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Quark (2/13)



  1. I believed tumors = death What type of tumors ?
  2. How to say "Vierge Marie" with respect in english ? Virgin Mary ?
  3. Hello everyone, For a little while, I have been wondering about human parthenogenesis. Is it really possible ? Thanks, D. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenogenesis
  4. I see everyone is meaningfull. As me. As PhD's.
  5. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi= WTF with light ? And WTF with our liver ? We're not so immortals. Light can kill us. Photophobia literally means "fear of light." If you have photophobia, you're not actually afraid of light, but you are very sensitive to it. The sun or bright indoor light can be uncomfortable, even painful. Photophobia isn't a condition -- it's a symptom of another problem. Migraine headaches, dry eyes, and swelling inside your eye are commonly linked to light sensitivity. It can cause pain whenever you're in bright sunlight or indoor light. You might want to blink or close your eyes. Some people also get headaches. Causes Photophobia is linked to the connection between cells in your eyes that detect light and a nerve that goes to your head. Migraines are the most common cause of light sensitivity. Up to 80% of people who get them have photophobia along with their headaches. Many of those people are light sensitive even when they don't have a headache. Other types of headaches can cause photophobia, too. People who get tension and cluster headaches also say they're uncomfortable around bright light. A few brain conditions can cause photophobia, including: Meningitis (swelling of the protective coverings of your brain and spinal cord) Serious brain injury Supranuclear palsy (a brain disorder that causes problems with balance, walking, and eye movement) Tumors in your pituitary gland Some eye diseases cause this symptom, including: Dry eye Uveitis (swelling of the inside of your eye) Keratitis (swelling of your cornea, the clear layer that covers the colored part of your eye) Iritis (swelling of the colored ring around your pupil) Cataracts (cloudy coverings over the lenses of your eyes) Corneal abrasion (a scratch on your cornea) Conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva, the clear tissue that sits over the white part of your eye) Damage to your retina, the light-sensitive layer in the back of your eye Blepharospasm (a condition that makes your eyelids close uncontrollably) Photophobia may also affect some people who have these mental health conditions: Agoraphobia (a fear of being in public places) Anxiety Bipolar disorder Depression Panic disorder You can also get photophobia after you have LASIK or other surgery to fix vision problems. Certain wavelengths of light -- like the blue light your computer and smartphone give off -- cause the most sensitivity. Some medicines can also cause photophobia, including: Antibiotics, such as doxycycline and tetracycline. Furosemide (Lasix): This keeps your body from holding on to too much fluid. It's used to treat congestive heart failure, liver disease, kidney disease, and other conditions. Quinine (Qualaquin😞 This is a drug used to treat malaria. Diagnosis If you think you have photophobia, see your eye doctor. They'll ask about your symptoms and any medical conditions you have. Then they'll check the health of your eyes and possibly your brain. Tests your doctor might use include: Slit-lamp eye exam. They'll use a special microscope with a light to examine your eyes. MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging.This uses powerful magnets and radio waves to make detailed pictures of your eyes. Exam of the tear film. This checks the amount of tears you make to see if you have dry eyes. Treatment The best way to ease photophobia is to treat the condition or stop taking the medicine that's causing it. If you're still affected by it, tinted glasses may help. Some people have found relief from rose-colored lenses called FL-41. But tinted lenses aren't for everyone. They can make some people even more sensitive to light, so talk with your doctor about what's best for you.
