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# amrit

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1. ## Which time slows down?

About density of space 1. Loop quantum gravity introduces the idea of granular structure of cosmic space; space is made out of quanta of space QS. One can consider that "granular space" has some density that depends on the amount of matter into it. More matter in a given volume of space, higher its density. Density of space is a physical property of the space that determinates its geometric shape, its roundness. Density of space D is in relation with mass according to the formula D = m x G where D is density in the centre of the object, m is a mass of the object and G is gravitational constant. Introducing this formula in math formalism of SR and GR can be seen that density D is a concrete physical quantity that determinates gravity and motion. 2. Cosmic space is build up out of quanta of space QS that have a size of Planck. Gravitational force acts between quanta of space QS. Every QS attract the QS around it. Between QS near by the moon and QS near by the earth gravitation acts on the distance and instantly via QS that are between them. Gravitational force does not propagate into space, gravitational force is the force that builds up the space. The wall is made out of bricks. The cement keeps together the bricks. Gravitational force is a cement that keeps together the QS, the bricks of the space. The strength of gravitational force depends on the density of QS that build up cosmic space. Density D of QS of a given volume of cosmic space depends on the density of matter contained in it: formula 1: D = m x G where D is the density of QS in the centre of the material object, m is the mass of the object and G is the gravitational constant. QS are “elastic”. Its density changes with the amount of matter. The gravitational force Fg between two material objects is given by the following relation: Fg = (D1 x D2) / ( r on square x G) where r is the distance between the centers of the two material objects. Gravitational force Fg on material body or on a particle that has a mass m depends on the density G of space. Fg = (m x D) / r on square where m is a mass of a body or particle, D is the density if space in a centre of planet or star, r is the distance from the centre of the planet or star; r can be shorter or longer as t the radius of the planet or star. In a centre of the planet or star Fg on a material object or mass particle is: Fg = (m x D) m10^-2 Gravitational acceleration g in a given distance r from the centre of the planet or star is: g = (m x G) / r on square m is a mass of planet or star, G is gravitational constant r is a distance from a centre According to the formula 1: D = m x G g = D / r on square where D is the density of space in the centre of planet or star and r is a distance from the centre 3. Relation between mass m of particle and density of space D into it is: D = m x G where G is gravitational constant. The density of space inside of the same atom is higher on the earth than on the moon, because on the earth the density of space is higher than on the moon. The same atom will have a bigger weight on the earth than on the moon. But its density D that defines its mass will remain the same. So by moving through the space the weight of particles changes, but its mass remains the same. Photon is an exception here. Around the photon there is no additional density D of cosmic space, so photon has no weight and no mass. Energy of matter and energy of space inside of a material object or mass particle are in equilibrium, equal: Espace ( Es ) = Ematter ( Em ) Es = Em = m x cc, ( D = m x G) where m is a mass of the object, c is speed of light, D is density of space around the object and G is gravitational constant. Es = Em = (D x cc) / G Energy of space Es inside of particle or material object depends on the density of space D. First experiments that proves mass increasing of particles that moves fast were done about 100 years ago. The faster the elementary particle, the bigger will be its mass. We call that “The Relativistic Mass Increase”. The formula E = 0.5m x vv shows the relationship between the increase in mass of the relativistic particle and its increase in kinetic energy. In this formula we can change m with D/G and we will get the formula: E = (0.5D x vv) / G which shows clearly that the kinetic energy of particle depends on the density D of space into it and on the speed v The mass of accelerated particle is increasing because the with the speed increasing the density around the particle is increasing. Density of space is increasing also inside of the inertial system that moves with the higher speed regarding the inertial system that moves with the lower speed. This higher density of space causes the speed of clocks is slower into the faster inertial system. Higher density of cosmic space inside of an fast inertial system is the bridge SR and GR. In SR the speed of inertial system causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space, in GR the mass causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space. “Inertial mass” and “gravitational mass” of a material object or particle are equal because the density of cosmic space in inertial mass and gravitational mass is equal. Let’s say we are in a fast space ship that travels far away from the stars and planets in cosmic space with low density. With increasing of the speed of the space ship the density of cosmic space into it will increase. By attaining a certain speed the density of the space in the space ship will be equal to the density on the surface of the earth. Space ship travel than with this constant speed. We have two material bodies that are identical. Both of bodies will behave in exact the same way in the space ship and on the surface of the earth. The density D of space in both bodies is equal. This means the equality between inertial mass and gravitational mass. 4. Cosmic space is composed by quanta of space (QS) having the size of Planck length. Light is a physical event in which photons are "jumping" from one quantum of space to another in a Planck time. Cosmic space is a medium of light, inertial systems move through the cosmic space. That's why the speed of light is “maximum speed” in the universe and it is same in all inertial systems. Light has a double particle-wave nature simultaneously. A single photon jumping from one quantum of space to another in its trajectory is the central part - particle. The “chain jumping” of the photon changes the frequency of the QS on its trajectory from its basic frequency to the frequency of the photon. The central part of the photon also changes the vibration of QS around its trajectory that is its circumference part - wave. In a “double slit experiment” we can settle instruments and observe photon's particle-part or we can settle instruments differently and observe the wave's part of the photon. When we settle instruments to observe a particle, we will observe (detect) the particle part of the photon, when we settle instruments to observe a wave, we will observe (detect) the wave part of the photon. Scientist (Observer) should not play any role in this experiment. 5. When a star has a mass of 3,2 masses of sun in its centre the density of cosmic space is so strong that gravitation overpowers all other forces. Matter transforms back into quanta of space (QS) that build up cosmic space. Beyond Schwarzschild Radius gravity is so strong that prevails above all other forces. All elementary particles transform back into the energy of cosmic space. Matter and space are made out of the same “stuff”. Black holes are the “fabric” where matter transforms back into space. In big explosions of AGN space transforms back into matter. Universe is composed by one energy. The basic packets of this one energy are QS. Energy is circulating continuously “space-matter-space-matter-…”. Universe is a self-renewing system. There was no beginning and there will be no end. Schwarzschild Radius Rs is: Rs = (2G x m) / (c x c) G is gravitational constant m is mass of the stellar object According to the formula (1) D = G x m D is the density of cosmic space in the centre of the black hole Rs = 2D / (c x c) Inside Rs gravitation has no direction, density of space does not increases towards the centre of the black hole. The area inside of Rs is a fabric where matter transforms back into the QS of cosmic space. A mass has a weight when it is in a space where density changes, it has a direction. At the “weightless” Lagrange point between earth and sun happens that density D of space is stable, there is no change of density, no direction. So gravity is there because gravity is carried by the quanta of space QS, and QS build up cosmic space also at the “weightless point”. If it would be no gravitation at the “weightless point” earth would fly away long time ago. A body at Lagrange point will not move, but this does not mean that gravitational force is not there. Decreasing of the duration of motion of the orbital period of the binary pulsar PRS1913+16 is the result of matter transforming back into space in the centre of one star. This diminishes the mass of the star, diminishing of the mass causes diminishing of the speed of rotation, with diminishing of the speed the duration of motion on the orbit is increasing. There is no gravitational radiation, gravitational waves do not exist.
2. ## Consequences of general relativity - gravitational waves

