# ender7x77

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81

1. ## Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation?

So, I've been wroking a lot with graphs this week, which seems to be leaning towards Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation. We have done many proportionality, but derving the formula has proven to be very difficult. I'm not sure of this means anything to anyone, but its work the try anways. After a series of three intense self-hand made graphs I was able to develop two proportionalities: one which related Force versus Distance, the other relationg Mass versus Distance. My proportionality statements are the following in order of how I just listed the two: F is directly proportional to 1/Δd^2 and M is directly proportional to Δd^2. Eventually, I found my constank (k), and was able to develop a formula for the two proportionalities which were F = k/Δd^2 eventually becoming (3.989 x 10^14)/Δd^2, and M = kxΔd^2which became M = (2.455x10^{-14})xΔd^2. After all these calculations and graph manipulations were are asked to write a proportionality statement relating the two other statements with all three variables (Δd, F, M). In doing so I'm completely bewildered due to the fact of there being two different constants (one of mass and one of ....?). I believe this to be newtons universal law of graviation, but I could be wrong. Does anyone have any ideas? I manipulated the statements so that they both beging with Δd, but then I dont know how to plug it in. Anyways, I appreciate anyone who can shed some light on this but reflecting upon the amount I just wrote, I can see that many will feel reluctant to do so. Thanks.
2. ## Chlorophyll viewed with red light?

I'm stuck on this question..I understand that the red and blue lights are mostly absorbed in chlorophyll whereas the green light is poorly, resulting in the dominance of green light. So, red light being a low level light would result in a chlorophyll extract to appear grey because we lose colour perception. Is this in any way correct?
3. ## Light Independent Reactions and the Calvin Cycle

In regards to chlorophyll extract being viewed under red light...would it not appear to be black in pigment due to chlorophyll reflecting green light. When green and red combine they will create black like pigment.
4. ## Light Independent Reactions and the Calvin Cycle

Thanks for the great help! I didn't think anyone would respond because of the length of it. The pigment correction helped me out a lot. I'm going to have to change my anwser for my lab. I thought because leaves appeared green because chlorophyll is green, but now i see that it is reflected back to us. I still need to figure out though if viewed under red light, what would a chlorophyll extract to appear in colour. Lastly, I got two more questions. Am I correct to assume that air temperature, amount to water in sorl, brigtness of ambient light, turgor pressure of the gurad cells, and humidity will affect the opening and closing of the stomata? I know the last 3 are. The amount of water will create the turgor pressure or relieving of the pressure so I'd like to think it does too. A high rf value in chromatography paper implies that the solute is structually similar to the the solvent? I have no idea about this one. I have been looking all night for it with no luck. Anyways, thanks again.
5. ## Light Independent Reactions and the Calvin Cycle

Can anyone confirm this as being right? I'm reviewing for my photosynthesis test and these are among few that I have been dubious about. In the dark, or light independent reactions, carbon dioxide is fixed to ribulose biphosphate in the Calvin Cycle. The primary end product of this cycle is G3P, which may be converted to glucose and polymerized into starch. The molecule glycolate underoges subsequent metabolism such that it results in the release of a molecule of G3P. Light energy, captured by chlorophyll a, is transferred to a series of primary electron acceptors. The process whereby a plant uses a oxygen in light is photorespiration. Is green light the most effective for photosynthesis in the spectrum of white light? If anyone could anwser just one that would help me out greatly.
6. ## Calories?

Well, thanks for the tip. Apples it is! Hopefully the other fruits I mentioned don't fall under the category of the banana.
7. ## Calories?

Thanks a lot!!! Didn't know banana's were frowned upon or perhaps I read too much into that. Thanks for anwser my biggest question as to whether or not too little calories was healthy because I just assumed when I started that eating less lead to a healthier diet. I tend to eat fruit throughout the day, but a lot of it was bananas so I'll try to eat more apples, and strawberries, kewies, and such. Thanks for your help! Until my next questions I guess..lol..take care.
8. ## Calories?