  6. Thanks buddy. How to explain problems with light ? As you can see : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15001238/ Immortalization of hepatic progenitor cells Anne Weber 1 Affiliations PMID: 15001238 DOI: 10.1016/j.patbio.2003.02.001 Abstract Development of cell therapy-based strategies for the treatment of liver failures and of inherited metabolic diseases has become a necessity because of the limitations of orthotopic liver transplantation, including shortage of donor livers. This shortage limits also the availability for hepatocytes and these terminally differentiated cells cannot be expanded in vitro. Thus, other alternative sources of hepatocytes have to be explored such as hepatic stem cells. Foetal hepatic cells have specific intrinsic properties compared to adult hepatocytes that should overcome some of their limitations. Thus, the availability of in vitro expandable progenitor cells by means of immortalization and without inducing a transformed phenotype and disrupting their differentiation potential would facilitate studies on cell engraftment and differentiation within the hepatic parenchyma. A temporally controlled expression of the immortalizing transgene would also permit to revert the immortalized phenotype prior to cell transplantation. Since characteristics of murine stem cells cannot readily be extrapolated to their human or other primate counterparts, we have immortalized one clone of primate hepatic progenitor cells using a retroviral vector expressing SV40 Large T flanked by lox P sites. These hepatic cells were bipotent, expressing markers of both hepatocytic and biliary lineages. After transplantation into athymic mice, approximately 50% of immortalized cells engrafted, stopped proliferating after a few days and differentiated in adult hepatocytes, suggesting that the hepatic microenvironment plays an important role in such regulations. Upon infection with a retrovirus expressing the CRE recombinase, immortalized cells stopped growing and died, showing that immortalization was dependant on SV40 Large T. These studies suggest new approaches to expand hepatic progenitor cells, analyse their fate in animal models aiming at cell therapy of hepatic diseases.
  7. Sorry, I don't speak, "scientific" english very well. Can a cool body explain me this ? https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11769127/ It's Gov info. And this : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2153691/ PS : we have problems with light.
  8. What about https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryonics
  9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11769127/ [Immortalization of human fibroblasts using tsA mutant of SV40 and pSV3neo plasmid] [Article in Russian] L S Inozemtseva 1 , V G Chernikov, E S Manuilova, M I Marshak, N P Nikolaeva, O S Kulagina, I A Grivennikov Affiliations PMID: 11769127 Abstract Clones of immortalized human fibroblasts with an extended life span in culture and a capability of subloning were obtained after the infection with a temperature sensitive mutant (tsA 239) of SV40 virus and pSV3neo plasmid. As compared with the parental cells, the obtained clones exhibited increased plating efficiency, decreased doubling time, and serum dependence. We did not obtained the colony formation during cultivation of immortalized cells in semiliquid agar. This means that our cells were not completely malignant. The PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-analysis has revealed the presence of viral DNA at early passages (25th passage) after the infection by tsA SV40, and its absence after a prolonged cultivation (46th passage). PCR-analysis of the clones obtained after pSV3neo transfection has revealed the presence of gene A sequences either at early (9-15), or later (62) passages. The expression of the gene A product in cells of these clones was revealed only early passages (11 and 35). Possible mechanisms of immortal phenotype origin in human diploid cells after the action of ts-mutant and other constructions of SV40 are discussed.
  10. What the... hell ? I thought D-antigen was the problem ; never thought about T-antigen. Please, can someone explain to me the difference ? Immortality is the indefinite continuation of a person's existence, even after death. In common parlance, immortality is virtually indistinguishable from afterlife, but philosophically speaking, they are not identical. Immortality is the ability to live forever, or eternal life. ... The absence of aging would provide humans with biological immortality, but not invulnerability to death by physical trauma. Can an immortal person be killed ? Paradoxical though it might seem, biologically immortal organisms are definitely mortal. They can be killed by a predator, a disease, or a catastrophic change in the environment such as an erupting volcano. But unlike humans, they rarely die simply because they get old. Can someone explain to me why the words "rarely die" ? As if we had examples... SV40 T-antigen is required for maintenance of immortal growth in SV40-transformed human fibroblasts : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1851674/
  11. https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/immortal Word forms: plural immortals 1. adjective Someone or something that is immortal is famous and likely to be remembered for a long time. ...the immortal Reverend Dr Spooner. ...Wuthering Heights, Emily BrontĂ«'s immortal love story. Maybe my work is not immortal, but it will live for a while. Synonyms: timeless, eternal, everlasting, lasting More Synonyms of immortal An immortal is someone who is immortal. He called Moore 'one of the immortals of soccer'. [+ of] immortality (ÉȘmÉ”ËÊłtĂŠlÉȘti ) uncountable noun Some people want to achieve immortality through their works. Synonyms: fame, glory, celebrity, greatness More Synonyms of immortal 2. adjective Someone or something that is immortal will live or last for ever and never die or be destroyed. The pharaohs were considered gods and therefore immortal. Synonyms: undying, eternal, perpetual, indestructible More Synonyms of immortal An immortal is an immortal being. ...porcelain figurines of the Chinese immortals. immortality uncountable noun The Greeks accepted belief in the immortality of the soul. [+ of] Synonyms: eternity, perpetuity, everlasting life, timelessness More Synonyms of immortal 3. adjective [ADJECTIVE noun] If you refer to someone's immortal words, you mean that what they said is well-known, and you are usually about to quote it. ...Roosevelt's immortal words, 'Speak softly and carry a big stick.