Hi Swansont There is no need to write all this in latin GW are a pure math speculation. why see below: Ernst Mach about time: It is utterly beyond our power to measure the changes of things by time. Quite the contrary, time is an abstraction at which we arrive by means of the changes of things. Albert Einstein about time: Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live." Time--the time that we know through clocks and calendars--was invented. http://www.britannica.com/clockworks/article.html Roger Penrose about time: The temporal ordering that we 'appear' to perceive is, I am claiming, something that we impose upon our perceptions in order to make sense of them in relation to the uniform forward time-progression of an external physical reality. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/...ics/Time_2.html Author about time: In the universe one can observe only motion and not time. Time is a construction of the mind into which humans experience motion. Motion belongs to the Universe, time to the mind. Also “arrow of time” belongs to the mind. Universe itself is an a-temporal phenomena. Julian Barbour gave his book title: The End of Time, The Next Revolution in Physics. He has all reasons for this title. Existence of time as a physical reality has no experimental evidence. In all physical formulas symbol t means duration of motion. Universe is an a-temporal phenomena, time is of the mind, motion is of the universe. With clocks we measure duration of motion. The second is a unit with which we measure duration of motion. In 86400 seconds earth turn once around its axe. Second has no existence on it own, it came into existence when motion is measured by a clock. Second is a tool of the mind that man uses to measure duration of different motions. Motions by itself have no duration. Man give them a sense of duration by measuring them. motion......perception (eyes)......elaboration (time)......experience (observer) Motion is measured by clocks. With clocks we measure duration of the movement of body or particle regarding another body or particle. The speed of the motion depends on a density D of space. Density D in centre of planet or star is D = m x G, where m is a mass and G is gravitational constant. Density D is diminishing with the distance r on square from the centre of the star. Speed of time is increasing with the diminishing of density D. Clocks run faster on the top of the high mountain and slower at the sea side under the mountain. Density of space is higher at sea side and lover on the top of the mountain. Density of space is increasing by going towards the sun. Time (speed of bodies and particles) is becoming slower by going towards the sun. That's the cause of "Mercury perihelion dilate". 2. Cosmic space is build up out of quanta of space QS. Gravitational force acts between quanta of space QS. Every QS attract the QS around it. Between QS near by the moon and QS near by the earth gravitation acts on the distance and instantly via QS that are between them. Gravitational force does not propagate into space, gravitational force is the force that builds up the space. In a similar way as the wall is made out of bricks. The cement between bricks is keeping together the wall, the gravitational force between QS is keeping together the space. The strength of gravitational force depends on the density of QS that build up cosmic space. Density D of QS of a given volume of cosmic space depends on the density of matter contained in it: formula 1: D = m x G where D is the density of QS in the centre of the material object, m is the mass of the object and G is the gravitational constant. QS are “elastic”. Its density changes with the amount of matter. The gravitational force Fg between two material objects is given by the following relation: Fg = (D1 x D2) / ( r on square x G) where r is the distance between the centers of the two material objects. Gravitational force Fg on material body or on a particle that has a mass m depends on the density G of space. Fg = (m x D) / r on square where m is a mass of a body or particle, D is the density if space in a centre of planet or star, r is the distance from the centre of the planet or star; r can be shorter or longer as t the radius of the planet or star. In a centre of the planet or star Fg on a material object or mass particle is: Fg = (m x D) m10^-2 Gravitational acceleration g in a given distance r from the centre of the planet or star is: g = (m x G) / r on square m is a mass of planet or star, G is gravitational constant r is a distance from a centre According to the formula 1: D = m x G g = D / r on square where D is the density of space in the centre of planet or star and r is a distance from the centre 3. Relation between mass m of particle and density of space D into it is: D = m x G where G is gravitational constant. The density of space inside of the same atom is higher on the earth than on the moon, because on the earth the density of space is higher than on the moon. The same atom will have a bigger weight on the earth than on the moon. But its density D that defines its mass will remain the same. So by moving through the space the weight of particles changes, but its mass remains the same. Photon is an exception here. Around the photon there is no additional density D of cosmic space, so photon has no weight and no mass. Energy of matter and energy of space inside of a material object or mass particle are in equilibrium, equal: Espace ( Es ) = Ematter ( Em ) Es = Em = m x cc, ( D = m x G) where m is a mass of the object, c is speed of light, D is density of space around the object and G is gravitational constant. Es = Em = (D x cc) / G Energy of space Es inside of particle or material object depends on the density of space D. First experiments that proves mass increasing of particles that moves fast were done about 100 years ago. The faster the elementary particle, the bigger will be its mass. We call that “The Relativistic Mass Increase”. The formula E = 0.5m x vv shows the relationship between the increase in mass of the relativistic particle and its increase in kinetic energy. In this formula we can change m with D/G and we will get the formula: E = (0.5D x vv) / G which shows clearly that the kinetic energy of particle depends on the density D of space into it and on the speed v The mass of accelerated particle is increasing because the with the speed increasing the density around the particle is increasing. Density of space is increasing also inside of the inertial system that moves with the higher speed regarding the inertial system that moves with the lower speed. This higher density of space causes the speed of clocks is slower into the faster inertial system. Higher density of cosmic space inside of an fast inertial system is the bridge SR and GR. In SR the speed of inertial system causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space, in GR the mass causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space. “Inertial mass” and “gravitational mass” of a material object or particle are equal because the density of cosmic space in inertial mass and gravitational mass is equal. Let’s say we are in a fast space ship that travels far away from the stars and planets in cosmic space with low density. With increasing of the speed of the space ship the density of cosmic space into it will increase. By attaining a certain speed the density of the space in the space ship will be equal to the density on the surface of the earth. Space ship travel than with this constant speed. We have two material bodies that are identical. Both of bodies will behave in exact the same way in the space ship and on the surface of the earth. The density D of space in both bodies is equal. This means the equality between inertial mass and gravitational mass. 4. Cosmic space is composed by quanta of space (QS) having the size of Planck length. Light is a physical event in which photons are "jumping" from one quantum of space to another in a Planck time. Cosmic space is a medium of light, inertial systems move through the cosmic space. That's why the speed of light is “maximum speed” in the universe and it is same in all inertial systems. Light has a double particle-wave nature simultaneously. A single photon jumping from one quantum of space to another in its trajectory is the central part - particle. The “chain jumping” of the photon changes the frequency of the QS on its trajectory from its basic frequency to the frequency of the photon. The central part of the photon also changes the vibration of QS around its trajectory that is its circumference part - wave. In a “double slit experiment” we can settle instruments and observe photon's particle-part or we can settle instruments differently and observe the wave's part of the photon. When we settle instruments to observe a particle, we will observe (detect) the particle part of the photon, when we settle instruments to observe a wave, we will observe (detect) the wave part of the photon. Scientist (Observer) should not play any role in this experiment. 5. When a star has a mass of 3,2 masses of sun in its centre the density of cosmic space is so strong that gravitation overpowers all other forces. Matter transforms back into quanta of space (QS) that build up cosmic space. Beyond Schwarzschild Radius gravity is so strong that prevails above all other forces. All elementary particles transform back into the energy of cosmic space. Matter and space are made out of the same “stuff”. Black holes are the “fabric” where matter transforms back into space. In big explosions of AGN space transforms back into matter. Universe is composed by one energy. The basic packets of this one energy are QS. Energy is circulating continuously “space-matter-space-matter-…”. Universe is a self-renewing system. There was no beginning and there will be no end. Schwarzschild Radius Rs is: Rs = (2G x m) / (c x c) G is gravitational constant m is mass of the stellar object According to the formula (1) D = G x m D is the density of cosmic space in the centre of the black hole Rs = 2D / (c x c) Inside Rs gravitation has no direction, density of space does not increases towards the centre of the black hole. The area inside of Rs is a fabric where matter transforms back into the QS of cosmic space. A mass has a weight when it is in a space where density changes, it has a direction. At the “weightless” Lagrange point between earth and sun happens that density D of space is stable, there is no change of density, no direction. So gravity is there because gravity is carried by the quanta of space QS, and QS build up cosmic space also at the “weightless point”. If it would be no gravitation at the “weightless point” earth would fly away long time ago. A body at Lagrange point will not move, but this does not mean that gravitational force is not there. Decreasing of the duration of motion of the orbital period of the binary pulsar PRS1913+16 is the result of matter transforming back into space in the centre of one star. This diminishes the mass of the star, diminishing of the mass causes diminishing of the speed of rotation, with diminishing of the speed the duration of motion on the orbit is increasing. There is no gravitational radiation, gravitational waves do not exist.
3. ## New possibility of quantum gravity

Hi Ryoji i stop reading you paper when you say: gravitation is moving. According to my research gravitational waves seems to be only a math speculation. Gravitational force exist between QS that build up cosmic space. In the same way cement keeps together bricks, gravitation keeps together QS that are "bricks of the space". Density of QS depends on the amount of matter into it: D = m x G And speed of motion (of time) depends on the density D. see more below, yours, amrit Ernst Mach about time: It is utterly beyond our power to measure the changes of things by time. Quite the contrary, time is an abstraction at which we arrive by means of the changes of things. Albert Einstein about time: Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live." Time--the time that we know through clocks and calendars--was invented. http://www.britannica.com/clockworks/article.html Roger Penrose about time: The temporal ordering that we 'appear' to perceive is, I am claiming, something that we impose upon our perceptions in order to make sense of them in relation to the uniform forward time-progression of an external physical reality. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/...ics/Time_2.html Authors about time: In the universe one can observe only motion and not time. Time is a construction of the mind into which humans experience motion. Motion belongs to the Universe, time to the mind. Also “arrow of time” belongs to the mind. Universe itself is an a-temporal phenomena. Julian Barbour gave his book title: The End of Time, The Next Revolution in Physics. He has all reasons for this title. Existence of time as a physical reality has no experimental evidence. In all physical formulas symbol t means duration of motion. Universe is an a-temporal phenomena, time is of the mind, motion is of the universe. With clocks we measure duration of motion. The second is a unit with which we measure duration of motion. In 86400 seconds earth turn once around its axe. Second has no existence on it own, it came into existence when motion is measured by a clock. Second is a tool of the mind that man uses to measure duration of different motions. Motions by itself have no duration. Man give them a sense of duration by measuring them. motion......perception (eyes)......elaboration (time)......experience (observer) Motion is measured by clocks. With clocks we measure duration of the movement of body or particle regarding another body or particle. The speed of the motion depends on a density D of space. Density D in centre of planet or star is D = m x G, where m is a mass and G is gravitational constant. Density D is diminishing with the distance r on square from the centre of the star. Speed of time is increasing with the diminishing of density D. Clocks run faster on the top of the high mountain and slower at the sea side under the mountain. Density of space is higher at sea side and lover on the top of the mountain. Density of space is increasing by going towards the sun. Time (speed of bodies and particles) is becoming slower by going towards the sun. That's the cause of "Mercury perihelion dilate". 2. Cosmic space is build up out of quanta of space QS. Gravitational force acts between quanta of space QS. Every QS attract the QS around it. Between QS near by the moon and QS near by the earth gravitation acts on the distance and instantly via QS that are between them. Gravitational force does not propagate into space, gravitational force is the force that builds up the space. In a similar way as the wall is made out of bricks. The cement between bricks is keeping together the wall, the gravitational force between QS is keeping together the space. The strength of gravitational force depends on the density of QS that build up cosmic space. Density D of QS of a given volume of cosmic space depends on the density of matter contained in it: formula 1: D = m x G where D is the density of QS in the centre of the material object, m is the mass of the object and G is the gravitational constant. QS are “elastic”. Its density changes with the amount of matter. The gravitational force Fg between two material objects is given by the following relation: Fg = (D1 x D2) / ( r on square x G) where r is the distance between the centers of the two material objects. Gravitational force Fg on material body or on a particle that has a mass m depends on the density G of space. Fg = (m x D) / r on square where m is a mass of a body or particle, D is the density if space in a centre of planet or star, r is the distance from the centre of the planet or star; r can be shorter or longer as t the radius of the planet or star. In a centre of the planet or star Fg on a material object or mass particle is: Fg = (m x D) m10^-2 Gravitational acceleration g in a given distance r from the centre of the planet or star is: g = (m x G) / r on square m is a mass of planet or star, G is gravitational constant r is a distance from a centre According to the formula 1: D = m x G g = D / r on square where D is the density of space in the centre of planet or star and r is a distance from the centre 3. Relation between mass m of particle and density of space D into it is: D = m x G where G is gravitational constant. The density of space inside of the same atom is higher on the earth than on the moon, because on the earth the density of space is higher than on the moon. The same atom will have a bigger weight on the earth than on the moon. But its density D that defines its mass will remain the same. So by moving through the space the weight of particles changes, but its mass remains the same. Photon is an exception here. Around the photon there is no additional density D of cosmic space, so photon has no weight and no mass. Energy of matter and energy of space inside of a material object or mass particle are in equilibrium, equal: Espace ( Es ) = Ematter ( Em ) Es = Em = m x cc, ( D = m x G) where m is a mass of the object, c is speed of light, D is density of space around the object and G is gravitational constant. Es = Em = (D x cc) / G Energy of space Es inside of particle or material object depends on the density of space D. First experiments that proves mass increasing of particles that moves fast were done about 100 years ago. The faster the elementary particle, the bigger will be its mass. We call that “The Relativistic Mass Increase”. The formula E = 0.5m x vv shows the relationship between the increase in mass of the relativistic particle and its increase in kinetic energy. In this formula we can change m with D/G and we will get the formula: E = (0.5D x vv) / G which shows clearly that the kinetic energy of particle depends on the density D of space into it and on the speed v The mass of accelerated particle is increasing because the with the speed increasing the density around the particle is increasing. Density of space is increasing also inside of the inertial system that moves with the higher speed regarding the inertial system that moves with the lower speed. This higher density of space causes the speed of clocks is slower into the faster inertial system. Higher density of cosmic space inside of an fast inertial system is the bridge SR and GR. In SR the speed of inertial system causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space, in GR the mass causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space. “Inertial mass” and “gravitational mass” of a material object or particle are equal because the density of cosmic space in inertial mass and gravitational mass is equal. Let’s say we are in a fast space ship that travels far away from the stars and planets in cosmic space with low density. With increasing of the speed of the space ship the density of cosmic space into it will increase. By attaining a certain speed the density of the space in the space ship will be equal to the density on the surface of the earth. Space ship travel than with this constant speed. We have two material bodies that are identical. Both of bodies will behave in exact the same way in the space ship and on the surface of the earth. The density D of space in both bodies is equal. This means the equality between inertial mass and gravitational mass. 4. Cosmic space is composed by quanta of space (QS) having the size of Planck length. Light is a physical event in which photons are "jumping" from one quantum of space to another in a Planck time. Cosmic space is a medium of light, inertial systems move through the cosmic space. That's why the speed of light is “maximum speed” in the universe and it is same in all inertial systems. Light has a double particle-wave nature simultaneously. A single photon jumping from one quantum of space to another in its trajectory is the central part - particle. The “chain jumping” of the photon changes the frequency of the QS on its trajectory from its basic frequency to the frequency of the photon. The central part of the photon also changes the vibration of QS around its trajectory that is its circumference part - wave. In a “double slit experiment” we can settle instruments and observe photon's particle-part or we can settle instruments differently and observe the wave's part of the photon. When we settle instruments to observe a particle, we will observe (detect) the particle part of the photon, when we settle instruments to observe a wave, we will observe (detect) the wave part of the photon. Scientist (Observer) should not play any role in this experiment. 5. When a star has a mass of 3,2 masses of sun in its centre the density of cosmic space is so strong that gravitation overpowers all other forces. Matter transforms back into quanta of space (QS) that build up cosmic space. Beyond Schwarzschild Radius gravity is so strong that prevails above all other forces. All elementary particles transform back into the energy of cosmic space. Matter and space are made out of the same “stuff”. Black holes are the “fabric” where matter transforms back into space. In big explosions of AGN space transforms back into matter. Universe is composed by one energy. The basic packets of this one energy are QS. Energy is circulating continuously “space-matter-space-matter-…”. Universe is a self-renewing system. There was no beginning and there will be no end. Schwarzschild Radius Rs is: Rs = (2G x m) / (c x c) G is gravitational constant m is mass of the stellar object According to the formula (1) D = G x m D is the density of cosmic space in the centre of the black hole Rs = 2D / (c x c) Inside Rs gravitation has no direction, density of space does not increases towards the centre of the black hole. The area inside of Rs is a fabric where matter transforms back into the QS of cosmic space. A mass has a weight when it is in a space where density changes, it has a direction. At the “weightless” Lagrange point between earth and sun happens that density D of space is stable, there is no change of density, no direction. So gravity is there because gravity is carried by the quanta of space QS, and QS build up cosmic space also at the “weightless point”. If it would be no gravitation at the “weightless point” earth would fly away long time ago. A body at Lagrange point will not move, but this does not mean that gravitational force is not there. Decreasing of the duration of motion of the orbital period of the binary pulsar PRS1913+16 is the result of matter transforming back into space in the centre of one star. This diminishes the mass of the star, diminishing of the mass causes diminishing of the speed of rotation, with diminishing of the speed the duration of motion on the orbit is increasing. There is no gravitational radiation, gravitational waves do not exist.
4. ## Einstein said: space and time are models

