Take a look at the gigantic population of China. It is so large that authorities have had to implement one-child regulations where couples can only have at most one child. Now look at the population of, say, Singapore(my country!). The government here has implemnted incentives such as Baby Bonus, where a parents get paid off-days and paid maternity leave in an effort to encourage population growth to drive the economy.
As populations go up and up, a startling thought comes to mind - the spread of diesease, overcrowding, and all of the bad things that come with it. Just take a look at the first graph on this page : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overpopulation (yes I know its wikipedia). We could go high up and build our buildings taller. We could go underground to find space. But we will reach a limit, and the effects of overpopulation will start to take its toll on the world's population.
First, let's get to the root of this issue. Here is the first problem - our position in the food chain. Look at our far-off age old ancestors-apes, primates and the like. They had predators to keep their population in check. There were not at the very top of the foodchain. Now look at us, and ask yourself this very question: Are we not at the top of the food chain? Sure, occassionally you find yourself staring at the headlines:"Young boy eaten by shark", but are we actually prey of such animals? We are not even part of their normal diet. In fact, the reverse is quite true for some of us. Some of us eat sharks' fin, some eat crocodile meat on a regular basis. It was the prodigal devlopment of our cognitive skills that lead to this.
This brings us to our second point - technological advancements. The invention of weapons allowed for more efficient hunting. The invention of medicine lowered chances of one getting killed by disease. Improvement of living conditions led to a longer life span. And we have what most of us now rely on for food - agriculture. Efficiency of crop growing has been rising, even more so with tools, tractors etc. Humans now have a lower mortality rate as we do not have to risk going out to hunt for food. In fact, we can stand by, doing little manual work and watching machines harvest the rice.
Now, this may sound very controversial, but all our developments have completely upset the food chian and means of keeping our population in check. Everything is now irreversible. No country, no one, would be willing to give up the length and comforts of life. And we have to let our population grow in order to counter the growing population. Furthermore, population growth is exponential. It only gets worse and worse. And then, like I said earlier, overcrowding will happen. Our population will drop to, say, 1 billion. Then the cycle will repeat itself. Now, to finish this post with the least intelligent sentence. I couldn't think of any other place to post this, so is posting it here right? If not, please kindly advise.