JosephDavid
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A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
QFT hands us this massive number for vacuum energy density, huge, way too big. But the author’s got a neat idea: maybe that big number isn’t all piled up in one place. Instead, based on **solid physical reasons**, he’s saying it’s **spread out over \(10^{123}\) tiny SU(3) atoms** filling the whole universe. Now, when you spread that QFT energy over all these little SU(3) “atoms,” suddenly you end up with a vacuum energy density that actually fits what we observe. So, the **vacuum energy density we’re seeing isn’t just energy per cubic meter**; it’s **energy per cubic meter per SU(3) atom**. And that, my friend, is what quantum spacetime is all about here. We’re not looking at one big, smooth field of energy. We’re looking at energy carefully spread out, divided across countless little units. It’s this distribution that makes everything line up with what we measure, simple, logical, and right there in front of us. 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
Are you not getting it yet? Look, when we’re talking about **vacuum energy density**, we’re not just dealing with energy per cubic meter. Nope, it’s **energy per cubic meter per SU(3) vacuum atom. Think of it this way: imagine you’ve got a giant pizza meant to feed an entire town. Now, instead of handing the whole thing to one person (which would be ridiculous), you slice it up and spread it out to everyone in town, giving each person a manageable slice. That’s what’s going on here with vacuum energy. In this analogy, the enormous vacuum energy from QFT is like that pizza. But instead of loading it all into one place, it’s **spread across \(10^{123}\) protonsized SU(3) vacuum atoms** scattered throughout the universe. Each atom holds just a fraction of the energy—just like each person gets a slice of pizza. So, what we’re actually observing is the **energy per cubic meter per atom**. This breakdown per atom is what makes the observed vacuum energy density match what we see in the real universe. It’s not just energy per cubic meter, it's distributed per atom, and that’s what keeps everything nice and balanced. Yes, because we need something stable and measurable to define the volume that confines gluons. The neutron could work, but it decays into a proton. So, the proton's volume is more reliable as the one that truly confines massless gluons, since the proton doesn’t decay through any channels in the Standard Model. 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
The volume of the proton is the volume that confines gluons, the massless particles that represent the unbreakable su(3) symmetry. 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
It is correct, as it explains the lowest energy density we have ever measured, the vacuum energy density, based on observations of the universe's expansion. 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
The number of these SU(3) vacuum atoms remains constant, which explains the cosmological constant. 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
Photons are completely decoupled from gluons and, fundamentally, have no interaction with dark energy either. 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
If you’re after a massless, stable backdrop for the universe, gluon condensation is the way to go. It’s like an invisible field, filling space without adding weight, simple, clean, and seamless. Glueballs, by contrast, are little balls of pure glue, but they carry mass due to their binding energy. So, if you’re aiming for a truly massless vacuum structure, gluon condensation is the better choice. I looked into the author’s another paper on the cosmological constant and noticed he describes dark energy as a kind of BoseEinstein distribution. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4598396 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
let’s first understand gluons. These guys are massless. So here’s the deal. Normally, gluons keep quarks bound in particles like protons and neutrons, bouncing back and forth like little springs between quarks. But unlike other force carriers, like photons, gluons are social. They don’t just interact with quarks; they’re also interested in each other! It’s like you’re at a party, and these gluons are so friendly, they start dancing together. This dance gives us something wild called a **gluon condensate**—a whole sea of these massless gluons hanging out in empty space. And here’s another trick: if you get a bunch of gluons together, they can clump up into something we call a **glueball**. Yeah, that’s right—no quarks, just a wad of pure glue. Imagine a baseball made entirely out of sticky tape with nothing in the middle. That’s glueball, just pure gluon stickiness bundled up. The author here cites some work on glueballs, Now here’s where it gets interesting: these gluons, despite doing all this work, don’t add any mass to the universe. It’s like having an invisible scaffold stretching across the cosmos. This unbreakable SU(3) symmetry is always there, holding everything in place without actually weighing anything down. The author’s point here is that SU(3) doesn’t just hold quarks together; it stretches across the universe, massless but unbreakable, like an invisible safety net. So, next time you’re worried about putting on a few pounds, just remember the gluons. They’re out there, holding the universe together, doing all this hard work, without gaining a gram. Makes you appreciate the whole massless, invisible glue keeping the cosmos in shape, doesn’t it? 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
Gluons are massless. 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