in SR the fourth coorinate is X4 = i x c x t where t means duration of motion. about time no evidence, universe is a-temporal phenomena, time belongs to the mind, motion to the universe. Ernst Mach about time: It is utterly beyond our power to measure the changes of things by time. Quite the contrary, time is an abstraction at which we arrive by means of the changes of things. Albert Einstein about time: Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live." Time--the time that we know through clocks and calendars--was invented. http://www.britannica.com/clockworks/article.html Roger Penrose about time: The temporal ordering that we 'appear' to perceive is, I am claiming, something that we impose upon our perceptions in order to make sense of them in relation to the uniform forward time-progression of an external physical reality. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/...ics/Time_2.html Authors about time: In the universe one can observe only motion and not time. Time is a construction of the mind into which humans experience motion. Motion belongs to the Universe, time to the mind. Also “arrow of time” belongs to the mind. Universe itself is an a-temporal phenomena. Julian Barbour gave his book title: The End of Time, The Next Revolution in Physics. He has all reasons for this title. Existence of time as a physical reality has no experimental evidence. In all physical formulas symbol t means duration of motion. Universe is an a-temporal phenomena, time is of the mind, motion is of the universe. With clocks we measure duration of motion. The second is a unit with which we measure duration of motion. In 86400 seconds earth turn once around its axe. Second has no existence on it own, it came into existence when motion is measured by a clock. Second is a tool of the mind that man uses to measure duration of different motions. Motions by itself have no duration. Man give them a sense of duration by measuring them. motion......perception (eyes)......elaboration (time)......experience (observer) Motion is measured by clocks. With clocks we measure duration of the movement of body or particle regarding another body or particle. The speed of the motion depends on a density D of space. Density D in centre of planet or star is D = m x G, where m is a mass and G is gravitational constant. Density D is diminishing with the distance r on square from the centre of the star. Speed of time is increasing with the diminishing of density D. Clocks run faster on the top of the high mountain and slower at the sea side under the mountain. Density of space is higher at sea side and lover on the top of the mountain. Density of space is increasing by going towards the sun. Time (speed of bodies and particles) is becoming slower by going towards the sun. That's the cause of "Mercury perihelion dilate". 2. Cosmic space is build up out of quanta of space QS. Gravitational force acts between quanta of space QS. Every QS attract the QS around it. Between QS near by the moon and QS near by the earth gravitation acts on the distance and instantly via QS that are between them. Gravitational force does not propagate into space, gravitational force is the force that builds up the space. In a similar way as the wall is made out of bricks. The cement between bricks is keeping together the wall, the gravitational force between QS is keeping together the space. The strength of gravitational force depends on the density of QS that build up cosmic space. Density D of QS of a given volume of cosmic space depends on the density of matter contained in it: formula 1: D = m x G where D is the density of QS in the centre of the material object, m is the mass of the object and G is the gravitational constant. QS are “elastic”. Its density changes with the amount of matter. The gravitational force Fg between two material objects is given by the following relation: Fg = (D1 x D2) / ( r on square x G) where r is the distance between the centers of the two material objects. Gravitational force Fg on material body or on a particle that has a mass m depends on the density G of space. Fg = (m x D) / r on square where m is a mass of a body or particle, D is the density if space in a centre of planet or star, r is the distance from the centre of the planet or star; r can be shorter or longer as t the radius of the planet or star. In a centre of the planet or star Fg on a material object or mass particle is: Fg = (m x D) m10^-2 Gravitational acceleration g in a given distance r from the centre of the planet or star is: g = (m x G) / r on square m is a mass of planet or star, G is gravitational constant r is a distance from a centre According to the formula 1: D = m x G g = D / r on square where D is the density of space in the centre of planet or star and r is a distance from the centre 3. Relation between mass m of particle and density of space D into it is: D = m x G where G is gravitational constant. The density of space inside of the same atom is higher on the earth than on the moon, because on the earth the density of space is higher than on the moon. The same atom will have a bigger weight on the earth than on the moon. But its density D that defines its mass will remain the same. So by moving through the space the weight of particles changes, but its mass remains the same. Photon is an exception here. Around the photon there is no additional density D of cosmic space, so photon has no weight and no mass. Energy of matter and energy of space inside of a material object or mass particle are in equilibrium, equal: Espace ( Es ) = Ematter ( Em ) Es = Em = m x cc, ( D = m x G) where m is a mass of the object, c is speed of light, D is density of space around the object and G is gravitational constant. Es = Em = (D x cc) / G Energy of space Es inside of particle or material object depends on the density of space D. First experiments that proves mass increasing of particles that moves fast were done about 100 years ago. The faster the elementary particle, the bigger will be its mass. We call that “The Relativistic Mass Increase”. The formula E = 0.5m x vv shows the relationship between the increase in mass of the relativistic particle and its increase in kinetic energy. In this formula we can change m with D/G and we will get the formula: E = (0.5D x vv) / G which shows clearly that the kinetic energy of particle depends on the density D of space into it and on the speed v The mass of accelerated particle is increasing because the with the speed increasing the density around the particle is increasing. Density of space is increasing also inside of the inertial system that moves with the higher speed regarding the inertial system that moves with the lower speed. This higher density of space causes the speed of clocks is slower into the faster inertial system. Higher density of cosmic space inside of an fast inertial system is the bridge SR and GR. In SR the speed of inertial system causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space, in GR the mass causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space. “Inertial mass” and “gravitational mass” of a material object or particle are equal because the density of cosmic space in inertial mass and gravitational mass is equal. Let’s say we are in a fast space ship that travels far away from the stars and planets in cosmic space with low density. With increasing of the speed of the space ship the density of cosmic space into it will increase. By attaining a certain speed the density of the space in the space ship will be equal to the density on the surface of the earth. Space ship travel than with this constant speed. We have two material bodies that are identical. Both of bodies will behave in exact the same way in the space ship and on the surface of the earth. The density D of space in both bodies is equal. This means the equality between inertial mass and gravitational mass. 4. Cosmic space is composed by quanta of space (QS) having the size of Planck length. Light is a physical event in which photons are "jumping" from one quantum of space to another in a Planck time. Cosmic space is a medium of light, inertial systems move through the cosmic space. That's why the speed of light is “maximum speed” in the universe and it is same in all inertial systems. Light has a double particle-wave nature simultaneously. A single photon jumping from one quantum of space to another in its trajectory is the central part - particle. The “chain jumping” of the photon changes the frequency of the QS on its trajectory from its basic frequency to the frequency of the photon. The central part of the photon also changes the vibration of QS around its trajectory that is its circumference part - wave. In a “double slit experiment” we can settle instruments and observe photon's particle-part or we can settle instruments differently and observe the wave's part of the photon. When we settle instruments to observe a particle, we will observe (detect) the particle part of the photon, when we settle instruments to observe a wave, we will observe (detect) the wave part of the photon. Scientist (Observer) should not play any role in this experiment. 5. When a star has a mass of 3,2 masses of sun in its centre the density of cosmic space is so strong that gravitation overpowers all other forces. Matter transforms back into quanta of space (QS) that build up cosmic space. Beyond Schwarzschild Radius gravity is so strong that prevails above all other forces. All elementary particles transform back into the energy of cosmic space. Matter and space are made out of the same “stuff”. Black holes are the “fabric” where matter transforms back into space. In big explosions of AGN space transforms back into matter. Universe is composed by one energy. The basic packets of this one energy are QS. Energy is circulating continuously “space-matter-space-matter-…”. Universe is a self-renewing system. There was no beginning and there will be no end. Schwarzschild Radius Rs is: Rs = (2G x m) / (c x c) G is gravitational constant m is mass of the stellar object According to the formula (1) D = G x m D is the density of cosmic space in the centre of the black hole Rs = 2D / (c x c) Inside Rs gravitation has no direction, density of space does not increases towards the centre of the black hole. The area inside of Rs is a fabric where matter transforms back into the QS of cosmic space. A mass has a weight when it is in a space where density changes, it has a direction. At the “weightless” Lagrange point between earth and sun happens that density D of space is stable, there is no change of density, no direction. So gravity is there because gravity is carried by the quanta of space QS, and QS build up cosmic space also at the “weightless point”. If it would be no gravitation at the “weightless point” earth would fly away long time ago. A body at Lagrange point will not move, but this does not mean that gravitational force is not there. Decreasing of the duration of motion of the orbital period of the binary pulsar PRS1913+16 is the result of matter transforming back into space in the centre of one star. This diminishes the mass of the star, diminishing of the mass causes diminishing of the speed of rotation, with diminishing of the speed the duration of motion on the orbit is increasing. There is no gravitational radiation, gravitational waves do not exist.
5. ## A-Temporal Universe Theory (ATUT)

