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  1. I was ending my 14 yr forum participation this year, which began in an effort to answer why Special Relativity was still debated 100 yr after publication, and volumes of experimental verification. Just passing through to see if anything changed. No change.
  2. simultaneity and length contraction required for reciprocity SR requires both ends of an object be located simultaneously. A is black, B is green, each ship is length d, g=gamma. The near end of both ships are at 0 for all measurements. left: A measures location of far end of his ship at d, on his axis of simultaneity Ax. A measures location of far end of green ship at d, on his axis of simultaneity Ax. B ship length/A ship length =1. B measures location of far end of his ship at f, on his axis of simultaneity Bx. B measures location of far end of black ship at e, on his axis of simultaneity Bx. A ship length/B ship length =1/g^2. Measurements are not reciprocal. right (with length contraction): A measures location of far end of his ship at d, on his axis of simultaneity Ax. A measures location of far end of green ship at d/g, on his axis of simultaneity Ax. B ship length/A ship length =1/g. B measures location of far end of his ship at f, on his axis of simultaneity Bx. B measures location of far end of black ship at e, on his axis of simultaneity Bx. A ship length/B ship length =1/g.Measurements are reciprocal
  3. forum; I am not using the 4D mathematical representation theory of Minkowski. This is interpreting SR in terms of mass, energy, light and motion, as in Einstein's original development, with emphasis on perception by the observer. Perception involves biological processes, which is chemistry, which is physics of the electron cloud. In view a, a light clock at rest relative to observer Al, with a photon motion from emitter/detector ED to mirror M for a half cycle. In view b, the clock in motion to the right relative to Al. The photon energy can be resolved into a horizontal component vt that compensates for the clock motion, and a vertical component ut that becomes the active part of the clock. For the clock moving at .5c, the cycle rate is .87 the rate of the static clock. In view c, the perception of the clock by the observer moving with the clock. With additional oscillation in the x direction, this becomes the MM experiment. With electrons replacing the mirrors, it explains length contraction. Longer times between photon interactions is equivalent to greater distances. Length contraction is another manifestation of time dilation. forum; An observers motion does not cause changes in distant processes. It can only alter the perception of the observer and his measurements. Action at a distance was abandoned with Relativity. Here are a few papers that support a physical length contraction. MMx.pdf reflecting circle.pdf MMx.pdf
  4. md65536; A measures the length of objects by recording the time of reflected light signals as they pass. In the top view, initial conditions are m1 and m2 at rest in the A frame. Each is 1 unit in length and 1 unit apart. In the middle view, m1 and m2 are moving at .6 toward A. A measures their length as .8 units. In the bottom view, A is moving at .6, past m1 and m2, but assumes a pseudo rest frame, with m1 and m2 moving past him. A measures the lengths and the separation as .8 unit. The measurements of the middle view differ from those of the bottom view. Length contraction is a change in the em forces that bond molecules. This phenomenon is observed in objects with a motion relative to the observer. In the middle view, only the objects are lc. The space between has no material composition, thus no bonds. The objects are independent of each other, and not a composite object. The issue of space between objects does not occur in the typical two system comparison, such as K and K'. A's time standard changes from 1 unit to .8 unit. A's motion alters his perception of time, which alters his measurements of distance. Two examples may help clarify the role of perception in Relativity. In the train scenario, the passenger drops an object, which falls vertically to the floor. The bystander on the platform observes the object fall in a curve to the floor. Does the object follow multiple trajectories simultaneously? Yes, if the trajectories are perceptions. No one sees planetary orbits, they are inferred by plotting positions over time. In the GR elevator example, the person in the box observes the light to follow a curve from one side to the other, while he senses an acceleration on his feet. If he is truly being propelled upward, then it is his motion that produces the curve, and thus his perception, since anyone outside the box at rest would observe a straight line path. Transforming this case to a person standing on the ground with an equal gravitational acceleration, light should follow a curve. Another comparison. In the sun centered system, the motion of the planets is primarily regulated by the sun, without human observation. In the earth centered system, the more complex motion of the planets requires additional forces/explanations to account for retrograde motion, to match human perception.
  5. Winterlong; Let's define the props for this scene. Refer to the U frame. U is the reference object (a space station) where the anaut A is launched in a ship and follows a circular course while accelerating to a target speed of .6c, then shutting down the propulsion unit. The ship is now moving at constant speed in the x direction as it passes U. There is a static object M (green) .60 distant from U in the x direction. At U (the origin), A sends a light signal (blue) to measure the distance to M. The inverse of gamma for v=.6 is .8. The red line indicates an interval of .80 on the U clock is stretched (dilated) to cover the time line of A. If A assumes he is moving then he should pass M at .60/.6=1.00, yet his clock reads .80. If his clock and his speed are correct, then the distance has changed. If he assumes a pseudo rest frame, as in the A frame, then M arrives early and the distance has changed. In SR, the motion of an object does not alter the dimensions of distant parts of the world, but can alter observer perception of distant parts of the world A's conclusion is based on his perception of time. All processes involving em transactions occur at decreasing rates as material systems move at increasing speeds. This includes biological clocks. U will measure the A ship as length contracted due to its motion. A will measure the world as length contracted due to his perception.
