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About Bushranger

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  1. I was assuming it was carbon from the fact that it was Black. So, maybe not carbon at all, but vaporized tungsten.
  2. I had to change a brake light in my vehicle yesterday. The filament had burned out. A apparent carbon stain was on the inside of the glass bulb which for me begged the question: Where did the carbon come from? The filament is made of elemental tungsten...no carbon compound in it to release carbon when it burns out. There is usually some inert gas inside the bulb also...usually elemental argon, I believe. Other than that there is just the glass stalks that hold the filiment in the void of the bulb. Therefore, just where does the carbon come from that stains the inside of the glass when the filament burns out? The only thing I can postulate is that if the filament were not pure tungsten, but something like tungsten carbide, that would be a source for the carbon stain. So, what is the source for that apparent carbon stain?
  3. So to summarize what you are saying, It is too cold for any sublimation of any water ice discovered in the moon's permanently shaded craters?
  4. Can you explain it to me just like I was six years old? If the temperature in my freezer is below 0 degrees Centigrade (32 degrees Feirnhight)...actually the temperature is way colder than 0 degrees C (as per your chart)...it is -17.77 C how is it that ice sublimates in my freezer...or doesn't it? Please put you answer into the context for someone who is not a scientist. https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/General_Chemistry/Book%3A_Chemistry_(OpenSTAX)/10%3A_Liquids_and_Solids/10.4%3A_Phase_Diagrams
  5. It has been discovered that there is water ice in the perpetually shaded craters on the Moon and on Mars. I have always understood the freeze-drying process to be an acceleration of the sublimation process of water when frozen and subjected to a vacuum. Therefore, I do not understand how there could be water ice on either the Moon or Mars. Why has not the ice on the Moon (and Mars, et. al.)sublimated and dissipated into space especially inasmuch as it has no atmosphere? The only reason I can think of for that not to happen is that there has to be some involvement with oxygen for sublimation to take place. An explanation, especially accompanied by a chemical formula that demonstrates the process of sublimation would be most welcome.
  6. I do not remember where I read it, but some of the astronauts missed a massive wave of radiation by a few days. Those radiation storms are not the same as the constant radiation exposure on a typical space venture. They can come at anytime, would be devastating to the human body in a single exposure. Aside from that, the short exposure of the apollo astronauts seems to have had negative effects that were worse than anticipated. https://observer.com/2016/07/space-radiation-devastated-the-lives-of-apollo-astronauts/
  7. They are talking about generating a magnetic field to contain the heat generated by the ion engine...where will the get the power to do that? There have been astronauts/cosmonauts in the international space station for over a year at a time. Nevertheless, the effect of cosmic rays is cumulative...that is the issue. That is what I am concerned about. It would seem that the issue of cosmic rays will need to be addressed before any lengthy trips in space are attempted, including Mars inasmuch as they will undoubtedly stay for awhile ( the astronauts will be subjected to cosmic rays on Mars as well as in transit), before coming back...two and one half years?
  8. Would the magnetic field to protect from cosmic rays be any more powerful than the magnetic field they are talking about generating around the ionic engine? According to the Nova presentation, cosmic rays are a serious problem, especially over the time of exposure that would be relative to a Mars mission. Why would a magnetic field attract ionic particles? Does not the Earth's magnetic field deflect (redirect)them?
  9. I have just watched "Can We Make it to Mars?" , a Nova DVD from Netflix. My focus of the several problems that hazzard space travel, are cosmic rays. We here on earth are protected from cosmic rays via the magnetic field surrounding earth. However, in a space ship, there is no protection and such rays are of concern to scientists. My question is relative to the anticipated Ion engine (radio waves stimulating Argon gas to ionize, producing a speed that would allow the ship to get to Mars in 39 days instead of the 9 or so months). The program stated that the ion engine would produce such high heat that it must be enclosed in a magnetic field. If that is so, and the plan on testing such engine in space soon, why not extend the magnetic field to the entire ship to shield from cosmic rays? Am I missing something vital here, or would such be possible?
  10. By what mechanism do cough drops work...or don't they? Sucking on a cough drop and swallowing the product, it goes down the esophagus which leads to the stomach, but it seems to me the cough is located in the the trachea which leads to the lungs and no liquid normally goes down there. Therefore, how can sucking on a cough drop have any effect on the irradiation in the trachea where the irritation that causes coughs originate. Are the fumes from the medicated (or unmedicated) cough drops inhaled and as such deliver some soothing vapor, or are cough drops a placebo plain and simple?
  11. I am recycling some metals (Aluminum and Zinc). The salvage yard requires that the metals be kept seperate. From my high school chemistry, I remember that Hydrochloric acid (HCL) applied to Zinc (mossy), produces Hydrogen gas (HCL + Zn = H2 and ZnCl2). Supposedly, that is the "test" for Zinc. However, when I apply Hydrochloric Acid to known Aluminum, it releases a gas also, albeit less of a vigorous reaction. And again from my high school chemistry, if a gas is produced, it is also most certainly Hydrogen (HCL + Al = H2 and AlCl2). What am I missing here? How can I determine if the metal(s) in question is/are Zinc or Aluminum using acids (I have both HCL and H2SO4 to work with)?
  12. Sound waves are part of the electromagnetic spectrum as are light and radio waves. However, sound waves cannot pass through a vacuum. Why/how is it that they cannot?
  13. You still do not seem to get it. Those fire escape tunnels were only used a short time...then abandoned within a year as they lost function (slipperiness)...they are not what is used in modern times. As for, "...going there and taking a sample.", I would need a time machine because the school(s) and the Aluminum (or stainless steel tubes) have been gone for about 50 years or so. "...examine in mass spectrometer..." If I had a sample, I would not need to pull a mass spectrometer out of my butt ...all I would need is a Oxyacteline torch. Aluminum melts at about 1200 degrees...way before reaching Red heat, where as steels melt at about 2700 degrees (Red heat). You knowledge of metals seems to be theoretical rather than practical. It seems the mystery remains...but, if my theory (the formation of Aluminum Oxide), holds, they were constructed of Aluminum, not stainless steel(s), and were an example of not understanding the properties or requirements when choosing a material.
  14. You missed a couple of important details. My question pertained to the escape tubes that replaced steel stairway fire escapes in the fifties...you can tell by the cars in the picture that it was not modern times. The link you provided and your comment pertain to modern escape tubes which are not relevant to my question.
  15. The thread is about I.Q.s and/or intelligence required to enter the military and/or become a doctor. Your post, which may or may not be true, seemingly has deviated from the issues and become (in your mind), become a psychological and a moral issue.
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