In fact the author indicated that in the paper, when he introduced the lagrangian of su(3) field divided by these number of units. 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
The author used the proton volume to define the unit of space that the massless gluon field may occupy at each point in the spacetime fabric of the universe. 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
thanks for pointing that out! It really helps me clarify why the author chose the title **"Unbreakable SU(3) Vacuum Atoms"** instead of just saying "protons." You see, in the whimsical world of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), protons aren't just simple, solid spheres, they're more like tiny, energetic beehives buzzing with activity. Inside each proton, quarks are zipping around, held together by massless gluons, the carriers of the strong force. These gluons are like the honey that holds the hive together, and they obey the rules of the SU(3) symmetry, which, by the way, is as unbreakable. This unbroken SU(3) symmetry ensures that gluons remain massless and confined within the proton's volume. Now, why does this matter? Well, when we're trying to understand the **vacuum energy density** of the universe, the socalled cosmological constant problem, we need to consider the quantum fluctuations that contribute to this energy. By focusing on these massless gluons confined within the proton volume, the author shifts the spotlight from the mass of protons (which would indeed add up to an impossibly massive universe if counted naively) to the energetic dance of gluons inside. It's like appreciating the energy of a party not by counting the guests (which could make the place seem overcrowded) but by enjoying the music and dancing happening within the room. The room's size (the proton volume) stays the same, but the vibe comes from the massless gluons grooving to the beat of unbroken SU(3) symmetry. So, by titling the author work **"Unbreakable SU(3) Vacuum Atoms,"** the author cleverly highlights the role of these massless gluons and the significance of the unbroken symmetry. It's not just about protons as particles with mass; it's about the fundamental forces and fields that permeate space at the smallest scales without overloading the universe with extra mass. This approach allows us to calculate the vacuum energy density more accurately without ending up with a universe that's heavier than a sumo wrestler at an allyoucaneat buffet! It addresses the cosmological constant problem by considering the contributions of massless gluon fields confined within proton volumes, all thanks to the unbreakable SU(3) symmetry. 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
You know, physics is a bit like trying to understand a grand symphony while sitting in the orchestra pit. Sometimes, we're so caught up playing our own instruments that we forget to listen to the music as a whole. The third law of thermodynamics and experimental phenomena like the Meissner effect aren't just notes on a page, they're the melodies we've heard and verified time and time again. Now, I understand that after decades of sailing the seas of mainstream physics, charting courses towards supersymmetry, the multiverse, and **extra dimensions, it might feel like we're being asked to abandon ship in favor of some new vessel that seems untested. But here's the thing: if the ship hasn't reached the shore after all this time, maybe it's worth checking if there's a leak. Supersymmetry and its friends are fascinating, they're like the mysterious islands marked on ancient maps with dragons and sirens. Exciting, but we've yet to actually land on them. Meanwhile, the solid ground of experimentally verified physics is right beneath our feet. The lowenergy vacuum near absolute zero isn't some abstract concept; it's a realm we've explored in laboratories. It's like finding a hidden room in a house we thought we knew inside out. Just because it's been overlooked doesn't mean it's not real or significant. I get that it's hard to entertain the idea that years of research might not lead us to the promised land. But science isn't about clinging to familiar shores; it's about daring to set sail for new horizons when the old maps don't quite line up with the stars. So, rather than seeing this as throwing away valuable work, think of it as tuning our instruments to a different key, one that's in harmony with what we've actually observed. Let's not ignore a potentially beautiful melody just because it's not the one we've been rehearsing. 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
First off, let's chat about supersymmetry, or SUSY for short. Think of SUSY as this grand idea where every particle we know, the electrons, quarks, has a partner called a superpartner. But here's the catch: despite decades of searching with our most powerful technology, particle accelerators, we haven't found a single one of these superpartners. It's like planning a surprise party for someone who doesn't exist. Now, theorists suggest that in a perfectly supersymmetric universe, the vacuum energy, the energy of empty space, would be exactly zero. That's because the positive energy from particles called bosons would perfectly cancel out the negative energy from particles called fermions. It's like having a perfectly balanced seesaw. But since we haven't observed any superpartners, leaning on SUSY is like building a house on quicksand. On the flip side, the author comes in with an idea rooted in solid, welltested physics. Instead of banking on speculative theories, he turn to the trusty third law of thermodynamics and the experimental Meissner effect from superconductivity. The third law of thermodynamics