  6. The spacetime graphic plots light motion ct on the vertical scale, and object motion vt on the horizontal scale. The object position is plotted for successive clock events, producing a history of positions. The slope of a straight line thus represents vt/ct or constant speed, thus a speed profile. In the graphic, relative to the U frame (x, ct), A moves at .3c and B moves at .6c. In Newtonian physics, using t=x/v, A (black) arrives at 3x at Ut=10, and B (green) arrives at 6x at Ut=10. In SR physics, a clock rate is slower the faster it moves in space relative to a ref. frame. U concludes the A-clock rate is .95 his local clock rate, and the B-clock rate is .80 his local clock rate. If the B speed profile reverses (magenta) at R, and B rejoins A at .6c, the example becomes a 'twin' scenario. There is no acceleration at R, since the change involves a zero time interval. The outbound and inbound segments can also be replaced with two profiles crossing at R. The speed profile of B can vary anywhere within the blue profile for light. The out and back speeds are only equal in this case for simplification. The graphic demonstrates that any speed profile that departs from that of A, loses time relative to A. If the graphic is rotated 180 deg, by symmetry, the same method will produce the same results for speeds in the opposite direction. Additionally, even though the Lorentz/gamma factor is a function of (v/c) squared, speed as shown is a ratio or scalar, thus a negative speed is not a real world solution. You can’t move slower than zero. There is also an inconsistency with ‘velocity’ defined as ‘speed’ in the 1900’s, with the additional mention of direction, and today’s definition of ‘velocity’ as a two-component concept. Doppler shift is an altered perception of a constant frequency, caused by the observer’s motion relative to the source. It does not indicate the rate of a moving clock. An observer’s motion cannot alter the rate of a distant clock, but it can alter his perception.
  7. Wasn't length contraction of the slab in the x axis the solution?
  8. [Ships moving past your ship at various speeds don't alter your equipment. Their speed does alter their measurements. It's the same as moving observers assigning different x and t coordinates for the same event, based on their relative speed.] md65536; [Yes]
  9. md65536; An anaut Al, leaves Earth for a target object Q 12 ly distant by an earth star chart. Al's flight plan is to orbit Earth at a large distance until his ship reaches .3c. From reading his 'relativity' manual, he knows he has two options. 1. remain an anaut moving at .3c, or 2. assume a pseudo rest frame, with Q approaching him at .3c. If 1, he arrives at 38 yr, knowing he and his ship have lost 2 yr due to time dilation. If 2, Q arrives at 38 yr. He knows that a clock at rest does not lose time. His watch and computer both agree with the onboard clock. He can verify the speed of Q using light signals. The only other variable is distance. He concludes the universe has apparently contracted in the direction of motion, to explain the time difference, i.e. a mental reconciliation, without any physical processes. No.1 is believable since SR predicts on the basis of physical processes, fast moving clocks run slower. No.2 is absurd, since a fast moving space craft cannot influence distant parts of the universe, but it can influence the perception of an occupant. When this is accepted, there is no need for no.2. When an observer measures lc of objects, he does not conclude lc of the space between objects. This also points to the anaut's conclusion in no.2 as perception, not corresponding to anything physically real. _________________________ Your puzzle would imply you accept time dilation as a physical phenomenon. When the anaut twin returns to the earth younger than the other, isn't that proof that the anaut twin biological processes occurred at a reduced rate, even though the anaut was not aware? That's the implication of postulate 1, 'physics is the same for all inertial frames', thus the observer cannot detect any differences. Being 'aware' contradicts postulate 1. SR does not say you can't determine the how and why of td and lc. ________________________ Inanimate muons need someone to speak for them.
  10. When the atomic clock returns to earth and is compared to the ground based clock, there is a real measurable difference in readings. How can that be if the time dilation isn't real? The length contraction of the atmosphere is the human interpretation of the muon time dilation, to explain the early arrival of the ground. It's a form of reciprocity.
  11. Why should time have a direction if it's a scalar? A clock accumulates 'time'. A complete clock has registers for sec, min, hrs, etc, like an odometer. In practice the larger units day, month, yr. etc, are posted as a calendar, but still a record. So where's the direction? It's 3:21 pm, 9-6-2019, which way do I go?
  12. md65536; When high altitude high speed muons show their decay times extended, allowing more to reach the ground, is the decay process really slowing or are the scientists imagining it? In the H-K experiment, precision clocks were flown around the world, in both directions. The SR and GR effects of timekeeping were revealed when compared to ground base clocks, though they weren't aware of them while in the air. You may not like the idea of 'things happening without your awareness', but that's the essence of relativity. Mental activity is chemistry, which is EM activity. It was unthinkable before then, that motion can alter perception and measurement. NIST, who's business is time standards, will tell you all clocks drift. GPS will not work without constant periodic adjustments. The world is not the 'ideal' setting people imagine/want it to be.
  13. md65536; In the graphic, the arc of radius 1 represents one unit of ct (sec, yr., etc). The red curve is the perception of distance traveled by the observer based on his speed and local time In the interesting scenario of an anaut moving outward from the center of a spherical system of objects, over a range of speeds, the sphere has a maximum radius at v/c=.707c, and two different speeds for each calculated distance. Relative to your puzzle, the green curve is 1/2 the local time for any given speed. Any pair satisfies 'equal distance'. Only one satisfies the '2:1 aging'. A horizontal line between the intersection of the green line and blue diagonal (light speed) projected downward to the red should provide the answer. A speed is .4472 and B speed is .8944. What do you think?
  14. md65536; In the 1905 paper, clock B moved away at constant speed from clock A and returned, with clock B recording less time than clock A, even though they were synchronized initially. The thought experiment was done in an SR environment. Two clocks A and B are sent away from location U, in the direction x, at constant speeds a and b respectively. They reverse direction in zero time simultaneously relative to U and return at constant speeds a and b respectively. Each clock does not experience acceleration for the entire trip. This is irrelevant in SR, since gamma (Lorentz factor) only contains 1st order terms v/c, and nothing for acceleration. For political correctness, two clocks can be used, one outbound and one inbound, exchanging data at reversal.
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