(published mainly in Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics: http://www.ejtp.com) Ernst Mach about time: It is utterly beyond our power to measure the changes of things by time. Quite the contrary, time is an abstraction at which we arrive by means of the changes of things. Albert Einstein about time: Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live." Time--the time that we know through clocks and calendars--was invented. http://www.britannica.com/clockworks/article.html Roger Penrose about time: The temporal ordering that we 'appear' to perceive is, I am claiming, something that we impose upon our perceptions in order to make sense of them in relation to the uniform forward time-progression of an external physical reality. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/...ics/Time_2.html Author about time: In the universe one can observe only motion and not time. Time is a construction of the mind into which humans experience motion. Motion belongs to the Universe, time to the mind. Universe itself is an a-temporal phenomena. Julian Barbour gave his book title: The End of Time, The Next Revolution in Physics. He has all reasons for this title. Existence of time as a physical reality has no experimental evidence. In all physical formulas symbol t means duration of motion. Universe is an a-temporal phenomena, time is of the mind, motion is of the universe. With clocks we measure duration of motion. The second is a unit with which we measure duration of motion. In 86400 seconds earth turn once around its axe. Second has no existence on it own, it came into existence when motion is measured by a clock. Second is a tool of the mind that man uses to measure duration of different motions. Motions by itself have no duration. Man give them a sense of duration by measuring them. motion......perception (eyes)......elaboration (time)......experience (observer) Motion is measured by clocks. With clocks we measure duration of the movement of body or particle regarding another body or particle. The speed of the motion depends on a density D of space. Density D in centre of planet or star is D = m x G, where m is a mass and G is gravitational constant. Density D is diminishing with the distance r on square from the centre of the star. Speed of time is increasing with the diminishing of density D. Clocks run faster on the top of the high mountain and slower at the sea side under the mountain. Density of space is higher at sea side and lover on the top of the mountain. Density of space is increasing by going towards the sun. Time (speed of bodies and particles) is becoming slower by going towards the sun. That's the cause of "Mercury perihelion dilate". 2. Cosmic space is build up out of quanta of space QS. Gravitational force acts between quanta of space QS. Every QS attract the QS around it. Between QS near by the moon and QS near by the earth gravitation acts on the distance and instantly via QS that are between them. Gravitational force does not propagate into space, gravitational force is the force that builds up the space. In a similar way as the wall is made out of bricks. The cement between bricks is keeping together the wall, the gravitational force between QS is keeping together the space. The strength of gravitational force depends on the density of QS that build up cosmic space. Density D of QS of a given volume of cosmic space depends on the density of matter contained in it: formula 1: D = m x G where D is the density of QS in the centre of the material object, m is the mass of the object and G is the gravitational constant. QS are “elastic”. Its density changes with the amount of matter. The gravitational force Fg between two material objects is given by the following relation: Fg = (D1 x D2) / ( r on square x G) where r is the distance between the centers of the two material objects. Gravitational force Fg on material body or on a particle that has a mass m depends on the density G of space. Fg = (m x D) / r on square where m is a mass of a body or particle, D is the density if space in a centre of planet or star, r is the distance from the centre of the planet or star; r can be shorter or longer as t the radius of the planet or star. In a centre of the planet or star Fg on a material object or mass particle is: Fg = (m x D) m10^-2 Gravitational acceleration g in a given distance r from the centre of the planet or star is: g = (m x G) / r on square m is a mass of planet or star, G is gravitational constant r is a distance from a centre According to the formula 1: D = m x G g = D / r on square where D is the density of space in the centre of planet or star and r is a distance from the centre 3. Relation between mass m of particle and density of space D into it is: D = m x G where G is gravitational constant. The density of space inside of the same atom is higher on the earth than on the moon, because on the earth the density of space is higher than on the moon. The same atom will have a bigger weight on the earth than on the moon. But its density D that defines its mass will remain the same. So by moving through the space the weight of particles changes, but its mass remains the same. Photon is an exception here. Around the photon there is no additional density D of cosmic space, so photon has no weight and no mass. Energy of matter and energy of space inside of a material object or mass particle are in equilibrium, equal: Espace ( Es ) = Ematter ( Em ) Es = Em = m x cc, ( D = m x G) where m is a mass of the object, c is speed of light, D is density of space around the object and G is gravitational constant. Es = Em = (D x cc) / G Energy of space Es inside of particle or material object depends on the density of space D. First experiments that proves mass increasing of particles that moves fast were done about 100 years ago. The faster the elementary particle, the bigger will be its mass. We call that “The Relativistic Mass Increase”. The formula E = 0.5m x vv shows the relationship between the increase in mass of the relativistic particle and its increase in kinetic energy. In this formula we can change m with D/G and we will get the formula: E = (0.5D x vv) / G which shows clearly that the kinetic energy of particle depends on the density D of space into it and on the speed v The mass of accelerated particle is increasing because the with the speed increasing the density around the particle is increasing. Density of space is increasing also inside of the inertial system that moves with the higher speed regarding the inertial system that moves with the lower speed. This higher density of space causes the speed of clocks is slower into the faster inertial system. Higher density of cosmic space inside of an fast inertial system is the bridge SR and GR. In SR the speed of inertial system causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space, in GR the mass causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space. “Inertial mass” and “gravitational mass” of a material object or particle are equal because the density of cosmic space in inertial mass and gravitational mass is equal. Let’s say we are in a fast space ship that travels far away from the stars and planets in cosmic space with low density. With increasing of the speed of the space ship the density of cosmic space into it will increase. By attaining a certain speed the density of the space in the space ship will be equal to the density on the surface of the earth. Space ship travel than with this constant speed. We have two material bodies that are identical. Both of bodies will behave in exact the same way in the space ship and on the surface of the earth. The density D of space in both bodies is equal. This means the equality between inertial mass and gravitational mass. 4. Cosmic space is composed by quanta of space (QS) having the size of Planck length. Light is a physical event in which photons are "jumping" from one quantum of space to another in a Planck time. Cosmic space is a medium of light, inertial systems move through the cosmic space. That's why the speed of light is “maximum speed” in the universe and it is same in all inertial systems. Light has a double particle-wave nature simultaneously. A single photon jumping from one quantum of space to another in its trajectory is the central part - particle. The “chain jumping” of the photon changes the frequency of the QS on its trajectory from its basic frequency to the frequency of the photon. The central part of the photon also changes the vibration of QS around its trajectory that is its circumference part - wave. In a “double slit experiment” we can settle instruments and observe photon's particle-part or we can settle instruments differently and observe the wave's part of the photon. When we settle instruments to observe a particle, we will observe (detect) the particle part of the photon, when we settle instruments to observe a wave, we will observe (detect) the wave part of the photon. Scientist (Observer) should not play any role in this experiment. 5. When a star has a mass of 3,2 masses of sun in its centre the density of cosmic space is so strong that gravitation overpowers all other forces. Matter transforms back into quanta of space (QS) that build up cosmic space. Beyond Schwarzschild Radius gravity is so strong that prevails above all other forces. All elementary particles transform back into the energy of cosmic space. Matter and space are made out of the same “stuff”. Black holes are the “fabric” where matter transforms back into space. In big explosions of AGN space transforms back into matter. Universe is composed by one energy. The basic packets of this one energy are QS. Energy is circulating continuously “space-matter-space-matter-…”. Universe is a self-renewing system. There was no beginning and there will be no end. Schwarzschild Radius Rs is: Rs = (2G x m) / (c x c) G is gravitational constant m is mass of the stellar object According to the formula (1) D = G x m D is the density of cosmic space in the centre of the black hole Rs = 2D / (c x c) Inside Rs gravitation has no direction, density of space does not increases towards the centre of the black hole. The area inside of Rs is a fabric where matter transforms back into the QS of cosmic space. A mass has a weight when it is in a space where density changes, it has a direction. At the “weightless” Lagrange point between earth and sun happens that density D of space is stable, there is no change of density, no direction. So gravity is there because gravity is carried by the quanta of space QS, and QS build up cosmic space also at the “weightless point”. If it would be no gravitation at the “weightless point” earth would fly away long time ago. A body at Lagrange point will not move, but this does not mean that gravitational force is not there. Decreasing of the duration of motion of the orbital period of the binary pulsar PRS1913+16 is the result of matter transforming back into space in the centre of one star. This diminishes the mass of the star, diminishing of the mass causes diminishing of the speed of rotation, with diminishing of the speed the duration of motion on the orbit is increasing. There is no gravitational radiation, gravitational waves do not exist.
6. ## Can eternity end?

