# noha

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1. ## noisy inputs - noisy outputs  - noisy neurons

Thanks a million.
2. ## noisy inputs - noisy outputs  - noisy neurons

Hello I'm translating a book called models of Mind by Grace Lindasy and I want to understand what is meant by noisy inputs - noisy outputs - noisy neurons in the following: - This means neurons do have the power to destroy noise – to take in noisy inputs while producing less noisy outputs. - If noisy inputs led to outputs that were just as, or possibly more, noisy, this would be a perfectly self-consistent story; noisy neurons would beget noisy neurons.
3. ## take the average over many snapshots of input

Thank you. I have another question please: what is meant by uses a quick snapshot of its input in the following sentence? Just like in the game example, if the neuron takes in this noisy input for a long time before deciding if it has enough to spike, the impact of the noise will be reduced. If it only uses a quick snapshot of its input, however, the noise will dominate.
4. ## take the average over many snapshots of input

Hello, I am translation a book called models of mind by Grace Lindacy and I want to understand what is meant by snapshot in the following: If it only uses a quick snapshot of its input, however, the noise will dominate. So how much time does a neuron combine its inputs over? About 20 milliseconds. That may not seem like long, but for a neuron it’s plenty. A spike only takes about 1 millisecond and a cell can be receiving many at a time from all of its different inputs. Therefore, neurons should be able to take the average over many snapshots of input before deciding to spike. - Does take the average over = take the average of - what does it mean by snapshots of input
5. ## Memory as attractor in neural networks

attractor state (a) The state of each neuron is represented by a dimension in the net's (very high-dimensional) phase space, (b) each memory corresponds to a point in that space, and (c) the net is designed in such a way that its state will approach (i.e. be "attracted" by) the point that corresponds to a memory if a new perception puts the net in a state that's close enough to that point, i.e. within the point's "basin of attraction". regarding this point, does state here mean position or condition? To translate this term, can I say the position of attractor The condition of attractor
6. ## Delay activity

Hello, I am translating a book called Models of Mind by Grace Lindasy and I want to want to make sure of some thing Chapter 4: Does delay activity in the following sentence is the same as delay period activity which means: A simple definition of delay-period activity is the activity observed during the delay period. Therefore, delay-period activity can be observed in any task condition if the task includes the delay period. And, delay-period activity can be observed in any brain areas But if delay activity occurs without any external input from an image then that sustained input must come from neighbouring neurons. Thus, delay activity can only be generated by a network of neurons working together, the connections between them conspiring to keep the activity alive.
7. ## Memory as attractor in neural networks

Hello, I am translating a book called Models of Mind by Grace Lindasy and I want to understand what is meant by the following from the extract from Chapter 4: - will drive the network to fill in the rest. (does it mean that the activation of new neurons form certain memory will drive the network to activate more neurons that form other memories related to this memory ) - network is in an attractor state (the state of network evolves to attractor state or the network itself became an attracor?) - Initial states (of the system of neurons in a network? ) -specific memory attractor ( attractor of memories or the memory itself is the attractor "attractor memory"?) -memory’s ‘basin of attraction’ (the basin that includes memories related to the attractor memory?) A memory is an attractor because the activation of a few of the neurons that form the memory will drive the network to fill in the rest. Once a network is in an attractor state, it remains there with the neurons fixed in their ‘on’ or ‘off ’ positions. Always fond of describing things in terms of energy, physicists consider attractors ‘low energy’ states. They’re a comfortable position for a system to be in; that is what makes them attractive and stable. Imagine a trampoline with a person standing on it. A ball placed anywhere on the trampoline will roll towards the person and stay there. The ball being in the divot created by the person is thus an attractor state for this system. If two people of the same size were standing opposite each other on the trampoline, the system would have two attractors. The ball would roll towards whomever it was initially closest to, but all roads would still lead to an attractor. Memory systems wouldn’t be of much use if they could only store one memory, so it is important that the Hopfield network can sustain multiple attractors. The same way the ball is compelled towards the nearest low point on the trampoline, initial neural activity states evolve towards the nearest, most similar memory. The initial states that lead to a specific memory attractor – for example, the picture of your childhood bed that reignites a memory of the whole room or a trip to a beach that ignites the memory of a childhood holiday – are said to be in that memory’s ‘basin of attraction’.
8. ## Difference between biologists and mathematicians

Hello, I have a question from a book called Models of mind by Grace Lindsay Here the writer talks about the difference between biologists and mathematicians and I couldn't get the point here: Biologists study living things that are abundant with specific traits and nuanced exceptions to any rule. Mathematicians – driven by simplicity, elegance and the need to make things manageable – squash that abundance when they put it into equations.
9. ## The meaning of discharge, and gradient in this context

Hello, I want to know the meaning of discharge and gradient in the following context: In the absence of sunlight, vent chemistry supports chemolithotrophic prokaryotes that synthesize sugars by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide and other geofuels including hydrogen, methane, ammonia, ferrous iron, and manganese. (This is analogous to the photosynthetic capture of CO2 powered by electrons obtained from water and energized by light absorption.) According to one model, the discharge of alkaline water through the porous chimneys of white smokers would have created a natural pH gradient in ancient oceans that might have served as a foundation for the origin of cells. I think discharge means flow gradient : gradual change not sudden change, what do you think?
10. ## what is meant by unsustainable in this context

I can't get your point, could you please clarify this? you mean that unsustainable refers to the imbalance?
11. ## what is meant by unsustainable in this context