Thanks a lot Bluenoise...you are always very helpful. I understand that in order to achieve my desire diet that I must incorporate some fats as you had suggested to create a 'balanced diet'. I guess my lack of fats are what have been causing my massive food cravings though my goal to lose weight has out weighed these immense desires. Good old biology, sorry to have seemed oblivious towards fats, which by you pointing out the importance of calories I was able to connect. Low calorie counts would most likely trigger lipogensis in order to compensate for glucose deficiency, which is to say that it would convert glycogen to glucose (am i right?). Anyways, I think I have been balancing my pasta (my mistake...pasta is a starch, but I have been getting whole wheat pasta which somewhat validates my statement still). I acknowledge that it is high in calories; much higher than things I would have assumed to have been. I'm trying to get around it, but my aversion towards vegetables makes this diet very difficult. If it helps any the information you said that would be required of you to make accurate assumptions are that I'm 19, 5ft5, and 145 pounds. As for what I've been eating daily: ceral bran, some fruit, and then dinner (mostly concoctions comprised of chicken and vegetables with pasta thrown in it every now and then). Thanks for patience and consistent insightfullness. PS - I'm from Wasaga Beach... a few hours from Hamilton. Hello, fellow Canadian!
9. ## Calories?

I began dieting last week, but I feel as though if I were to be more educated in the area of biochemistry than perhaps I would know the proper foods to consume in order to achieve a great diet. My concerns are mostly of what calories, which I know doesn't necessarily fit under biochemistry, but my following questions will. Anyways, I understand that calories is food energy, which creates my state of confusion, for I'm under the impression that energy is good for us, which without it we would die. How by reducing food energy am I to lose weight? What would be considered a healthy level of calories? Now, to biochemistry. Obviously, I want to cut down own my carbohydrates (lipids, starches, sugars, and proteins), but what areas does one reduce most. What is necessary in order to achieve the diet I desire. As for now, my diet consist of a lot of cellulose such as salads, bran cereal, and vegeatable soups, and I'm eating pasta's (another source of fibre), and chicken for my source of protein, which I hear much healthier than pork and beef. Anyways, I know this is a lot to ask, but I'm very curious and in need of assistance for my diet is based on my vestige knowledge of carbohydrates. Thanks!
10. ## DNA Extraction

Ok..sorry wrong choice of a word. I'm just really unsure of what happens to both of the ends in order for them to dissolve the membranes. I apologize for all the questions.
11. ## DNA Extraction

Thanks again... I guess I know more than I think I know. I guess the last thing I'm uncertain about is what attaches to the tail end and what attaches to the head end. I read that page although it strengthened what I wrote and what you confirmed, it doesn't necessarily say where the protein and lipids attach to in order to dissolve the membranes. Thanks for continuing in helping me.
12. ## DNA Extraction

thanks. Was my assumption of the emulsfying agents effect on the pea cell correct? Out of all the anwsers I've been most dubious about that anwser because I've never been comfortable with what goes on with amphiphilies. I know they have a tail and a head end, which one represents the hyrophobic side and the other the hydrophilic side, but my knowledge doesn't really extend much further than that. If you could explain or confirm that would be great especially since exams are closing in.
13. ## DNA Extraction

I thought you said that centrifugation was in the method whee the proteins precipitated...perhaps I misinterpreted. In my experiment the DNA precipitated. Anyways, thanks though I'm not making the connection with your last post.. the positive counter ion is above my knowledge.
14. ## DNA Extraction

Thanks a lot everyone! I would have assumed that without removing the histones that the DNA may not have precipitated; also the proteins I would assume to be are those classified as cell residue and would simply go to the bottom because they are more dense than water(?). Sorry, I forgot to list the questions so thanks a lot for anwsering/confirming some of my anwsers. Here are the questions in order of my anwsers: What is found in the meat tenderizer that is needed for DNA to be extracted? Liquid detergent is an emulsfying agent, why is it needed? Why does the DNA collect in the alcohol layer? Also - The salt added at the beginning (this is not one of my questions) helps in the precipitation of the DNA...? I know it is quite the assumption, but the procedure for DNA extraction seems to be so precise that the addition of salt must be important. Anyways, that was just a thought i was curious about. Thanks again everyone...hope you had a great New Years!
15. ## DNA Extraction

OK...I'm a little bit unsure of my anwsers in regards to extracting DNA from peas so I was hoping if anyone could confirm them for me. I looked up a site that had remotely the same procedure if it helps http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/activities/extraction/ - The meat tenderizer acts as an enzyme such as Bromelain and Papain, which are proteases to cut away proteins (histones) from the DNA allowing for it to unravel. This reactant is important because... (I'm a little stuck on this... I know what histones are, but cannot seem to find anything on why they must be removed in order to unravel the DNA...ideas?) - While the blender separates the pea cells, there still remains the issue of isolating the DNA for extraction, which is achieved by utilizing an emulsifying agent (detergent) to destroy both the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane. Since, an emulsifying agent is amphiphilic (like likes like) and the two membranes consist of lipids and proteins, the detergent will combine with the two in order to destroy the membranes allowing DNA to be extracted. - Since alcohol is less dense than water, it stays afloat on top of water whereas the cell residue settles at the bottom. DNA precipitates when in the presence of alcohol, which means that it is insoluble in alcohol causing for the collection of DNA in the alcohol layer. I know I'm asking for a lot, but even if anyone could just review one of my anwsers it would be greatly appreciated!
16. ## Macbeth?