universe is eternal, universe is a-temporal, time runs in the mind only see more: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4902 amrit
7. ## Does Ending Proove Origin?

universe is eternal, universe is a-temporal, is a system in a permanent dynamic equilibrium, universe in a continous motion, time belongs to the mind see more: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4902 amrit
8. ## Consequences of general relativity - gravitational waves

hi alex energy that is lost by the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar is because in one of star matter transforms back into the energy of space. Diminishing of the speed of binary pulsar is caused by the transformation of matter back into the energy of cosmic space in the centre of one star of the binary pulsar. With transformation of matter into space the mass one stars is diminishing, and so also the speed of the binary pulsar is diminishing. There is no gravitational radiation, gravitational waves do not exist. Decreasing of the duration of motion of the orbital period of the binary pulsar PRS1913+16 is the result of matter transforming back into space in the centre of one star. This diminishes the mass of the star, diminishing of the mass causes diminishing of the speed of rotation, with diminishing of the speed the duration of motion on the orbit is increasing. see the whole story: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4902 amrit
9. ## Mach On Time and Change

OK Le't have a talk. What do think about idea that time belongs to the mind and motion to the universe ? Albert Einstein about time: Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live." Time--the time that we know through clocks and calendars--was invented. http://www.britannica.com/clockworks/article.html Roger Penrose about time: The temporal ordering that we 'appear' to perceive is, I am claiming, something that we impose upon our perceptions in order to make sense of them in relation to the uniform forward time-progression of an external physical reality. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/...ics/Time_2.html Authors about time: In the universe one can observe only motion and not time. Time is a construction of the mind into which humans experience motion. Julian Barbour gave his book title: The End of Time, The Next Revolution in Physics. He has all reasons for this title. Existence of time as a physical reality has no experimental evidence. In all physical formulas symbol t means duration of motion. Universe is an a-temporal phenomena, time is of the mind, motion is of the universe. With clocks we measure duration of motion. The second is a unit with which we measure duration of motion. In 86400 seconds earth turn once around its axe. Second has no existence on it own, it came into existence when motion is measured by a clock. Second is a tool of the mind that man uses to measure duration of different motions. Motions by itself have no duration. Man give them a sense of duration by measuring them. motion......perception (eyes)......elaboration (time)......experience (observer) Motion is measured by clocks. With clocks we measure duration of the movement of body or particle regarding another body or particle. The speed of the motion depends on a density D of space. Density D in centre of planet or star is D = m x G, where m is a mass and G is gravitational constant. Density D is diminishing with the distance r on square from the centre of the star. Speed of time is increasing with the diminishing of density D. Clocks run faster on the top of the high mountain and slower at the sea side under the mountain. Density of space is higher at sea side and lover on the top of the mountain. Density of space is increasing by going towards the sun. Time (speed of bodies and particles) is becoming slower by going towards the sun. That's the cause of "Mercury perihelion dilate". 2. Cosmic space is build up out of quanta of space QS. Gravitational force acts between quanta of space QS. Every QS attract the QS around it. Between QS near by the moon and QS near by the earth gravitation acts on the distance and instantly via QS that are between them. Gravitational force does not propagate into space, gravitational force is the force that builds up the space. In a similar way as the wall is made out of bricks. The cement between bricks is keeping together the wall, the gravitational force between QS is keeping together the space. The strength of gravitational force depends on the density of QS that build up cosmic space. Density D of QS of a given volume of cosmic space depends on the density of matter contained in it: formula 1: D = m x G where D is the density of QS in the centre of the material object, m is the mass of the object and G is the gravitational constant. QS are “elastic”. Its density changes with the amount of matter. The gravitational force Fg between two material objects is given by the following relation: Fg = (D1 x D2) / ( r on square x G) where r is the distance between the centers of the two material objects. Gravitational force Fg on material body or on a particle that has a mass m depends on the density G of space. Fg = (m x D) / r on square where m is a mass of a body or particle, D is the density if space in a centre of planet or star, r is the distance from the centre of the planet or star; r can be shorter or longer as t the radius of the planet or star. In a centre of the planet or star Fg on a material object or mass particle is: Fg = (m x D) m10^-2 Gravitational acceleration g in a given distance r from the centre of the planet or star is: g = (m x G) / r on square m is a mass of planet or star, G is gravitational constant r is a distance from a centre According to the formula 1: D = m x G g = D / r on square where D is the density of space in the centre of planet or star and r is a distance from the centre 3. Relation between mass m of particle and density of space D into it is: D = m x G where G is gravitational constant. The density of space inside of the same atom is higher on the earth than on the moon, because on the earth the density of space is higher than on the moon. The same atom will have a bigger weight on the earth than on the moon. But its density D that defines its mass will remain the same. So by moving through the space the weight of particles changes, but its mass remains the same. Photon is an exception here. Around the photon there is no additional density D of cosmic space, so photon has no weight and no mass. Energy of matter and energy of space inside of a material object or mass particle are in equilibrium, equal: Espace ( Es ) = Ematter ( Em ) Es = Em = m x cc, ( D = m x G) where m is a mass of the object, c is speed of light, D is density of space around the object and G is gravitational constant. Es = Em = (D x cc) / G Energy of space Es inside of particle or material object depends on the density of space D. First experiments that proves mass increasing of particles that moves fast were done about 100 years ago. The faster the elementary particle, the bigger will be its mass. We call that “The Relativistic Mass Increase”. The formula E = 0.5m x vv shows the relationship between the increase in mass of the relativistic particle and its increase in kinetic energy. In this formula we can change m with D/G and we will get the formula: E = (0.5D x vv) / G which shows clearly that the kinetic energy of particle depends on the density D of space into it and on the speed v The mass of accelerated particle is increasing because the with the speed increasing the density around the particle is increasing. Density of space is increasing also inside of the inertial system that moves with the higher speed regarding the inertial system that moves with the lower speed. This higher density of space causes the speed of clocks is slower into the faster inertial system. Higher density of cosmic space inside of an fast inertial system is the bridge SR and GR. In SR the speed of inertial system causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space, in GR the mass causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space. “Inertial mass” and “gravitational mass” of a material object or particle are equal because the density of cosmic space in inertial mass and gravitational mass is equal. Let’s say we are in a fast space ship that travels far away from the stars and planets in cosmic space with low density. With increasing of the speed of the space ship the density of cosmic space into it will increase. By attaining a certain speed the density of the space in the space ship will be equal to the density on the surface of the earth. Space ship travel than with this constant speed. We have two material bodies that are identical. Both of bodies will behave in exact the same way in the space ship and on the surface of the earth. The density D of space in both bodies is equal. This means the equality between inertial mass and gravitational mass. 4. Cosmic space is composed by quanta of space (QS) having the size of Planck length. Light is a physical event in which photons are "jumping" from one quantum of space to another in a Planck time. Cosmic space is a medium of light, inertial systems move through the cosmic space. That's why the speed of light is “maximum speed” in the universe and it is same in all inertial systems. Light has a double particle-wave nature simultaneously. A single photon jumping from one quantum of space to another in its trajectory is the central part - particle. The “chain jumping” of the photon changes the frequency of the QS on its trajectory from its basic frequency to the frequency of the photon. The central part of the photon also changes the vibration of QS around its trajectory that is its circumference part - wave. In a “double slit experiment” we can settle instruments and observe photon's particle-part or we can settle instruments differently and observe the wave's part of the photon. When we settle instruments to observe a particle, we will observe (detect) the particle part of the photon, when we settle instruments to observe a wave, we will observe (detect) the wave part of the photon. Scientist (Observer) should not play any role in this experiment. 5. When a star has a mass of 3,2 masses of sun in its centre the density of cosmic space is so strong that gravitation overpowers all other forces. Matter transforms back into quanta of space (QS) that build up cosmic space. Beyond Schwarzschild Radius gravity is so strong that prevails above all other forces. All elementary particles transform back into the energy of cosmic space. Matter and space are made out of the same “stuff”. Black holes are the “fabric” where matter transforms back into space. In big explosions of AGN space transforms back into matter. Universe is composed by one energy. The basic packets of this one energy are QS. Energy is circulating continuously “space-matter-space-matter-…”. Universe is a self-renewing system. There was no beginning and there will be no end. Schwarzschild Radius Rs is: Rs = (2G x m) / (c x c) G is gravitational constant m is mass of the stellar object According to the formula (1) D = G x m D is the density of cosmic space in the centre of the black hole Rs = 2D / (c x c) Inside Rs gravitation has no direction, density of space does not increases towards the centre of the black hole. The area inside of Rs is a fabric where matter transforms back into the QS of cosmic space. A mass has a weight when it is in a space where density changes, it has a direction. At the “weightless” Lagrange point between earth and sun happens that density D of space is stable, there is no change of density, no direction. So gravity is there because gravity is carried by the quanta of space QS, and QS build up cosmic space also at the “weightless point”. If it would be no gravitation at the “weightless point” earth would fly away long time ago. A body at Lagrange point will not move, but this does not mean that gravitational force is not there. Diminishing of the speed of binary pulsar is caused by the transformation of matter back into the energy of cosmic space in the centre of one star of the binary pulsar. With transformation of matter into space the mass one stars is diminishing, and so also the speed of the binary pulsar is diminishing. There is no gravitational radiation, gravitational waves do not exist. Decreasing of the duration of motion of the orbital period of the binary pulsar PRS1913+16 is the result of matter transforming back into space in the centre of one star. This diminishes the mass of the star, diminishing of the mass causes diminishing of the speed of rotation, with diminishing of the speed the duration of motion on the orbit is increasing.
10. ## The End of Time, The Next Revolution in Physics

