  # ravell

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1. The observed constant value of the Hubbel parameter of Ho ≈ (70km /s) /Mpc for all galaxies, regardless of their distance from Earth, contradicts the theory of the Big Bang and the expansion of the Universe. The calculations presented in the program SagitariusBR available on the link https://www.dropbox.com/s/n7hm6vom2viowhc/ProgramSagitariusBR.pdf?dl=0 show that in the case of the expansion of the Universe, the observed value of the Hubbel parameter H for galaxies closer to Earth should decrease and this is not observed.
2. The orbit of the ISS space station is defined by the following parameters (data as of 07/11/2021) : - - Perygeum 419 km above sea level, - Apogeum 421 km above sea level, - - Orbital period 91,34 minutes (91min 20 sec). From the above data, it follows that the ISS is moving in orbit at a speed of 7786,3 m/s. According to the standard calculations for the mean orbit altitude = 420 km and gravity g = G*M /R^2, - where M is the mass of the Earth = 5,9736E+24 kg, - and the orbit radius R = 6 371 km + 420 km = 6 791 km the average orbital velocity should be: v = (G*M /R}^0.5 = (g * R)^0.5 = 7661,2 m /s and the orbital period should be: T = 2 π R /v = 92 min 47 sec. According to the standard calculations, satellites reach the speed of 7786.3 m /s at an altitude of 205 km! Thus, the greater actual speed of the ISS in orbit, than that indicated by the standard calculations, indicates that the gravity in the orbit must be greater than that derived from the formula g = G*M /R^2 To clarify this matter, the Gravity-Calc program was used, available at the link: https://www.dropbox.com/scl/fi/q1fdwelm9aqf7b0zxd9o0/Gravity-Calc.xlsx?dl=0&rlkey=eq2buobftc7s3kyodvunrb9ka The calculations in this program surprisingly confirm that the gravity in the ISS orbit is increased to the extent that ensures the observed speed of the ISS, i.e. 7786,3 m /s.
4. Unfortunately, this cannot be true and it is not true. If it is the passage of time that slows down as gravity increases, and all type of clocks only show this effect, then explain the following very theoretical example. You have moved to planet X with your clock tuned on Earth in our units of time, seconds, minutes and hours, and let gravity on this planet be so high that, according to the theory of relativity, the passage of time is there twice as slowly as on Earth. Can you give answers then, what time values you will measure on your clock on the planet X for the following events: 1. The period of flashes of a distant pulsar that, seen from Earth, flashes once a second? 2. Earth rotation period, which on Earth is 24 hours? 3. The travel time of light back and forth in a vacuum pipe 150 m long, which on Earth is 1 microsecond. 4. The travel time of sound in a pipe 340 m long (air pressure 1 atmosphere) , which on Earth is 1 second. 5. The frequency for the A sound, which on Earth is 440 Hz? 6. The time it takes to cook a pancake at a given frying pan temperature, which on Earth is 5 minutes? ☺ If you already have the answers, now answer the same 6 questions, but using the local clock on the planet X, which is tuned so that its ticking rate is the same as for clocks on Earth, i.e. 1 sec on this clock = 1/86400 Earth day. It”s obvious. Pendulum clock in the absence of gravity will not work, like the atomic clock will not work in the absence of electricity. However, during movement, only light clocks slowdown, not all clocks, as relativity theory claims. This slowdown of light clocks during movement is not a relativistic effect, as it results from classical physics. This was clearly presented in the article (noncommercial):
5. The theory of relativity claims that all clocks regardless of their design and principle of operation, slowdown their ticks in the following cases: - during its movement, according to the formula T = To / (1- (v / c) ^2)^0,5 - as gravity increases. It turns out that such a slowdown of the clock ticks, called time dilation, is true only for light clocks, which include atomic clocks, and does not apply to all clocks. This slowing down of the clock ticks is therefore only a technical feature of light clocks, and not a dilation of time as such. For example, the pendulum clock will not slow down but will tick faster when the gravity increases, as it shown in the following formula for the clock's cycle: T = 2 π (I / mgr)^0,5 where: m - pendulum mass, g - gravitational acceleration, r - distance of the center of mass from the pendulum axis, I = mr ^ 2 - moment of inertia relative to the axis of oscillation. Another claim of special relativity is the length contraction of objects during motion, according to the formula: L = Lo (1- (v / c)^2)^0,5 The fundamental evidence of this length contraction is to be the null results of the Michelson-Morley experiment. This is also untrue, because the null results of the Michelson-Morley experiment and all other similar experiments are solely due to the Doppler effect and nothing else. Detailed analyzes and calculations in the above cases have been clearly presented in the VETER program for verification of relativity theory, available on the link: url deleted Therefore, all the above claims of the theory of relativity are not in fully consistent to the truth and therefore require appropriate correction.
