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  1. As a general rule B. subtilis does chemotaxis in a different (sometime opposite) way versus E. coli. I never thought about bushings before, but I will ask around.
  2. When an enzyme is saturated with its substrate, its velocity reaches its maximum, notated as Vmax. Because enzymes are catalytic and because one has different purposes, it is not possible to give a general answer about how much enzyme to use in a given experiment. When discussing the quantity of enzyme, one often encounters the word "unit." One unit of an enzyme is the amount that will convert one micromole of substrate to product per minute under a given set of conditions. Often enzymes are sold on the basis of how many units are present.
  3. I am not sure that a transporter in the outer membrane would be needed, owing to the presence of porins in the outer membrane.
  4. Ciak, What if you used a molecule with two different halogens at the 1 and 3 positions?
  5. Is this a homework problem or an exam problem? Can you explain what you were taught and what you do and don't understand at this point?
  6. Structure A could be fixed by adding a formal charge to oxygen. There is a good reason to insist that formal charges should always be written out explicitly and not assumed or inferred.
  7. Have you searched using PubMed? I am not sure that it would pick up dissertations, but it would surely find research articles.
  8. This part of Science Forums is for helping, not for giving answers.
  9. On your reactant side there are a total of five carbons, and on your product side, there are four carbons. Also when an amine adds into a ketone or aldehyde, one obtains an imine. There would have to be a reduction to obtain an amine. I have no idea what the ideal solution is, but I might be tempted to look for amino acids or common metabolic intermediates that have the same number of carbon atoms. With respect to the route I suggested or with respect to valine, I would also look into various kinds of known racemase, epimerase, or mutase reactions.
  10. One thing to consider is that transporting CO2 in C-4 plants costs two ATPs IIRC.
  11. Ah, that is more of a physiological question, and I don't know much in that area. With respect to the glucose transporter family, they are not engaged in active transport. On the other hand, glucose transport into the cell from the intestinal lumen is accomplished via active transport.
  12. I mean transporters that reside in the plasma membrane itself. For example there is a family of glucose transporters (GLUTn, where n = 1, 2,...) that facilitate the diffusion of glucose across plasma membranes. Chapter 11 in Nelson and Cox's principles of biochemistry textbook has a good discussion at the advanced undergraduate level.
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