Ernst Mach about time: It is utterly beyond our power to measure the changes of things by time. Quite the contrary, time is an abstraction at which we arrive by means of the changes of things. Albert Einstein about time: Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live." Time--the time that we know through clocks and calendars--was invented. http://www.britannica.com/clockworks/article.html Roger Penrose about time: The temporal ordering that we 'appear' to perceive is, I am claiming, something that we impose upon our perceptions in order to make sense of them in relation to the uniform forward time-progression of an external physical reality. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/...ics/Time_2.html Author about time: In the universe one can observe only motion and not time. Time is a construction of the mind into which humans experience motion. Julian Barbour gave his book title: The End of Time, The Next Revolution in Physics. He has all reasons for this title. Existence of time as a physical reality has no experimental evidence. In all physical formulas symbol t means duration of motion. Universe is an a-temporal phenomena, time is of the mind, motion is of the universe. With clocks we measure duration of motion. The second is a unit with which we measure duration of motion. In 86400 seconds earth turn once around its axe. Second has no existence on it own, it came into existence when motion is measured by a clock. Second is a tool of the mind that man uses to measure duration of different motions. Motions by itself have no duration. Man give them a sense of duration by measuring them. motion......perception (eyes)......elaboration (time)......experience (observer) Motion is measured by clocks. With clocks we measure duration of the movement of body or particle regarding another body or particle. The speed of the motion depends on a density D of space. Density D in centre of planet or star is D = m x G, where m is a mass and G is gravitational constant. Density D is diminishing with the distance r on square from the centre of the star. Speed of time is increasing with the diminishing of density D. Clocks run faster on the top of the high mountain and slower at the sea side under the mountain. Density of space is higher at sea side and lover on the top of the mountain. Density of space is increasing by going towards the sun. Time (speed of bodies and particles) is becoming slower by going towards the sun. That's the cause of "Mercury perihelion dilate". 2. Cosmic space are build up out of quanta of space QS. Gravitational force acts between quanta of space QS that build up cosmic space. Every QS attract the QS around it. Between QS near by the moon and QS near by the earth gravitation acts on the distance and instantly via QS that are between them. Gravitational force does not propagate into space, gravitational force is the force that builds up the space. In a similar way as the wall is made out of bricks. The cement between bricks is keeping together the wall, the gravitational force between QS is keeping together the space. The strength of gravitational force depends on the density of QS that build up cosmic space. Density D of QS of a given volume of cosmic space depends on the density of matter contained in it: formula 1: D = m x G where D is the density of QS in the centre of the material object, m is the mass of the object and G is the gravitational constant. QS are “elastic”. Its density changes with the amount of matter. The gravitational force Fg between two material objects is given by the following relation: Fg = (D1 x D2) / ( r on square x G) where r is the distance between the centers of the two material objects. Gravitational force Fg on material body or on a particle that has a mass m depends on the density G of space. Fg = (m x D) / r on square where m is a mass of a body or particle, D is the density if space in a centre of planet or star, r is the distance from the centre of the planet or star; r can be shorter or longer as t the radius of the planet or star. In a centre of the planet or star Fg on a material object or mass particle is: Fg = (m x D) m10^-2 Gravitational acceleration g in a given distance r from the centre of the planet or star is: g = (m x G) / r on square m is a mass of planet or star, G is gravitational constant r is a distance from a centre According to the formula 1: D = m x G g = D / r on square where D is the density of space in the centre of planet or star and r is a distance from the centre 3. Relation between mass m of particle and density of space D into it is: D = m x G where G is gravitational constant. The density of space inside of the same atom is higher on the earth than on the moon, because on the earth the density of space is higher than on the moon. The same atom will have a bigger weight on the earth than on the moon. But its density D that defines its mass will remain the same. So by moving through the space the weight of particles changes, but its mass remains the same. Photon is an exception here. Around the photon there is no additional density D of cosmic space, so photon has no weight and no mass. Energy of matter and energy of space inside of a material object or mass particle are in equilibrium, equal: Espace ( Es ) = Ematter ( Em ) Es = Em = m x cc, ( D = m x G) where m is a mass of the object, c is speed of light, D is density of space around the object and G is gravitational constant. Es = Em = (D x cc) / G Energy of space Es inside of particle or material object depends on the density of space D. First experiments that proves mass increasing of particles that moves fast were done about 100 years ago. The faster the elementary particle, the bigger will be its mass. We call that “The Relativistic Mass Increase”. The formula E = 0.5m x vv shows the relationship between the increase in mass of the relativistic particle and its increase in kinetic energy. In this formula we can change m with D/G and we will get the formula: E = (0.5D x vv) / G which shows clearly that the kinetic energy of particle depends on the density D of space into it and on the speed v The mass of accelerated particle is increasing because the with the speed increasing the density around the particle is increasing. Density of space is increasing also inside of the inertial system that moves with the higher speed regarding the inertial system that moves with the lower speed. This higher density of space causes the speed of clocks is slower into the faster inertial system. Higher density of cosmic space inside of an fast inertial system is the bridge SR and GR. In SR the speed of inertial system causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space, in GR the mass causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space. “Inertial mass” and “gravitational mass” of a material object or particle are equal because the density of cosmic space in inertial mass and gravitational mass is equal. Let’s say we are in a fast space ship that travels far away from the stars and planets in cosmic space with low density. With increasing of the speed of the space ship the density of cosmic space into it will increase. By attaining a certain speed the density of the space in the space ship will be equal to the density on the surface of the earth. Space ship travel than with this constant speed. We have two material bodies that are identical. Both of bodies will behave in exact the same way in the space ship and on the surface of the earth. The density D of space in both bodies is equal. This means the equality between inertial mass and gravitational mass. 4. Cosmic space is composed by quanta of space (QS) having the size of Planck length. Light is a physical event in which photons are "jumping" from one quantum of space to another in a Planck time. Cosmic space is a medium of light, inertial systems move through the cosmic space. That's why the speed of light is “maximum speed” in the universe and it is same in all inertial systems. Light has a double particle-wave nature simultaneously. A single photon jumping from one quantum of space to another in its trajectory is the central part - particle. The “chain jumping” of the photon changes the frequency of the QS on its trajectory from its basic frequency to the frequency of the photon. The central part of the photon also changes the vibration of QS around its trajectory that is its circumference part - wave. In a “double slit experiment” we can settle instruments and observe photon's particle-part or we can settle instruments differently and observe the wave's part of the photon. When we settle instruments to observe a particle, we will observe (detect) the particle part of the photon, when we settle instruments to observe a wave, we will observe (detect) the wave part of the photon. Scientist (Observer) should not play any role in this experiment. 5. When a star has a mass of 3,2 masses of sun in its centre the density of cosmic space is so strong that gravitation overpowers all other forces. Matter transforms back into quanta of space (QS) that build up cosmic space. Beyond Schwarzschild Radius gravity is so strong that prevails above all other forces. All elementary particles transform back into the energy of cosmic space. Matter and space are made out of the same “stuff”. Black holes are the “fabric” where matter transforms back into space. In big explosions of AGN space transforms back into matter. Universe is composed by one energy. The basic packets of this one energy are QS. Energy is circulating continuously “space-matter-space-matter-…”. Universe is a self-renewing system. There was no beginning and there will be no end. Schwarzschild Radius Rs is: Rs = (2G x m) / (c x c) G is gravitational constant m is mass of the stellar object According to the formula (1) D = G x m D is the density of cosmic space in the centre of the black hole Rs = 2D / (c x c) Inside Rs gravitation has no direction, density of space does not increases towards the centre of the black hole. The area inside of Rs is a fabric where matter transforms back into the QS of cosmic space. A mass has a weight when it is in a space where density changes, it has a direction. At the “weightless” Lagrange point between earth and sun happens that density D of space is stable, there is no change of density, no direction. So gravity is there because gravity is carried by the quanta of space QS, and QS build up cosmic space also at the “weightless point”. If it would be no gravitation at the “weightless point” earth would fly away long time ago. A body at Lagrange point will not move, but this does not mean that gravitational force is not there. Diminishing of the speed of binary pulsar is caused by the transformation of matter back into the energy of cosmic space in the centre of one star of the binary pulsar. With transformation of matter into space the mass one stars is diminishing, and so also the speed of the binary pulsar is diminishing. There is no gravitational radiation, gravitational waves do not exist. Decreasing of the duration of motion of the orbital period of the binary pulsar PRS1913+16 is the result of matter transforming back into space in the centre of one star. This diminishes the mass of the star, diminishing of the mass causes diminishing of the speed of rotation, with diminishing of the speed the duration of motion on the orbit is increasing.
11. ## Einstein said: space and time are models

What is time? http://www.britannica.com/clockworks/article.html We sense the passage of time in our personal experience and observe it in the world around us. We feel, think, and act in the flow of time. Einstein said, "Space and time are modes by which we think, not conditions under which we live." Time--the time that we know through clocks and calendars--was invented. The measurement of time is an ancient science, though many of its discoveries are relatively recent. The Cro-Magnons recorded the phases of the Moon some 30,000 years ago--but the first minutes were counted accurately only 400 years ago, and the atomic clocks that allow us to track the approach of the millennium by the billionth of a second are less than 50 years old. Timekeeping has been both a lens through which humanity has observed the heavens and a mirror reflecting the progress of science and civilization. At the dawn of the new millennium, the instruments that divide and measure the days on Earth have brought us to a deeper understanding of how it all began. The second is a unit with which we measure duration of motion. In 86400 seconds earth turn once around its axe. Second has no existence on it own, it came into existence when motion is measured by a clock. Second is a tool of the mind that man uses to measure duration of different motions. Motions by itself have no duration. Man give them a sense of duration by measuring them. http://physicsmathforums.com/showthread.php?p=1347#post1347
12. ## Mach On Time and Change