  12. https://www.20minutes.fr/arts-stars/culture/2700947-20200122-immortalite-biologique-repousser-limites-mort-parait-impossible-estime-helene-merle-beral Pourquoi l’homme devrait-il supporter de vieillir ? HĂ©lĂšne Merle-BĂ©ral, mĂ©decin, spĂ©cialiste des leucĂ©mies, Ă©tudie cette terrible injustice dont font l’objet la plupart des espĂšces vivantes dans L’immortalitĂ© biologique, publiĂ© ce mercredi chez Odile Jacob. Le transhumanisme n’a pas peur d’envisager l’immortalitĂ© comme une rĂ©alitĂ© future. Certains, comme l’entrepreneur Laurent Alexandre, pensent que l’homme qui vivra 1.000 ans est dĂ©jĂ  nĂ©. Qu’en dit la science ? HĂ©lĂšne Merle-BĂ©ral aide 20 Minutes Ă  faire le tour de la question. Comment la mort se diffĂ©rencie-t-elle de la vieillesse ? La mort dĂ©pend des cultures. Les organes ne s’arrĂȘtent pas tous d’un coup. Il y a un Ă©tat de coma, de prĂ©-mort. Ce qui est considĂ©rĂ© comme la mort officielle par l’OMS, c’est la mort cĂ©rĂ©brale, l’électro encĂ©phalogramme plat. Il n’y a plus de liaison entre les neurones, il n’y a plus d’influx nerveux. Mais il y a plusieurs types de mort. La mort officielle, c’est la mort clinique. En dehors de ça, certains organes peuvent continuer Ă  fonctionner quelque temps. Quelques fois, le cƓur continue Ă  battre alors que le cerveau est Ă©teint. Trois organes – le cerveau, les poumons et le cƓur – ont besoin les uns des autres. S’il y en a un qui ne marche plus, les autres meurent. Du coup, la vieillesse est une prĂ©-mort ? La mort peut survenir par des accidents, des phĂ©nomĂšnes extĂ©rieurs, des maladies, des virus, le suicide, un assassinat
 Le chapitre sur le vieillissement, je le trouve infernal parce qu’il montre bien que tous les organes vieillissent plus ou moins, Ă  une plus ou moins grande rapiditĂ©. Ça dĂ©pend aussi de facteurs gĂ©nĂ©tiques, de facteurs sociaux, Ă©conomiques
 InĂ©luctablement tous les organes vieillissent, s’usent. Il y a une entropie, les cellules ont de plus en plus de mal Ă  communiquer entre elles. C’est la communication avec le milieu extĂ©rieur et les autres cellules qui maintient en vie. Dans les gĂšnes, il y a une programmation : ce qu’on appelle la mort cellulaire programmĂ©e. Les cellules sont destinĂ©es Ă  mourir, il y a une limite de division cellulaire. On a montrĂ© qu’au bout d’un certain nombre de cycles de division cellulaire, qui dĂ©pend des organismes, la cellule doit mourir. Pour l’homme, c’est autour de 52. Vous parlez d’immortalitĂ© biologique dans votre livre, pouvez-vous expliquer ce que c’est ? L’immortalitĂ© biologique existe, on peut l’observer dans la nature. C’est la capacitĂ© pour un organisme de rajeunir et de vieillir Ă©ternellement. Il devient un ĂȘtre immortel biologiquement mais il reste sensible aux agressions extĂ©rieures. Dans la nature, il n’y a qu’un exemple, c’est la mĂ©duse Turritopsis nutricula. C’est l’exemple