscillation in object B. But if object B is strong enough, they will quickly go out. As a result, we get the wind PA and the sound of the PB, which together will create the effect of a flying saucer. This is because the wave carries energy, but not the mass of air. Air A remains in place and returns momentum to the saucer. In this case, the direction of the PA does not change
  13. I agree. I drew attention to this fact, because it indicates that object B was already set in motion without violating the law of conservation of energy. As far as I understand, that was exactly what had to be proved.
  14. When object A and object B receive an impulse P in opposite directions, a reactive motion will occur, because they are repelled from each other. If the impulse P of object A is transmitted to object B, the movement will stop. In this case, the AB system always remains at rest relative to the initial position. But position B regarding A has changed. This is enough, because object B may already be in another galaxy, while remaining part of the AB system.
  15. I know about saving momentum. Energy can not come from nowhere. In order to understand the process it is necessary to understand the principle of the movement of water or gas. Let's consider the following model. What is a substance (eg water) Atoms or molecules of a substance are equally spaced from each other. The forces of their mutual attraction and repulsion are balanced. And the substance is at rest. A structure in which the distances between points are equal will look like equilateral triangles. They in turn turn into hexagons. To a certain extent, this corresponds to the structure of water in a calm state. Like a snowflake. Suppose that if you apply a force to one of the atoms, then its movement is possible only along the path of least resistance. This property also has a water. Now look at the picture. We push atom 1 and the arrows show the direction in which the energy transfer of this impact is possible. It's like in billiards. We see that part of the water resistance force goes in a circle and comes back to us from behind. And the energy that does not return to us is distributed evenly in a circle. This construction is a purely logical problem. But it corresponds to the process that exists. The role of inertia here is that this process takes place for a certain time. Atoms are pushing each other in turns and we get a blow from behind when we forget that we were pushed forward and returned to the starting position. If we consider this on the example of a square-shaped crucifix, we will get a completely different picture, which will also correspond to the real one. For example, if we hit the metal. It seems that when science lacks data, conduct research
  16. I understand that this conversation has stalled. The problem is that all denials are based on incomplete information. And to find a reliable source with the missing information, to use it as an argument, is impossible or very difficult. This argument is that the environment (water or air) continues to move by inertia after it gets accelerated. This is because every atom of air or water has a mass. Is this speculative information? It turns out that the concept can not be proved due to the fact that I can not find a link to a simple fact. All my explanations are meaningless without this fact.
  17. The flow of air that creates the force occurs around each individual blade. But this is not written To describe the work of the saucer you need to understand how a whirlwind forms in the air and why it continues after it has been created. This should be considered at a more complex level. I just have no time to think it over now.
  18. I told you that you will not find confirmation of this data anywhere. I have a clear interpretation of the results of the experiment. The saucer pushes away from the air. I described how this happens in all possible ways and well-known analogies. With the help of the experiment, you can make sure that this happens, and understand exactly how. If there is no concept of "inertia of the air flow", does this mean that the air cannot move by inertia? I think the result of the experiment is more important than any reliable sources. The wind tunnel was thought for good reason. The process I'm talking about is happening near the aerodynamic plane. This example is great. Even if the saucer will have the shape of a helicopter blade.
  19. Ring vortex can be created in other ways. The example with a helicopter is more complicated than it is required for a plate. It only shows that such a vortex can create a tangible force for some time. But it’s better to look at the following example. "A vortex ring usually tends to move in a direction that is perpendicular to the plane of the ring and such that the inner edge of the ring moves faster forward than the outer edge. Within a stationary body of fluid, a vortex ring can travel for relatively long distance, carrying the spinning fluid with it. " This means that regardless of how it appears, a vortex is a mass of air that can move, and therefore move an object. "One way a vortex ring may be formed is by injecting a compact mass of fast moving fluid (A) into a mass of stationary fluid (B) (which may be the same fluid)." This means that you can create an annular vortex by giving acceleration to the air simply by pushing it. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vortex_ring Oppantion of how the saucer pushes the air upwards and creates a ring whirlwind underneath you will not find anywhere else. This cannot be verified by a reliable source. Only experimentally. Based on the available information, we can assume the following. When gas or liquid flows around a circular plate, turbulence forms in the form of a vortex ring behind it. When the plate stops, a whirlwind closes. You may find it easier to find it in English. https://videouroki.net/razrabotki/konspekt-uroka-po-fizike-obtekanie-tel-podemnaya-sila-kryla-samoleta.html
  20. I'm just doing this. The car really makes a lot of unnecessary movements, because of which it is more difficult to understand. Not a very good example. About the model. There is an article from Wikipedia, in which it is written that this phenomenon is formed and established during a sharp drop in the helicopter. (This is the same as a sharp movement of the plate up. Only the top is kicked.) But there is no explanation for what principles this happens. Whirlwind is still an open question in science. Or at least on Wikipedia: Air vortices can form around the main rotor of a helicopter, causing a dangerous condition known as vortex ring state (VRS) or "settling with power". In this condition, air that moves down through the rotor turns outward, then up, inward, and then down through the rotor again. This re-circulation of flow can negate much of the lifting force and cause a catastrophic loss of altitude. Applying more power (increasing collective pitch) serves to further accelerate the downwash through which the main-rotor is descending, exacerbating the condition. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vortex_ring I can not imagine how I can describe this phenomenon mathematically. I can only say that the vortex is formed due to the properties of the substance and lasts by inertia. How is my theory worse than the theories of other scientists who called all that they could not understand as dark matter? My theory is even confirmed experimentally. But I think about how this happens. I assume that the air in a quiet state (without taking into account the Brownian motion) can be represented as particles that are at equal distance from each other. At the same time, the forces of attraction and repulsion between them are balanced and such a medium is completely homogeneous. Can this be applicable to air to simplify?
  21. And why does this car cling to the ground when it lowers the wing? According to your statements, he should bounce. This device clearly refutes the theory according to which the rise of a bird is due to the fact that its wing area is smaller during its upward movement.
  22. I thought that the principle of flight of birds is already known to all. I saw about this telecast on a natural geographer but I do not know how to find it. And but I have to prove to you what is already known. Perhaps this is new information and it is difficult to find. Perhaps you should study this issue in more detail if you want to reasonably refute the design of the saucer. Unfortunately I could not find that movie. Following your ideas, in this video the fluff should fly back and not after the bird: https://youtu.be/d_FEaFgJyfA?t=154
  23. The examples I give are excellent. You just do not take into account some of the points about which I speak. In order to derive an exact mathematical model of saucer movement, one must be a good scientist and delve into different areas of knowledge. Therefore, so far I have it. But I have the result of the experiment, which I already understand. But the argument about this is still useless. Something I could already assume to describe the formation of a vortex by an exact model. I'll write about it later.
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