It is utterly beyond our power to measure the changes of things by time. Quite the contrary, time is an abstraction at which we arrive by means of the changes of things. (Ernst Mach) According to Mach time belongs to the mind and change (motion) to the universe. amrit
13. ## Conscious Experience of Einstein's NOW

Yes, whai I discuss is related to Ontology. Bridging Physics and Ontology Einstein’s NOW is what Kant calls “Ding an sich”, what in Zen is called “Tathagata” (Suchness), one could say "The Truth". Does physics have a capacity to integrate ontology ? This question is into my mind for 17 years. Back in 1989 i was carrying out an experiment at the University Of Ljubljana for two month every day. I was measuring the weight of earth worms at the time of death in order to see there is relation between gravitational force and life. During this period i read some of Einstein and I came across his statement above. What he say is right. I was measuring the weight always only in the present moment (into NOW), never into past or future. It came into my mind: Might be Einstein’s NOW is something that exists and I do not know the way to experience it. After 17 years I have some results: the bridge into the NOW is understanding that motion belongs to the universe and time to the mind. Universe in in a continuous movement. The motion happens into NOW. In order to experience motion in a rational manner human mind has developed time. Time is a main frame of the mind into which we experience universe, ourselves, scientific theories about the universe. By distinguishing motion and time one becomes aware of the NOW. The only way to distinguish motion and time is to watch (witness) the mind and to become aware that time belongs to the mind and motion to the universe. Watching (witnessing) the mind is a function of consciousness. Let’s make an experiment. You take a pendulum and put it in front of you. Swing the pendulum and watch it for a while with the open eyes. Than close the eyes and watch the image of the swinging pendulum. The watcher that watches the pendulum is the same, it is a consciousness itself. You can open eyes again, watch the pendulum, close it again...........open it... This experiment will help you to see the difference between motion and time into which you experience motion. You will discover that pendulum swings into NOW. Awareness of the difference between motion and time is essential into theoretical physics. It opens the new perspectives into understanding of time, gravitation, cosmology, it integrates ontology into physics. God is out of job here. Once we discover the NOW we do not bother about god any more. Nietzsche sad already: God is dead.
14. ## Conscious Experience of Einstein's NOW

I think that distinction between motion ant time is essential into physics. My post has nothing to do with metaphysics. Motion is physical reality, time is a concept of the mind developed in Western culture. You might now that some people on remote islands now only “present” in their language. All that happens is NOW. Jewish culture has introduced in Europe the concept of the linear time: past, present, future. We can perceive and experience only the physical reality that exists. We can not perceive physical reality that is not into existence. And we perceive and experience present moment only, called by Einstein NOW. So present moment is a pysical reality, past and future are of the mind. Let’s make a small experiment. You move your hand in front of the eyes. Your hand is moving from position X to position X+1, to X+2 .........to X+n. When your hand is on the position X+1 it is not any mote into position X and not yet into position X+2. When you observe hand into position X it is for you a present moment, when you observe it on the position X1 it is a present moment for you, and so on............. You can always observe an experiment only in the present moment, never yesterday or tomorrow. Why? Because only the present moment exists, past and future belongs to the mind. Universe run always into the present moment that Einstein calls NOW. Motion runs into this NOW. We experience motion into time. Time belongs to the mind, motion to the universe. motion is physical time is of the mind amrit
15. ## Time.

BLIKE: What is time? Some people think of time as a human concept, but to me it seems as if time, to some extent, is woven into the fabric of space. If it weren't, how would space warp time? Someone on the boards(don't remember who) said that time is the direction in which entropy increases. I can't imagine a world without time. If someone/something were to live outside time, what would it be like? Would there still be cause and effect? When I look at it from that perspective, it seems as is time exists only in our heads. :shrug: Amrit. YES, that's it. TIME IS OF THE MIND; MOTION IS OF THE UNIVERSE see more: see more: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4321
16. ## Conscious Experience of Einstein's NOW

In science we experience motion with the rational mind. Scientific mind uses "time" as a main frame into which all physical phenomena are examined. Time as a frame of the mind (we will call it "mind-time frame") was build up by observing motion. To have a rational understanding of the events in the nature human mind has developed "mind-time frame" that is composed out of past, present and future. In the universe time does not exists, there is no evidence about time. All we observe is motion. We experience motion into the "mind-time frame", we project time into the universe. By observing (watching, witnessing) the mind we distinguish between motion and time, we become aware that motion runs into what Einstein calls NOW. ……... there is something essential about the "now" which is outside the realm of science. Albert Einstein see more: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4321 amrit
17. ## Multiple dimensions of time

speed of time meas speed of motion speed of motion diminishes with the increasing of the density of space see more: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4321 amrit
18. ## fault with fabric of space/time

Control: in the 2D model of space/time, a key feature to explain gravity is that mass "warps" the fabric by existing. The fabric is thought of as a rubber sheet, and mass makes the sheet become concave, letting other masses roll down towards the larger mass. However, everyone seems to not notice that for this effect to happen there would have to be GRAVITY for the actual masses to move down and distort the sheet. This model does not explain gravity at all, and should not be used. If this model is a literal explanation of how gravity works, then relativity has it all wrong about gravity. Amrit: According to my research cosmic space is curve because of the round distibution of quanta of space. The idea that space could have a granular structure has about 15 years. Space should be build up out of quanta of space (QS) of the size of Planck. When I came across this idea, it came to my mind that granular structure of space is deeply related with its geometry, lets The idea that space could have a granular structure has about 15 years. Space should be build up out of quanta of space (QS) of the size of Planck. When I came across this idea, it came to my mind that granular structure of space is deeply related with its geometry, lets say with the curvedness of space. More space is curved, more space is dense. Round distribution of QS around the mass is making space round. I was thinking for a long time how to put this idea in math form and one beautiful day it came into my mind: density of space D is in relation with mass m according to the formula: D = m x G D is density of the object its centre M is a mass of the object G here is gravitational constant. In every formula of physics m can be changed with D/G. Formula for gravitational force Fg between two objects, r is the distance between the centre of the objects Fg = (D1 x D2) (r square x G) Formula for gravitational acceleration g, where r is the radius of the planet (star) g = D/ r on square ……all other formula can be develop in this way They show clearly that Fg, a, time dilatation, kinetic energy, light bending ……..depends on the density of space D it seems that gravitational waves (GW) are a pure math speculation. This is the statement of Prof. Loinger from Milan. See more: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4321
19. ## speed of light and time

According to modern mathmattics, if you go faster than the speed of light you will go back in time. This has made me think about a few things. (1) If you travel as fast as light will time freeze? (2) Is it possible to go at a negative speed? If so, would it fast-forward you through time? If you have any answers to my questions or more backround information, please reply. Amrit: nothing can go faster than light, a photon is mass less and has a speed of light, all mass particles are slower. particles and bodies do not travel into time, their movement itself is time Physical time (motion) is a physical quantity measured by clocks. With clocks we measure duration of the movement of body or particle regarding another body or particle. There is no still observer which can observe all the movements from a still stand point. All the movements are relative. This is the main insight of the SR. According to the Mach Planck definition in a Planck time a photon pass Planck distance. Time is a movement of a photon into Planck distance. The movement of photon into Planck distance is a "smallest" movement possible in the universe. Speed of time (motion) depends on the density of space: see more: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4321
20. ## Which time slows down?

Control: if an observer was looking at a particle going into a black hole, and he saw the particle slow down, then time from the particle's view would speed up to infinity and the black hole would be long gone. The particle wouldn't have anything happen to it as it would never get to the middle of the black hole until the black hole no longer existed. When it is said "the faster/closer to a black hole you go, time slows down", this means the closer someone went, the more real time they would skip and they would therefore appear younger if they went too close. If they went right into the middle, or if someone went to the speed of light, they would skip infinity... Amrit: Whatever physical motion is time. The speed of time depends on the density of space. In a fast airplane the density of space is higher, so clocks run slower. This lower time speed do not depends on the reference frame, it is not real only for the observer on the earth, it is real also for the observer on the plane. Let’s say I’m on the Earth, you are on the plane. Before you take off we control clocks. When you come back we control clocks again and we see that my clock was faster, your clock has some dilate, the speed of your clock in the plane was slower. see more: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4321
21. ## Faster than light travel?

photon is a mass less particle, it travel with light speed any mass particle will have a less speed than light speed faster than light is only a "gedanken experiement" and will always lead to the wrong conclusions amrit
22. ## Consequences of general relativity - gravitational waves

alext87: In my lessons we have come across the Hulse-Taylor binary system. I have been 'researching' about why the binary system spirals in towards the common centre of mass and believe it is to do will gravitational waves produced by large accelerations of large masses in its orbit. However, I am interested to have a simple understanding of how general relativity predicts gravitational waves and how to estimate how much energy is lost to them over a given time or orbit. By simple I mean with a mathematical base but not high university level please. I would be really grateful because it is hard to find sufficient explanation that is at my level on the internet. Thanks Amrit: According to our research gravitational waves are a pur math speculation. They do not exist in the universe. Gravitational force is carried by the quanta of space that build up cosmic space. see more: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4802 amrit
23. ## Multiple dimensions of time

Time has no dimension. Time is motion of bodies and particles into cosmic space. The speed of time depends on the density of space. More space is dense, more is curved, less the speed of time. see more: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4321 amrit
24. ## A New Relativity is born, An Anti-Relativity

nwaogu: Speed might actually slow time as distance shrinks and time slows down but that doesn't go for gravity. Lower gravity actually makes time slow down not stronger gravity. Since astronauts in space orbiting around earth feeling weightless due to less gravity but when they come back to earth, are few seconds younger. This is because lower gravity makes time actually slow down. This is the theory of time-speed. A Part of Relativity. Amrit: Gravitational force is the result of density D of space. The speed of physical time (motion) depends on the density D. The idea that space could have a granular structure and density has about 15 years. Space should be build up out of quanta of space (QS) of the size of Planck. When I came across this idea, it came to my mind that granular structure of space is deeply related with its geometry, lets say with the curvedness of space. More space is curved, more space is dense. Round distribution of QS around the mass is making space round. I was thinking for a long time how to put this idea in math form and one beautiful day it came into my mind: density of space D is in relation with mass m according to the formula: D = m x G D is density of the object its centre M is a mass of the object G here is gravitational constant. In every formula of physics m can be changed with D/G. Formula for gravitational force Fg between two objects, r is the distance between the centre of the objects Fg = (D1 x D2) (r square x G) Formula for gravitational acceleration g, where r is the radius of the planet (star) g = D/ r on square ……all other formula can be develop in this way They show clearly that Fg, a, time dilatation, kinetic energy, light bending ……..depends on the density of space D see more: http://forum.physorg.com/index.php?showtopic=4321 yours, amrit
25. ## Time.