6. According to current views, the Universe was created as a result of the explosion of an original singularity of infinitely small size and infinitely high density. This event, called the Big Bang, was to take place 13.7 billion years ago, as determined by the assumed expansion rate of the Universe, adopted by astronomers. The result of the Big Bang is also to be mysterious, undetectable dark matter (non-barionic) , which matter alleged to be the cause of the uniform velocity of stars in the disks of spiral galaxies. A computational analysis of the above issues presented in the Sagitarius BR program, available at the link: url deleted undermines both the occurrence of dark matter in galaxies and the reality of the expansion of the Universe.
7. Regarding the alleged plenty of scientific evidence and experiments confirming the special and general relativity, the summary list of which is presented in the article "What is the experimental basis of Special Relativity?", available on the link: http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/SR/experiments.html , it is not possible to treat this list of experiments as confirmation of the truth of the SR. A significant part of the experiments quoted there concerns the null results of the Michelson-Morley experiment and many other similar experiments. In any case, these experiments can not be a confirmation of the truth of Special Relativity, because in fact their null results are due to the Doppler effect, and not from the alleged contraction of the longitudinal arm of the interferometer as the SR claims. Another large part of the experiments cited in that article concerns the delaying of clocks (light clocks !) in motion, which is also not a relativistic effect, because the delay of light clocks results directly from classical physics. The mathematical proof in this regard is presented in the article available on the link: URL deleted It must be emphasized here that presenting GPS as the SR proof is unfounded. The required factory offset for clocks in GPS satellites is entirely based on classical physics. It is also worth noting that a significant part of the description contained in the article, refers to "Experiments that Apparently are NOT Consistent with SR / GR", which in itself does not require additional comments.
8. The relevant formulas are clearly presented in the VETER program available at the link: ! Moderator Note Link deleted, again. If you have something to say regarding the program and its implications, do that here in writing. This program is safe, available on the Internet since 2013 and has many users, and has been cited many times in this forum. Moving this program from the Relativity section to the Speculations and removing its link without any substantive objections is incomprehensible and reflects the strange intentions of the moderator. Could you provide the recommended link to these scientific evidence and experiments confirming special and general relativity?
9. In the program VETER v. 3.0 for verification the theory of relativity, available on the link: LINK DELETED are presented calculations regarding the observation of ticks rate of light clocks in motion. The calculations shown (numerically and graphically) in the "Frequency" and "Time" sheets, clearly prove that is not true the claim of relativity theory, that every two clocks maintaining a constant velocity with respect to each other, will both see (measure) the other as running slow. (To open this program you do not need to log in to Dropbox, but select: Download> Download directly and after opening the program in Excel, select Enable editing.)
10. Quotes from the link provided by Strange: „The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy with a diameter between 150,000 and 200,000 light-years (ly). Estimates of the mass of the Milky Way vary, depending upon the method and data used. At the low end of the estimate range, the mass of the Milky Way is 5.8×1011 solar masses According to a study published in 2014, the mass of the entire Milky Way is estimated to be 8.5×1011 M☉, which is about half the mass of the Andromeda Galaxy Mathematical models of the Milky Way suggest that the mass of dark matter is 1–1.5×1012 M☉. Recent studies indicate a range in mass, as large as 4.5×1012 M☉] and as small as 8×1011 M☉.” As you can see, there is no unambiguous data regarding the mass of Milky Way and its diameter. As it results from the above, the assumed for calculations in the program the diameter of the galaxy 200 kly and the mass around 2.5E+11 Ms, is generally correct and gives correct calculations of the speed, consistent with the observations. This excludes unambiguously, the occurrence in the galaxy of a mysterious dark matter (non-baryonic) with a very large mass of 4.5E+12 Ms, that is (4.5E+12) / (2.5E+11) = 18 times greater than its normal (baryonic) mass !.
