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About BabcockHall

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    bioorganic chemistry
  1. Receptor binding and drug dose

    First, we are not here to do your homework or your non-homework thinking for you. You are supposed to show some sort of effort. Second, you did a poor job presenting the question. Table 2 is cut off in your diagram. Third, why did you ask for someone with a knowledge of peptide pharmacokinetics? Pharmacokinetics could be defined as "the study of the time course of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion". The question you are asking is not entirely unrelated to that field, but we don't have any information that bears on the pharmacodynamics of either compound (and in any case your opening post assumes identical pharmacokinetics). Fourth, the answer to your opening question could be found by thinking carefully about the reply you have already been given by CharonY. Your most recent answer suggests to me that you are not approaching this problem correctly. Consider the following hypothetical. Compound A has a value of EC50 of 1 nM. Compound B has a value of EC50 has a EC50 value of 10 nM. Suppose that both are present in vivo at 100 nM. What would you conclude?
  2. Receptor binding and drug dose

    That's just a restatement of what you said in your opening post. I expected more effort than you have put in so far, such as defining EC50, or saying that EC50 was measured by examining cAMP levels. I had to go to the original paper to learn that.
  3. Ca channel

    Calcium ions are one member of the class of chemical species called "second messengers," which respond to hormones, the first messengers. Calcium ions activate protein kinase C, among many other effects. My answer is intended to be very general.
  4. Receptor binding and drug dose

    Is this a homework problem?
  5. Antibody Amino Acid Sequences

    My first reaction to what you are proposing is that it is extremely ambitious for a high school project. Although docking programs can give some indication of affinity, I am not aware of programs that provide association rate constants.
  6. Oxalate in food

    Because of the chelate effect, oxalate is often better at binding metals than, say acetate, and this holds true for Mg(II). A reliable source for dissociation constants is Martell and Smith's multivolume compendium.
  7. Receptor binding and drug dose

    What are your thoughts? Once we know those, then we may be able to help you.
  8. orgo 2

    Do you have any acid-labile groups present?
  9. neutral nuc: acidic conditions

    I would put a minus sign on it, to indicate that it is hydroxide ion. And we can compare the pKa values of the conjugate acids of any two leaving groups to determine which base is stronger.
  10. neutral nuc: acidic conditions

    All else held equal, stronger bases make poorer leaving groups than weaker bases. Strong bases are less able to stabilize negative charge than weaker bases. Which is the stronger base?
  11. neutral nuc: acidic conditions

    @OP, Which is a better leaving group, hydroxide ion or water, and why?
  12. esters: hydrolysis

    @OP, If you have a sodium as a countering, what does that suggest about the rest of the reagent?
  13. Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency

    What I would do is look into which amino acids are catabolized into 4-carbon TCA intermediates such as fumarate, oxaloacetate, or succinyl CoA versus which ones are catabolized into pyruvate. For example, isoleucine is catabolized into acetyl CoA and propionyl CoA, and the latter compound can be converted into succinyl CoA in several steps.
  14. Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency

    "Most likely" is an odd choice of terms. Amino acids are classified as glucogenic (glycogenic), ketogenic, or both. Once anything is tranformed into pyruvate, I don't see what would prevent its further conversion. Therefore, I don't know what you mean by "...cannot be transformed from oxaloacetate to pyruvate." Can you explain? Can alanine be transformed into pyruvate? Once you have the answer to that, you will be on your way. BTW your title is a bit confusing. If there is a deficiency in this enzyme or in its allosteric activator, gluconeogenesis is likely to be impaired. I am not sure that I see the connection between that and the question of how the amino acids are glycogenic. Are you attempting to distinguish between those that are catabolized to pyruvate versus those that are catabolized to oxaloacetate?
  15. Photosynthesis Experiment Question

    @OP, Why not write out the light-dependent and light-independent reactions for us? Then we can discuss them.