I know, I know. When I read what was to be ask for, I thought it didn't make much sense (that is actually all that is given), but I'm trying my best to write an essay. The question is how to explain that equivocation lead to Macbeth's downfall....if it helps you any I have decided that my thesis will be: by means of equivocation, Shakespeares portrayal of the tragic downfall of Macbeth is the result of his ambitions, predetermined fate, and internal consequences ensuing his malicious acts in hope of acquiring the status of King, which ultimately leads to his tragic end of power.
17. ## Macbeth?

Thanks a lot man...here's what I got if your interested: Ambition "All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter" - "This supernatural soliciting Cannot be ill, cannot be good. If ill, Why hath it given me earnest of success… If good, why do I yield to that suggestion" - "And oftentimes, to win us to our harm, The instruments of darkness tell us truths, Win us with honest trifles, to betray 's In deepest consequence" Internal Consequences - "But wherefore could not I pronounce “Amen”? I had most need of blessing, and “Amen” stuck in my throat." -"Duncan is in his grave; after life's fitful fever he sleeps well; treason has done his worst: nor steel, nor poison, malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing, can touch him further" I picked those two not because they are equivocal lines, but have equivocal meanings. It was beneficial for Macbeth to kill King Duncan, but in another sense it was terrible because it brought upon an emotional illness as a result, and eventually leads to his death.? - "Thou canst not say I did it: never shake thy gory locks at me”. I think this quote is really equivocal because not only does it have ambiguity but he is talking to the ghost of Banquo when it said. FATE - "Macbeth shall never vanquish'd be until Great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane hill shall come against him." I think if i have to choose any of the apparations it would be this quote because it suggests that only at this moment will Macbeth be in danger. Due to harmatia, Macbeth takes the literal meaning of it, which is his downfall. - "And be these juggling fiends no more believed, that palter with us in a double sense; that keep the word of promise to our ear, and break it to our hope." This further solidifies that Macbeth had undergone a downfall. He went from a noble Thane to to the polar opposite. - "“Lesser than Macbeth and greater…Not as happy and happier" I think this quote would be best to sum up the last paragraph because it somewhat explains the predicament Macbeth had got himself into and was destined to be defeated. Anyways, that is what i got. Thanks a lot for taking the time to help me out. If you concur or disagree with any of these it would be great if commented, but i appreciate it nonetheless. Thanks!
18. ## Macbeth?

Thanks...though your comment doesn't do me much good, it is nonetheless greatly appreciated that you took the time to try to anwser. I guess I worded it wrong because I understand the quotes placement in the play and acknowledge that they are thought provoking, but is it relevant to equivocation, which is what I am struggling with; I'm not really sure what constitutes for it? Anyways, thanks again.
19. ## Macbeth?

This appears to be the most relevant forum so here I go... I have to do an Essay on Macbeth, which I'm struggling a lot with. Since this is a place of literature I feel that someone would be able to help me out, which I am in dire need of. The essay has to anwser the following: equivocation and explain gow it leads to Macbeth's downfall. Now, if anyone could confirm these following quotes as being relevant and thoughtful, please do so: - "This supernatural soliciting Cannot be ill, cannot be good. If ill, Why hath it given me earnest of success… If good, why do I yield to that suggestion" - "And oftentimes, to win us to our harm, The instruments of darkness tell us truths, Win us with honest trifles, to betray 's In deepest consequence" - "To be thus is nothing; but to be safely thus" - "False face must hide what the false heart doth know." - "Duncan is in his grave; after life's fitful fever he sleeps well; treason has done his worst: nor steel, nor poison, malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing, can touch him further" - "Methought I heard a voice cry, "Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep," - "Be bloody, bold, and resolute; laugh to scorn the power of man, for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth" - "I am in blood stepp'd in so far that, should I wade no more, returning were as tedious as go o'er." - “Lesser than Macbeth and greater…Not as happy and happier" - "Thou canst not say I did it: never shake thy gory locks at me”. I only need a minimum of 6 quotes so anything that doesn't seem revelevant or thoughtful...please do tell me. A lot is riding on this essay. THANKS!!! PS - feel free to suggest any quotes.
20. ## Evolution of the Flamingo?

