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Everything posted by Bluenoise

  1. Creatine functions as a phosphate buffer. At times of extreem muslce activity it functions to keep ATP level constant, and allows the same level of activity to continue for longer than normal. I'd assume that it has a simular function in the brain. Body builders use it since to allows them to exert their muslces alot quicker.
  2. Developed their own? likely not. But you may want to try Creatine. It's not just for building muscle mass. And will provide fairly steady results. Resveratrol may also have a simular effect. Though the jury is still out for this and likely wont be back from vacation for a good long time. Caffiene has an incredibly pronounced effect. Unfortunatley it tends to last only an hour or so, and then you crash. If you take to much then you'll get the oppisite effect. napping is probably the most effective method. Lots of sleep for the night, and then a powernap everytime your head gets tired.
  3. No. Activity transport requires machienery that transports specific things. There is no real molecular machinery to transport water. The movement of water across a membrane is usually accomplished by the movement of ions (Cl-, Na+, K+, etc) that results in a chance of osmotic potential across the membrane. Water is able to just kinda sneak across membranes as it pleases. So a potatoe in a saturated solution of only sucrose and water would have to be able to import a vast amount of sucrose into itself to create an isotonic environment, as sucrose is the only solute available. And this is beyond the scope of the potatoe. Like E. coli said. Potatoes have evolved for a specific environment, a hole in the ground. This environment isn't saturated in sucrose, thus is has no need for the capacity to evolve such a mechanism.
  4. I don't have patients to tell you what each of these does. But I will tell you that the procedure will work pretty well even if you don't grind the material in liquid nitrogen. It might be harder to grind, and you might get some DNA degradation, but it should be alright for most purposes, as long as you don't take way to long with the proceedure.
  5. Well you cant really hope to seperate individual chromosomes, but it works alright for a rough estimate. Also most genomic extraction methods don't typically result in full length chromosomes, they usually fragment into large chunks. Though quantification isn's very acurate with gel electrophoresis as compared to spectrophotmeter, there are a couple advantages. You get some indication of the quality of your DNA or if there's a large amount of RNA contamination. Plus you don't typically waste as much sample quantifying it. ~1ug necessary for an acurate reading by spectrophotometry (assuming you only need to make one dilution) compared to ~20ng for electrophoresis.
  6. Any protocol for isolation of DNA from plants should work. No need for it to be corn specific. Look up CTAB plant genomic DNA extraction. An example follows. http://www.cilr.uq.edu.au/UserImages/File/Plant%20Genomic%20DNA%20Extraction%20by%20CTAB%20_2__Fiona.pdf Same goes for electrophoresis. Just search for "DNA electrophoresis protocol" and you should be good to go. Oppps sorry these aren't good references. I miss read your orriginal post. I may look one up when I have the time. Might want to try looking in the molecular cloning series of books.
  7. Ditto. Just setup the reaction like any other PCR but with the addition of an appropriate amount of Sybrgreen.
  8. Is it any more than people just currently listing what they're doing?
  9. I was under the impression that these kind of charge gradients across membranes are for the most part a localized effect occuring on opposite surfaces of membranes and that the pH difference between the bulk of the material on either size was typically extreemly minute. But this is what I was told in class many years ago and time may have played on my memory.
  10. Viruses are very well understood. I mean "very very well" understood. The question of are they alive isn't one of science and discovery. It is a philosophical question, that partially depends on the definition of the word alive. Thus it's not an issue of "they don't know" it's an issue of coming to an agreement of the definition of life that we all can agree on. They question is a matter of semantics left to philosophers and linguists. Not science.
  11. The problem is that different proteins evolve at different rates. So to determine how long ago two proteins diverged from each other you need to know how quickly these two diverge from each other. Once you know that there is a relationship between evolutionary distance and time. To determine the rate one usually needs an inital time frame or another rate for comparison.
  12. Ummmm. Well all of them that you listed but inorganic phosphate do. IT just depends on the PH. If you drop the pH lower than the Pk of an acid it will loose charge and become non-soluable in water (in most cases). The same is true for many bases, you up the pH higher than their pK and they become less soluable. It just so happens that all those molecules that you listed are acids. For example. DNA is highly water soluable. However dropping the pH to 4.5 will make it non-soluable. This is a good way to seperate RNA from DNA actually. As RNA will stay soluable. You should note that it might not be possible to drop the pH of those molucules low enough to get them to percipitate without them degraded in the process. I'm thinking this is likely the case with RNA.
  13. No. All DNA is synthesised in the 5' to 3' direction. Meaning that new nucleotides are added onto the 3' end. This is universal in all cases. One primer acts on one strand, the second acts on the complementary strand. that way you gen production of two strands that are complementary to each other.
  14. An egg contains all the enzymes necessary for the growth of an offspring post firtilization. Actually it also contains a tonne of mRNA from the mother. Most initial gene expression post-fertilization is actually of maternal genes. It takes a little while for the new organisms genome to kick in. I don't understand why you think that a single enzyme needs to be chosen to be passed down... Basically initially the egg cells from the female are filled with maternal enzymes and genetic material. Post fertilization eventually the offsprings enzymes replaces the mothers gradually.
  15. "I do not think it is black because animals are albino when take away the fur right?" Never seen a hairless cat? They tend to big a mix of splotches of different colour.
  16. Yeah there isn't anything out there that can do this even to the slightest degree of acuracy.
  17. I'd probably just keep on doing what I'm doing now.
  18. Well the problem is that blood will stick to paper really really well. To get this to happen you'd likely have to coat all paper but the line in some hydrophobic substance. Hmmm maybe you could take some wax paper and scrape off the wax where you want the blood to go.
  19. Erm you'll have to provide more information than that I think?
  20. 4C lowers the solubility of DNA allowing it percipitated and pellet better. When you spin it a second time in 70% EtOH at room temperature you do so that salt contamination that has previously percipitated will redisolve. As the DNA has already pelleted you do not have to worry about it not doing so at room temerature.
  21. If you really do get pains in your knee's and feet after running for less than 20 minutes on a treadmill you may want to consider doing something about it. See a doctor, or physiopherapist. You can often overcome these problems by strength training your legs. I spent the past summer working in Denmark. They have bike paths everywhere and most cities were faily compact. So I was doing about 2 hours of biking a day getting around, plus alot of walking. This was in stark contranst to the previous year I had spent living accross from campus never needed to walk more than 5 minutes. Well I have to say my knees seemed pretty shot after this summer of elevated activity. I was able to remedy the problem by weight training my legs. Basically doing a combonation of lunges, squates, and wall sits. My pain quickly started to receed. I then incorporated some additional wieght (70lbs) while doing them, started doing a couple hundred jumping jacks a day (which only cause pain on the soles of my feet from bruising lol). Now I'm pulling 40 minute runs every second day with no knee problems whatsoever. Anyways this was all of the recomendation of my doctor and physiopherapist, and worked really well. So you may want to see a doctor about this. She also said that a prostetic sole would help as I have a very large inner heel roll which effectively flattens my feet, though I do have a good arch in them. But that would have cost $400 and exercise is free , so I decided to try that first. Anyways if you cant run 20 minutes without knee pain you should go see a doctor to have them looked it. It maybe something as simple as needing a better pair of running shoes.
  22. ^^^ Yeah I second that. Lots of people think they get rid of belly fat by downing abdominal exercises. While those will build muslce in your stomac they will not preferentially remove belly fat. For that you need to expend more calories than you consume. Whether it be by exercise or dieting. Well that or lyposuction. But that's really gross and pathetic, if you're doing it just to loose belly fat.
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