11. According to data from astronomical tables from 2002, the mass of the Milky Way is 5E+41 kg that is 2,5E+11 solar masses (Ms), and the diameter of the galaxy disk is 120 kly. If we put this data into the Sagitarius BR program, with the previously given distribution of mass, but with the diameter of the galaxy enlarged to 200 kły, then we get the calculated rotation speed of the stars exactly the same as we observe (ie about 220 km/s). The change in the diameter or mass of the galaxy does not change the shape of the speed curve, but only raises or lowers the level of velocity obtained. For example, after adding that controversial dark matter, 10 times larger than normal mass (!?), the mass of the galaxy should then be about 2,5E+12 Ms, and the obtained star speed will then be about 700 km/s! For a full understanding of these relationships, I suggest you practice it yourself in the program Sagitarius BR.
12. This is what the uniqueness of the Sagitarius BR program is all about. You can, by trial method, model such mass distribution in the disk of the considered galaxy, which in turn results in a rotation curve of stars in the galaxy, consistent with the observations. On this basis, the program allows to analytically verify the real mass value of the analyzed galaxy and its distribution in the disk.
13. As can be seen from the description of the Sagitarius BR program, the mass Me of the equivalent star in the individual rings of the galaxy is calculated as follows: The modeled % mass for a given ring is divided equally into 72 sectors, and then the mass of the sector is divided equally into 10 layers of this sector. So there are 720 Me stars in each ring. Thus, if we model the total mass in a given ring by, for example, 5% of the mass of the galaxy, then the mass of each equivalent star in this ring will be Me = (5/72)/10 = 0.006944% of the mass of the galaxy. If, for example, for Milky Way, we assume a distribution of the galaxy mass on individual rings 1-20 in % as follows: 13, 1, 5, 6, 11, 1, 8, 6, 5, 5,5, 5,3, 4,9, 4,8, 4,6 4,5 4, 3,5, 3, 2,4 1,5 We get a graph of velocities of stars, which is generally consistent with the observations: The observed velocities of the stars for the Milky Way : Therefore, the calculation method adopted in the Sagitarius BR program can be considered as fully correct, which is confirmed by the observations.
14. The method used to calculate the velocity of stars in the disks of spiral galaxies is clearly presented in the description of the Sagitarius BR program. The link to the description of this program is given in the final part of the program. The link is as follows: https://www.dropbox.com/s/d2ywkaabxo0jd6m/SagitariusBRprogramDescription.pdf?dl=0 Below a fragment of this description concerning the applied calculation method: “ The idea of the computation program Sagitarius BR is to split an analyzed galaxy disc into twenty concentric rings of the same width. The thickness of each ring is formed of 10 layers. The thickness of the layers in the rings are adopted accordingly to assumed profile of the galaxy. Each layer is divided into 72 sectors (five degrees of arc) and the total mass of stars and gas contained in the each sector is presented as a single star of equivalent mass (Me). Thus, the model used for calculations is equivalent in size and mass with the analyzed galaxy, and it consists of 14400 Me stars, rotating in a galaxy disc on 200 orbits, with 72 Me stars on each of the orbit. The program allows: - to calculate and present a chart of the orbital velocity of stars in galaxies of any galaxy mass, calculated in multiples of the Sun (Ms), and with any disc diameter, ……….. The program first calculates the force of gravitational attraction of the Ms star, located on orbits in the consecutive rings, by each of 14 400 Me stars (F (kn) = (G Me(kn) Ms) / L(kn)^2, where k is the ring number, n the sector number, L the distance between the Ms star and the Me star of a particular sector), and then calculates for the Ms star at a given orbit, the total resultant force of attraction F by all the 14 400 Me stars of galaxy On the basis of the calculated resultant forces F of gravitational attraction for each orbit, the program calculates the rotation velocity of the stars on these orbits, resulting from the formula for centrifugal force to balance the gravitational attraction for a given orbit (F = ( Ms V^2)/ r), where r is the radius of the orbit. In total, the Sagitarius BR program version 4.0 performs over 200 000 calculations. ……………. ” The link to the program is correct, but for some inexplicable reasons has been blocked here. I therefore give it again: https://www.dropbox.com/s/a1cu74xj4ep9iyq/SagitariusBRprogramForCalculationsOfSpeedOfStars.xlsx?dl=0
15. The program Sagitarius BR is for many years available on the Internet and also on this forum has already been cited several times. The program is save and has many users. The program Sagitarius BR (made in Excel) is very useful, because in an interesting, interactive way presents selected calculations in the field of astronomy. The program does not contain speculations only legible, easy to verify the real calculations.
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