d’immortalitĂ© biologique absolu parce qu’elle peut vivre sous deux formes : la forme polype et la forme mĂ©duse. Elle a cette propriĂ©tĂ© extraordinaire de refuser de mourir. Quand elle est dans les conditions de stress, des conditions dangereuses, elle repasse Ă  l’état de polype, elle inverse le processus de vieillissement. Quand les conditions extĂ©rieures sont meilleures, elle peut redevenir mĂ©duse. Elle est potentiellement immortelle. Certains transhumanistes pensent que l’homme qui vivra 1000 ans est dĂ©jĂ  nĂ©. Qu’en pense la mĂ©decine ? La mĂ©decine, bien sĂ»r, n’est pas d’accord. On commence Ă  dĂ©crypter beaucoup de mĂ©canismes, mais on ne sait pas comment tout s’enchaĂźne. Les facteurs gĂ©nĂ©tiques, les radicaux libres, les oxydants, ce qui dĂ©truit nos molĂ©cules ADN
 On arrive Ă  dĂ©crypter beaucoup de facteurs. Les tĂ©lomĂšres, par exemple, Ă  l’extrĂ©mitĂ© des chromosomes, permettent Ă  la cellule de se renouveler. La nature a fabriquĂ© une enzyme, la tĂ©lomĂ©rase, qui permet aux chromosomes de rĂ©gĂ©nĂ©rer leurs extrĂ©mitĂ©s. Au bout d’un certain temps, ces rĂ©serves de tĂ©lomĂ©rase s’épuisent et la cellule ne peut plus se diviser. Elle est condamnĂ©e Ă  mourir. C’est une des raisons pour lesquelles on meurt. On a dĂ©jĂ  identifiĂ© ces mĂ©canismes dans la biologie humaine, c’est un progrĂšs. On a essayĂ© de donner des tĂ©lomĂ©rases en complĂ©ment alimentaire, mais c’est beaucoup moins efficace que ce qu’on pensait. On a cru que la tĂ©lomĂ©rase allait ĂȘtre l’élixir de jouvence et on a rĂ©alisĂ© qu’elle est en abondance dans les cellules cancĂ©reuses. Elles ont beaucoup de tĂ©lomĂ©rase et donc elles se multiplient. On tĂątonne mais on avance quand mĂȘme. Ça me paraĂźt vertigineux de repousser les limites de la mort, mais ça ne me paraĂźt pas impossible. A quel Ăąge pourra-t-on espĂ©rer mourir ? Aujourd’hui, on admet que la nature humaine ne peut pas dĂ©passer 115 ans. Jeanne Calment dĂ©tient le record mondial Ă  122 ans, mais il n’y a pas d’autres exemples. Aujourd’hui, on dĂ©nombre pas mal de centenaires dans le monde. Je pense qu’on pourrait banaliser ce phĂ©nomĂšne avec tous les progrĂšs. La mĂ©decine prĂ©ventive se dĂ©veloppe rapidement. Avec la prĂ©vention, les traitements gĂ©nĂ©tiques, le gĂ©nie gĂ©nĂ©tique [l’ensemble des outils permettant de modifier la constitution gĂ©nĂ©tique d’un organisme en supprimant, en introduisant ou en remplaçant de l’ADN] qui pourrait limiter certaines maladies hĂ©rĂ©ditaires, des mĂ©dicaments particuliers qui pourraient freiner les mĂ©canismes de mort cellulaire programmĂ©e, je pense que ce n’est pas impossible. Quand j’ai commencĂ© en tant qu’hĂ©matologiste, il y a une trentaine d’annĂ©es, certaines maladies du sang Ă©taient inĂ©luctablement mortelles. Maintenant on les guĂ©rit. Pourquoi ne pourrait-on pas rĂ©aliser des choses dans vingt ans qui nous paraissent impossibles aujourd’hui ? Il faut rester