tells us that as a system gets colder and colder, approaching absolute zero, its entropy, or disorder, drops to a minimum. The Meissner effect shows that when certain materials become superconductors at low temperatures, they kick out magnetic fields entirely. It's like a crowded room suddenly clearing out when someone starts playing bagpipes, everything unwanted gets expelled to achieve a more orderly state. So, the author suggests that the universe isn't this smooth, continuous fabric we often think of. Instead, it's made up of a finite number of tiny building blocks, like cosmic Lego bricks. These are called SU(3) units, based on the symmetry group that describes the strong force holding quarks together in protons. Think of them as the fundamental "atoms" of space itself. That is whynyhe author mentioned Snyder quantum spacetime in his paper. Now, Quantum Field Theory (QFT) predicts an enormous vacuum energy because it assumes space is continuous and counts every possible fluctuation, no matter how tiny or improbable. It's like trying to calculate the weight of a library by counting not just the books but every single letter on every page, even the spaces! You end up with a number so huge it's meaningless, a vacuum energy density that's \(10^{123}\) times larger than what we actually observe. That's a one followed by 123 zeros! It's as if you ordered a cup of coffee and they delivered an ocean. By recognizing that the universe is made up of these finite SU(3) units, the author avoids this overcounting. The vacuum energy is calculated based on actual, physical units. This approach lines up beautifully with what we observe in the cosmos, giving us a precise value for the cosmological constant without resorting to speculative ideas like SUSY. Now, let's tackle your two specific questions: **1. Why does QFT predict such a monumental overcount in vacuum energy?** In QFT, we're essentially adding up the energy of every possible vibration of every field at every point in space, up to incredibly high energies. It's like trying to count every grain of sand in the universe, including ones we haven't discovered yet! This method doesn't consider that space might be made up of discrete chunks—the SU(3) units—limiting the number of vibrations that can actually occur. So, the overcount happens because we're including energy contributions from fluctuations that don't physically exist. **2. Why isn't the actual vacuum energy exactly zero but a small positive value?** Some theorists argue that if SUSY were real and unbroken, the vacuum energy would be zero due to perfect cancellations between bosons and fermions. But since we haven't found any evidence for SUSY, and any supersymmetry that might exist must be broken, this perfect balancing act doesn't happen. A broken SUSY would leave a small residual vacuum energy, a little leftover that doesn't get canceled out. But again, this is speculative without experimental confirmation at all for the SUSY theory. In contrast, the author's model doesn't rely on unproven theories. By considering the universe as made up of these discrete, stable SU(3) units, using the volume of the proton as the fundamental unit, the vacuum energy naturally comes out as a small positive value that matches what we observe precisely. This isn't some wild guess; it's grounded in the third law of thermodynamics, reminding us that systems prefer to be in lowentropy, stable states, and the Meissner effect, showing how systems expel energy to reach those states. dismissing the author's idea, which is based on solid, experimentally supported physics, in favor of speculative theories like SUSY seems a bit like choosing a mirage over a glass of water when thirsty. Sometimes, the best solutions come from reexamining what we already know, using the tools and principles that have stood the test of time. After all, physics isn't just about chasing after exotic, unverified ideas; it's about understanding the universe using concepts we can test and observe. And who knows? Maybe by looking at the universe as a giant Lego set made of protons, we're onto something big. It's like realizing you've been sitting on a treasure chest all along, you just needed to look under your chair! 
A solution to cosmological constant problem?
JosephDavid replied to Albert2024's topic in Speculations
Imagine you have a bottle full of neutrons. You’re treating each neutron as a microstate, and that makes sense if you’re just counting them in that bottle. But here’s the thing: neutrons don’t just stay the same over time. They decay into protons, electrons, and antineutrinos. This means the number of neutrons is going to decrease over time because they are unstable. So, if we’re talking about entropy, we cannot ignore that decay. The neutron’s decay gives it more ways to change and increases the number of possible states, which means higher entropy. Now, let’s compare that to deuterium. Deuterium is a combination of a proton and a neutron bound together. When they are bound, they stabilize each other. So, if you have a bottle full of deuterium, it’s more stable. The number density of deuterium will stay more or less the same because they are not decaying like free neutrons. But deuterium still has more possible microstates than a proton by itself because you have two particles interacting, and that adds complexity. A proton, on its own, is very stable. It doesn’t have natural decay pathways under normal conditions. It just stays a proton, with fewer ways to change compared to a neutron or even deuterium. That’s why the author chose the proton for this analysis. He wanted the most stable, simplest unit possible, with the lowest entropy, to help understand the vacuum energy of the universe.