In the universe we observe time as a motion, there is no other evidence of time. With clocks we measure duration of motion. On the base we measure it time can be defined as time = motion. The process of experiencing of motion (physical time) is following: motion......perception(eyes)......elaboration(mind-time frame)......experience(observer) We experience motion (physical time) into "mind-time frame" that is psychological time. We have to distinguish between A, B and C: A- motion (physical time) B- mind-time frame (psychological time) C- space-time (mathematical model that describes motion into space) Physical time (motion) is a physical quantity measured by clocks. With clocks we measure duration of the movement of body or particle regarding another body or particle. There is no still observer which can observe all the movements from a still stand point. All the movements are relative. This is the main insight of the SR. According to the Mach Planck definition in a Planck time a photon pass Planck distance. Time is a movement of a photon into Planck distance. The movement of photon into Planck distance is a "smallest" movement possible in the universe. Planck time t is a number that indicates the duration of the photon travelling in a Planck distance. All in the universe is energy: cosmic space is energy, matter is energy, light is energy...... Time is a movement of energy, time can not run by itself into space. If it would be so, time would be an energy, but there is no formula in physics where time is energy. 1. In The Theory of Relativity time can be understood as a part of space only in sense that all movement exists in space. Motion and space can not be separated. Bodies and particles do not move in a space-time, all movement exists in space only. Space-time exist only as a math model, it does not exist in the universe itself. The idea that time run by itself into cosmic space is from the times of Newton. At his time physics was a part of metaphysics. The idea is from metaphysics, it is not from physics. By Einstein the Newton idea that time runs independently into space and that movement of material bodies runs into time is half abandoned. In the Theory of Relativity duration of the movement (time) is described with t that is only a component of fourth dimension of space X4. X4 = i x c x t where i (i square is -1) is an imaginary number c is speed of light t is a duration of light moving through the cosmic space from the object A to the object B With clocks we measure duration of the movement of the light (duration of time). All four dimensions of cosmic space are spatial, cosmic space is not 3D + 1T, cosmic space is 4D. Matter is three-dimensional, cosmic space is four-dimensional. When material object is moving in space, space is always also inside of it. Space does not finishes on the surface of material object, it extends also inside of it. One can imagine that as a two-dimensional object moving in a three-dimensional space. Two-dimensional object exists in three-dimensional space, but three-dimensional space exists also in the two-dimensional object. The speed of the motion (time) depends on a density D of space. Density D in centre of planet or star is D = m x G, where m is a mass and G is gravitational constant. Density D is diminishing with the distance r on square from the centre of the star. Speed of time is increasing with the diminishing of density D. Clocks run faster on the top of the high mountain and slower at the sea side under the mountain. Density of space is higher at sea side and lover on the top of the mountain. Density of space is increasing by going towards the sun. Time (speed of bodies and particles) is becoming slower by going towards the sun. That's the cause of "Mercury perihelion dilate". 2. Quanta of space which compose cosmic space have the following features: they change their electrical charge from positive to negative in a Planck time (5.39x10^-44s), vibrate at the “basic frequency” 0.19x10^44s-1 , have a “basic energy” given by the relation Eqs = h*0.19x10^44s-1 where h is Planck’s constant (6.626069x10^34Js ), and thus Eqs = 1.26x10^10J . QS of cosmic space can not be created and can not be destroyed, they have no entropy. Gravitational force acts between that build quanta of space that QS build up cosmic space. The "radius of action "of gravitational force is of a Planck size. Every QS attract the QS around it. Between QS near by the moon and QS near by the earth gravitation acts on the distance and instantly via QS that are between them. Gravitational force is carried directly by the density of QS that build up cosmic space. Density D of QS of a given volume of cosmic space depends on the density of matter contained in it: formula 1: D = m x G where D is the density of QS in the centre of the material object, m is the mass of the object and G is the gravitational constant. The gravitational force Fg between two material objects is given by the following relation: where r is the distance between the centers of the two material objects. Gravitational force Fg on material body or on a particle that has a mass m depends on the density G of space. Fg = (m x D) / ( r x r ) where m is a mass of a body or particle, D is the density if space in a centre of planet or star, r is the distance from the centre of the planet or star; r can be shorter or longer as t the radius of the planet or star. In a centre of the planet or star Fg on a material object or mass particle is: Fg = (m x D) m10^-2 Gravitational acceleration a in a given distance r from the centre of the planet or star is: a = (m x G) / (r x r) m is a mass of planet or star, G is gravitational constant r is a distance from a centre According to the formula 1: D = m x G a = D ( r x r ) where D is the density of space in the centre of planet or star and r is a distance from the centre 3. Relation between mass m of particle and density of space D into it is: D = m x G where G is gravitational constant. The density of space inside of the same atom is higher on the earth than on the moon, because on the earth the density of space is higher than on the moon. The same atom will have a bigger weight on the earth than on the moon. But its density D that defines its mass will remain the same. So by moving through the space the weight of particles changes, but its mass remains the same. Photon is an exception here. Around the photon there is no additional density D of cosmic space, so photon has no weight and no mass. Energy of matter and energy of space inside of a material object or mass particle are in equilibrium, equal: Espace ( Es ) = Ematter ( Em ) Es = Em = m x cc, ( D = m x G) where m is a mass of the object, c is speed of light, D is density of space around the object and G is gravitational constant. Es = Em = (D x cc) / G Energy of space Es inside of particle or material object depends on the density of space D. First experiments that proves mass increasing of particles that moves fast were done about 100 years ago. The faster the elementary particle, the bigger will be its mass. We call that “The Relativistic Mass Increase”. The formula E = 0.5m x vv shows the relationship between the increase in mass of the relativistic particle and its increase in kinetic energy. In this formula we can change m with D/G and we will get the formula: E = (0.5D x vv) / G which shows clearly that the kinetic energy of particle depends on the density D of space into it and on the speed v The mass of accelerated particle is increasing because the with the speed increasing the density around the particle is increasing. Density of space is increasing also inside of the inertial system that moves with the higher speed regarding the inertial system that moves with the lower speed. This higher density of space causes the speed of clocks is slower into the faster inertial system. Higher density of cosmic space inside of an fast inertial system is the bridge SR and GR. In SR the speed of inertial system causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space, in GR the mass causes the increasing of the density of cosmic space. “Inertial mass” and “gravitational mass” of a material object or particle are equal because the density of cosmic space in inertial mass and gravitational mass is equal. Let’s say we are in a fast space ship that travels far away from the stars and planets in cosmic space with low density. With increasing of the speed of the space ship the density of cosmic space into it will increase. By attaining a certain speed the density of the space in the space ship will be equal to the density on the surface of the earth. Space ship travel than with this constant speed. We have two material bodies that are identical. Both of bodies will behave in exact the same way in the space ship and on the surface of the earth. The density D of space in both bodies is equal. This means the equality between inertial mass and gravitational mass. 4. Cosmic space is composed by quanta of space (QS) having the size of Planck length. Light is a physical event in which photons are "jumping" from one quantum of space to another in a Planck time. Cosmic space is a medium of light, inertial systems move through the cosmic space. That's why the speed of light is “maximum speed” in the universe and it is same in all inertial systems. Light has a double particle-wave nature simultaneously. A single photon jumping from one quantum of space to another in its trajectory is the central part - particle. The “chain jumping” of the photon changes the frequency of the QS on its trajectory from its basic frequency to the frequency of the photon. The central part of the photon also changes the vibration of QS around its trajectory that is its circumference part - wave. In a “double slit experiment” we can settle instruments and observe photon's particle-part or we can settle instruments differently and observe the wave's part of the photon. When we settle instruments to observe a particle, we will observe (detect) the particle part of the photon, when we settle instruments to observe a wave, we will observe (detect) the wave part of the photon. Scientist (Observer) should not play any role in this experiment. 5. When a star has a mass of 3,2 masses of sun in its centre the density of cosmic space is so strong that gravitation overpowers all other forces. Matter transforms back into quanta of space (QS) that build up cosmic space. Beyond Schwarzschild Radius gravity is so strong that prevails above all other forces. All elementary particles transform back into the energy of cosmic space. Matter and space are made out of the same “stuff”. Black holes are the “fabric” where matter transforms back into space. In big explosions of AGN space transforms back into matter. Universe is composed by one energy. The basic packets of this one energy are QS. Energy is circulating continuously “space-matter-space-matter-…”. Universe is a self-renewing system. There was no beginning and there will be no end. Schwarzschild Radius Rs is: Rs = (2G x m) / (c x c) G is gravitational constant m is mass of the stellar object According to the formula (1) D = G x m D is the density of cosmic space in the centre of the black hole Rs = 2D / (c x c) Inside Rs gravitation has no direction, density of space does not increases towards the centre of the black hole. The area inside of Rs is a fabric where matter transforms back into the QS of cosmic space. A mass has a weight when it is in a space where density changes, it has a direction. At the “weightless” Lagrange point between earth and sun happens that density D of space is stable, there is no change of density, no direction. So gravity is there because gravity is carried by the quanta of space QS, and QS build up cosmic space also at the “weightless point”. If it would be no gravitation at the “weightless point” earth would fly away long time ago. A body at Lagrange point will not move, but this does not mean that gravitational force is not there. Diminishing of the speed of binary pulsar is caused by the transformation of matter back into the energy of cosmic space in the centre of one star of the binary pulsar. With transformation of matter into space the mass one stars is diminishing, and so also the speed of the binary pulsar is diminishing. There is no gravitational radiation, gravitational waves do not exist. Time decrease of the orbital period of the binary pulsar PRS1913+16 is the result of matter transforming back into space in the centre of one star. This diminishes the mass of the star, diminishing of the mass causes diminishing of the speed of rotation, and so time decrease of the orbital period.
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