modeste. Mais l’immortalitĂ©, honnĂȘtement, non. Raymond Kurzweil a annoncĂ© la singularitĂ© numĂ©rique pour 2045. Quel est votre avis sur les grandes annonces de la Silicon Valley ? Je suis un peu sceptique, en particulier sur les annonces de Raymond Kurzweil. C’est un scientifique de haut niveau, un prĂ©curseur, il connaĂźt parfaitement son sujet. C’est quelqu’un de fiable intellectuellement. Tout Ă  coup, c’est comme s’il partait en plein dĂ©lire. La singularitĂ© technologique, c’est le moment oĂč toutes les NBIC (nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, informatique et sciences cognitives) convergent, oĂč l’intelligence artificielle dĂ©passe l’intelligence de l’homme. Dans cette hypothĂšse, si le cerveau de l’homme n’est pas interfacĂ© avec une machine, il sera complĂštement dĂ©passĂ©, et donc les robots domineront le monde. On dirait de la science-fiction. Le seul problĂšme, c’est que cela inquiĂšte des gens extrĂȘmement sĂ©rieux, des scientifiques non discutables comme Stephen Hawking, [qui est mort depuis], Bill Gates ou Elon Musk. Ils ont signĂ© une lettre pour mettre en garde l’opinion mondiale contre les dangers possibles de l’intelligence artificielle. Avez-vous Ă©tĂ© surprise par une avancĂ©e technique sur les derniĂšres annĂ©es ? Concernant le vieillissement, pas grand-chose. Le plus rĂ©pandu, aujourd’hui, ce sont les crĂšmes – ça n’a jamais vraiment marchĂ© – et la chirurgie. Ce qui m’a le plus frappĂ©e, c’est que des maladies qui Ă©taient considĂ©rĂ©es comme mortelles Ă  court terme, se guĂ©rissent aujourd’hui. Cela montre des perspectives infinies sur l’évolution possible. Une personne qui avait un type de leucĂ©mie particulier, qui Ă©tait condamnĂ©e, vingt ans plus tard, on la guĂ©rit avec un comprimĂ© Ă  prendre pendant trois mois. C’est fabuleux. Je pense que beaucoup de choses sont possibles. Il faut rester modeste et en mĂȘme temps confiant dans l’intelligence humaine. Si vous faites appel Ă  votre imagination, qu’est-ce qui vous semble le plus proche d’arriver ? Interfacer le cerveau avec de l’intelligence artificielle et avoir un cerveau numĂ©risĂ©, virtuel, c’est un cauchemar mais pas une rĂ©alitĂ© tangible. Ce qui me paraĂźt le plus rĂ©alisable, ce sont les progrĂšs mĂ©dicaux. Pas une immortalitĂ© mais le recul de la mort, attĂ©nuer les dĂ©sagrĂ©ments et le dĂ©labrement de la vieillesse. D’ailleurs, c’était ça, Ă  l’origine, le transhumanisme. C’était des objectifs mĂ©dicaux, soigner, Ă©viter les maladies, Ă©viter le cancer. ___ Always trolli,g ? A PhD trolling writing a book ?
  13. What biological immortality is made of ? - Anti-aging - Accelerated regeneration - Invulnerability to weapons - Etc. I wonder if a headshot could stop an immortal.
  14. https://scholar.google.be/scholar?as_ylo=2017&q=human+immortality+research&hl=fr&as_sdt=0,5&as_vis=1
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