Hello, I want to know what is meant by unsustainable in the following context from a book called Microbiology: a very short introduction. Soils exposed by deforestation lack the physical structure, chemical composition, and indigenous populations of microbes needed to cultivate consecutive harvests of cereals and other food crops. Intensive grazing of cattle on deforested land is similarly unsustainable. Even in areas where soils are exceedingly rich, crop productivity falls without soil amendment with organic matter and inorganic fertilizers. is it related to the continuity Intensive grazing?
12. ## The meaning of Oxygen has been quenched by reacting with elements in their reduced forms

Hello dears, I'd like to understand what is meant by Oxygen has been quenched in the following context and the overall meaning of the context: The nature of the first cells is a subject of enthusiastic conjecture in the absence of objective data beyond the evident presence of life today. The relative timing of the origin of archaea and bacteria is unknown, but fossils show that filamentous prokaryotes resembling today’s cyanobacteria had evolved at least 3.5 billion years ago. It is possible that these microbes performed oxygenic photosynthesis, but measurements of radioactive isotopes show that the sharp rise in atmospheric oxygen known as the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE) did not occur until 2.3 billion years ago. The putative billion-year discrepancy between oxygenic photosynthesis and the oxygenation of the atmosphere may be explained by the transformation of the planet’s highly reduced marine chemistry to a more oxidized state. Oxygen released by photosynthesis would have been quenched by reacting with elements in their reduced forms for hundreds of millions of years after the evolution of cyanobacteria.
13. ## what is meant by viral turnover

Hello, I'd like to know what is meant by viral turnover in the following context: Rough estimates suggest that the lysis of cells by marine viruses removes 20 to 40 per cent of all of the bacteria every day. This astonishing viral turnover of planktonic microbes fertilizes the water below the sunlit surface of the sea.
14. ## what are mushroom-growing termites

Hello, Does any body know what is what are mushroom-growing termites. does it refer to kinde of termites that help in growing mushrooms and fungi as set in one of the websites (Fungus-farming termites (Odontotermes obesus) are able to sniff out weedy, parasitic fungi (Pseudoxylaria) and selectively bury them alive because they smell different than the crops. Fungus-farming termites grow a fungus, Termitomyces, in carbon-dioxide rich environments of their nest mounds.)? Here is the context: A different nutritional strategy has evolved among a group of mushroom-growing termites in Africa and elsewhere in the Old World that use fungi rather than gut protists for cellulose digestion. Termites grow Termitomyces mushrooms on their cellulose-rich faeces in towering mud mounds and eat the resulting compost. From South America to parts of the southern United States, leaf-cutter ants cultivate different kinds of mushrooms in their underground nests. The ants eat special buds that form as swellings on the fungal colony.
15. ## The meaning of genetic novelty

what do you mean by random mutation here?
16. ## The meaning of genetic novelty

Hello, I am translating a book called Microbiology: A very Short introduction, and I don't understand the meaning of arbitrary measures of genetic novelty in the following context: The application of the term ‘species’ is even more problematic for viruses than bacteria and we rely upon arbitrary measures of genetic novelty when we refer to different kinds of bacteriophage.
17. ## what is meant by Microorganisms are shed from the epithelial surface

What is meant by shed in this context? Mucous membranes are the layers of epithelial cells that line internal organs and form a barrier against the external environment. These membranes secrete mucous in some locations. Microorganisms that become trapped in this sticky fluid are shed from the epithelial surface. does it meant to drop from?
18. ## The relation between cancer and some viruses

Hello, I'm working on Microbiology: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) and I came up with the following sentence which seems unclear to me The induction of cancer is indirect, with the involvement of a specific viral gene (gene X) affecting the expression of genes in the host cells that control cell division. does the second sentence (with the involvement of ...) is an explanation why the induction is indirect? Here is the full context: The link between persistent infection with hepatitis B virus and cancer is clear from epidemiological studies showing that countries where the infection is most prevalent also show a high incidence of liver cancer. When the virus is active it destroys liver cells and causes inflammation. The induction of cancer is indirect, with the involvement of a specific viral gene (gene X) affecting the expression of genes in the host cells that control cell division.
19. ## the meaning of grapple with in the following context

The ubiquity and prevalence of viral genes in the genomes of cellular organisms is a measure of the influence of viruses on the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and we are only beginning to grapple with the origin of viruses themselves. The science of virology is younger than the field of bacteriology. I think it means to discover or to understand not to face or stand against. Source: A very short introduction to microbiology by Nicolas P money
20. ## DNA Microarray and the study of complement RNA

Hello, I am translating a very short introduction to microbiology by Nicholas P. Money and I don't understand how complement of rna is studied using this technique : This is the context: Millions of copies of each DNA sequence are dotted onto the chip in a specific two-dimensional pattern and the investigator can study which of the genes are being transcribed under a particular set of conditions by adding a labelled solution of the mRNA from a population of cells. The mRNA is labelled with a fluorescent dye, and after this sample has been allowed to react with the microarray, mRNAs bound to the segments are identified from the positions of their complementary genes on the chip. This snapshot of transcription is one of the sources of information used in the study of the entire complement of RNA.

Thank you
22. ## Microbiology

what is meant by compromise in the following context, does it mean to hinder? The heat shock response offers another example of the genetic control of cell activity. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are produced by all organisms when they are stressed by heat and other factors that compromise their biological activities.
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