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  1. Hello everyone, This has bothered me for sometime now. Ok Pulmonary embolism , now decreased perfusion into a part of lung. No blood available for oxygen from lung to diffuse into. Blood has decreased oxygen. That is fine but since no blood is reaching the lungs, the carbon dioxide should also be retained in blood, shouldn't this elevate carbon dioxide in blood. Ok I understand body now goes into relfex tachypnoea to get more oxygen in mean time, and this will also push carbon dioxide out. But how can this reduce carbon dioxide level, if the lung is not receiving carbon dioxide from blood anyway, due to decrease perfusion. Thanks
  2. Hello everyone, I did an internet search on these terms, but I want to make sure if I understood this properly. These are the biopsies I know 1. FNAC: You get a needle and aspirate cells 2. True cut (core) biopsy: You get a bigger needle and aspirate tissue rather than cells. 3. Incisional biopsy: You take a piece of the tissue of interest. Eg if there is an ulcer, you take a wedge shape part of it for histopathology. 4. Excisional biopsy: You take the whole tissue of interest. Eg removing whole lobe of thyroid, to look for follicular carcinoma. Questions 1. Did I understand these terms properly, my biggest confusion is incisional and excisional biopsy, did I get that right? 2.. Are there any other biopsy types I don't know of. Thank you so much
  3. Hello everyone, I thought I understood these terms, but got confused lately . My understanding Congenital- Present at birth Familial: Occuring in family or its members Hereditary: Transmitted or capable of being transmitted genetically from parent to offspring My questions 1. Ok congenital means disease it present at birth. In familial and hereditary also the abnormal genes are present at birth if so why don't their diseases present at birth, why do they manifest later in life? 2. Are all familial diseases hereditary? I really can't differentiate these. Any examples 3. Also aren't some congenital diseases, hereditary/familial? Any examples. 4. Also in some classifications I have seen in textbooks. They take familial causes, under acquired causes section.How is familial and acquired cause, when it is genetic? Thanks
  4. Hello everyone, Charcot's triad is there to describe the clinical features of acute cholangitis. They are 1.Fever 2. Right upper quadrant pain 3. Jaundice 2 and 3 in charcot's triad is confusing to me. As I want to know if they occur due to cholangitis (infection) or due to gall stone obstructing common bile duct and then getting infected causing cholangitis. Is this charcot's triad made assuming that a gall stone causes cholangitis, or even without a stone would 3 features mentioned in Charcot's triad occur in acute cholangitis. Thanks
  5. Hello everyone, How does this occur. I'm talking about retention (eg urine stuck in bladder) not the pre renal failure which myocardial infarction can obviously cause. Also while we are at it, I also read diuretics can cause retention of urine also. That's interesting because that defeats their purpose in the first place. So how do diuretics also cause urine retention. Thanks
  6. I found the answer why urine and faecal retention cause delirium. Answer is if anyone interested cystocerebral syndrome
  7. Hello everyone, I'm talking about retaining urine in the bladder,not renal failure, so I can't think of uraemia as a course. So what is the reason behind this. Thanks
  8. Why is that usually, Diarrohea due to large intestine problems usually cause blood and mucus diarrohea While diarrhoea due to small intestine problems usually cause watery diarrohea. Thanks
  9. Let's say there is a bowel perforation and this results in sepsis, I know surgery would have to be done or else the person would die. But my question is , is the person first given aggresive IV antibiotics first and when infection is controlled only surgery done, or in emergency situations like this it is done asquickly as possible as there is no time to wait. Why I ask is wouldn't general anaesthesia be hazardous in a sepsis patient. Also can't the surgery further disseminate the infection if it not resolved first. Do they just take the risk because there is no choice?
  10. Hello everyone, Lets say there is a guy with colorectal carinoma and he developed metastasis in liver. 1. My question is now this guy has a liver cancer as well. Does this liver cancer contain dysplastic cells from colon or does it contain dysplastic hepatocytes. In simple words what I'm asking is in metastatic liver cancer is it the liver cells that are growing out of control or is it in this case cells from the colon has got implanted in liver and this colon cells are growing out of control in the liver. 2. If it is colon cells, does that mean metastatic cancer of liver would not affect the function of liver that much because liver cells are still normal. As opposed to a primary liver cancer where liver cells itself grow out of control and function is bound to be affected. Thanks a lot
  11. Hello everyone, From what I have read I have deduced that both bowel peforation and strangulation have same clinical features, which are fever, leukocytosis, pain, tenderness, increase in vital signs (eg tachycardia) 1. Why is this? Is it becase strangulation bowel (which means necrosis really) eventually lead to peforation. If not how do you differentiate between the two? 2. If bowel peforation occurs, peritonitis is bound to happen, so are these clinical features due to peritonitis. If not why do these two things cause these clinical features. Eg why cause fever? 3. If some abdominal organ burst, peritonitis can occur. If a thoracic organ occurs infection of thoracic cabity can occur, what do you call that? Thanks a lot
  12. Hello everyone, How does Lymphoedema cause ulcers? Example people with filiariasis having skin ulcers.
  13. Hello everyone, 1. I know 5% dextrose is isotonic outside body 2. Also 10% dextrose is hypertonic outside body 3. Also (5% dextrose + Normal saline) is also hypertonic However if we consider that once inside the body all dextrose gets metabolised by body, leaving only water. Then once inside the body these become 1.Hypotonic 2.Hypotonic 3. Isotonic Respectively. Then if a question comes about the tonicity of these solutions. Which one should I pick for example (5% dextrose + Normal saline) , I choose hypertonic or isotonic for that one. Thanks
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