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  1. Photons are the excited state of the ZPE field (creation) when EM waves pass; after EM waves passed, photons back to ground state of ZPE (annihilation).
  2. what I proposed is the ZPE is the quantum field which could be excited by EM wave. ZPE field spreads in the universe. The momentum is actually from the EM wave; However, the angular momentum is from quantum harmonic oscillator (ZPE). The energy of an activated photon includes two part: the wave energy Ew=c*p/2, and the spin energy Es=h*v/2; where p is the EM wave momentum and the v is the oscillator spin frequency(same as EM wave frequency as a photon is the resonance of the EM wave with the ZPE oscillator).
  3. Good question. I don't know. But, how would you test it's not true? The proposed theory is just a challenge to the existing theories as they are not consistent with each other, e.g. double slit experiment is solvable with Maxwell's classical wave equations; however, you have to refer to QM for the explanation of photon's particle nature. Actually, let's find out if the non-propagating photon hypothesis would cause unreasonable results. Also, maybe there are more than one way to describe the physics phenomenon, even for the famous Dirac equation, there are 2 groups of Dirac m
  4. With the theory above that EM waves propagate while photons are just activated and deactivated, double-slit experiment can be explained; and the photon's spin state of superposition can be regarded as due to the different harmonic oscillators that EM waves activate.
  5. Below is the proposed theory: The amplitude of an EM wave reflects its intensity and can be represented by the number of photons it activates; There is a photon field (quantum) which acted as the medium for the propagation of EM waves; The zero-point energy (ZPE) in vacuum is actually the harmonic oscillator which represents the ground state of the photon field (quantum); The photon's spin property is from the harmonic oscillator, which is a superposition state; It's the EM wave that propagates while activating photons to present its particle nature, photo
  6. Thanks to all commenters for your comments. The questions I asked are actually not new. However, I could not find a convincing model of photons to answer them. Let's keep discussing. Also, Thanks to Science Forum for providing the discussion platform.
  7. BeyondFar (2021-04) Are photons just electromagnetic waves? I really can't say that. As we know, electromagnetic waves come from changes in electromagnetic fields; therefore, electromagnetic waves typically have different amplitudes to reflect the different changes in electromagnetic fields. One of the most critical questions is: do photons have different amplitudes? Obviously not, which means, photons are not electromagnetic waves. There is another indicator that photons are not electromagnetic waves. Anyone who has done the secondary quantization of electromagnetic fields knows tha
  8. Photons and electromagnetic waves.pdf
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