Can anybody else help me please. There is a lot riding on me doing well on this assignment and i'm having much trepidation because of that. Please, I know someone here is able to anwser this or confirm it. Please its due tomorrow, and this all i have.
21. ## Evolution of the Flamingo?

Thanks, but if you could be more specific on the mutations you would make my life exponentially for the better for today had to be the most enduring i had to suffer through so far this year in school. I'm just not sure about anything anymore, i thought i got my head fixed, but life is full of plethoric surprises. Today, so many things went wrong it made me think just what is the point. I work so hard at things and then when i fall, it feels like an abyss had opened below me and i am yet to find an end. So if you could please spare me the hints which i am suppose to decode to find my anwser it could potentially save me from lodging an acute object into my chest to remove the pain that is failure. I thought i made the right choice, but now i am second guessing. Anyways, i doubt anyone will respond at all to this, but no really ever responded to me in the first place so colour me unsurprised.
22. ## Evolution of the Flamingo?

Thanks a lot! That give me a lot of insight on what may have preceded the structure of a flamingo, but the problem is that how did it go from eating fish to eating very tiny aquatic organisms. I understand that mutations can just occur and as a result is a new structure and function, but with this question i have to specualate that it occurred gradually and not instantaneosuly. Anyways, i very much appreciate your comment. Thanks!
23. ## Evolution of the Flamingo?

So I think I got it...if anyone could confirm that would be great (expand would be even greate though:-) )...here's the exact question if it helps any of you...The flamingo feeds on tiny aquatic organisms with its bill held in an "upside-down" position. How might this bill shape and feeding pattern have evolved? Here is what i got: Initial Species - No mutation has occurred - Behavioral Adaptations: The bird preceding mutation most likely had a long beak in order get to food from the water. Mutation 1 - Ridges on the beak form, which allows for virtually no filtration - Behavioral Adaptations: Enables the flamingo to strip plant matter. Mutation 2 - Exaggerated ridged surface, which allows for large enough openings for effective filtration - Behavioral Adaptations: Flamingo is able to filter out what is not necessary for them in order to maximize on food consumption. Final Species (Mutation 3) - The bill has extended downwards - Behavioral Adaptations: Flamingo is able to hold a large quantity to filter by turning its head inversed; ultimately maximizing on food consumption. That is what i got... i think i should add though, that perhaps something happened to the vertabrae of the flamingo or even something that caused the function because i do believe that it is unique what they do (even though mokele turned it down) which allows it to inverse its bill to hold the water for lack of a better word. Anyways, i am kind of struggling with this unit if anyone has not noticed. Anymore help would be great. Thanks Moleke for all the help so far.
24. ## Evolution of the Flamingo?

I know some of it is a stretch, but we are just suppose to make speculations on how their bill and the function developed from it evolved. Hmmm...are flamingos really not unique for inversing their beaks like i understand that you say that all birds have the capabilities to do so but flamingos have a functional reason for doing it... With that in mind, the bill is obviously shaped the way it is to allow it to gather a large quantity in order to obtain more food. Larger surface area, larger amount to filter, better chance for more food. Now, i just have to think of a way it may have evolved to that..
25. ## Evolution of the Flamingo?

Thanks a lot that was very insightful!!! So I'm starting to get the idea...The mututations occur somewhat like Lamark had thought to happen. Gradual changes can occur over time due to mutation when species are trying to adapt to their environment. Now thinking that structure comes before function...i believe the development of the bill comes first and, as you said about the inverse, to come second (i guess you disagree with a change in their vertabrate...i know it was a huge guess)...I guess all i need to know now is why the bill is shaped how it is...maybe perhaps by looking into the advantages of the filtering i may be able to figure that out....So for now i have the initial species which is like a stork who for some reason due to its beak is unable to obtain x amount of food (i need to check into its environment)...next a mutation occurs where the flamingo developes ridges on its beak which enables it to strip plant matter...another mutation occurs which causes larger ridges to promote filtration.....(insert a mutation in the shape of the bill)...and lastly you get the fully functional and structual flamingo.
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